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Oncology-related Terms Glossary
(Starting with "T")

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_oncology-related_terms






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T cell

T cells or T lymphocytes belong to a group of white blood cells known as lymphocytes, and play a central role in cell-mediated immunity. They can be distinguished from other lymphocyte types, such as B cells and natural killer cells (NK cells) by the presence of a special receptor on their cell surface called T cell receptors (TCR). The abbreviation T, in T cell, stands for thymus, since this is the principal organ responsible for the T cell's maturation. Several different subsets of T cells have been discovered, each with a distinct function.

T-3

Triiodothyronine, C15H12I3NO4, also known as T3, is a thyroid hormone. It affects almost every physiological process in the body, including growth and development, metabolism, body temperature, and heart rate.

T-cell lymphoma

The T-cell lymphomas are the four types of lymphoma that affect T cells. These account for perhaps one in ten cases of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. They can be associated with Epstein Barr virus and Human T-cell leukemia virus-1.

Tacrolimus

Tacrolimus (also FK-506 or Fujimycin) is an immunosuppressive drug that is mainly used after allogeneic organ transplant to reduce the activity of the patient's immune system and so lower the risk of organ rejection. It is also used in a topical preparation in the treatment of severe atopic dermatitis (eczema), severe refractory uveitis after bone marrow transplants, and the skin condition vitiligo.

TAG-72 antigen

Tumor-associated glycoprotein 72 (TAG-72) is a glycoprotein found on the surface of many cancer cells, including breast, colon, and pancreatic cells. It is a mucin-like molecule with a molar mass of over 1000 kDa.

Talampanel

Talampanel (GYKI 53405) is a drug which is being investigated for the treatment of epilepsy, malignant gliomas and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). It is a noncompetitive antagonist of the AMPA receptor, a type of glutamate receptor in the central nervous system.

Tamoxifen

Tamoxifen is an antagonist of the estrogen receptor in breast tissue via its active metabolite, hydroxytamoxifen. In other tissues such as the endometrium, it behaves as an agonist, hence tamoxifen may be characterized as a mixed agonist/antagonist. It has been the standard endocrine (anti-estrogen) therapy for hormone receptor-positive early breast cancer in pre-menopausal women, although aromatase inhibitors have been proposed.

Tariquidar

Tariquidar (INN/USAN) is a P-glycoprotein inhibitor undergoing research as an adjuvant against multidrug resistance in cancer.

Taurolidine

Taurolidine ([bis(1,1-dioxoperhydro-1,2,4-thiadiazinyl-4)-methane) is a drug with antimicrobial and anti-lipopolysaccharide properties. Derived from the amino acid taurine, its immunue modulatory action is reported to be mediated with priming and activation of macrophages and polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

Taxane

The taxanes are diterpenes produced by the plants of the genus Taxus (yews). As their name suggests, they were first derived from natural sources, but some have been synthesized artificially. Taxanes include paclitaxel (Taxol) and docetaxel (Taxotere). Paclitaxel was originally derived from the Pacific yew tree.

Technetium tc 99m sulfur colloid

Technetium is the chemical element with atomic number 43 and symbol Tc. It is the lowest atomic number element without any stable isotopes; every form of it is radioactive. Nearly all technetium is produced synthetically and only minute amounts are found in nature. Naturally occurring technetium occurs as a spontaneous fission product in uranium ore or by neutron capture in molybdenum ores. The chemical properties of this silvery gray, crystalline transition metal are intermediate between rhenium and manganese.

Tegafur

Tegafur (INN) is a chemotherapeutic 5-FU prodrug used in the treatment of cancers. It is a component of tegafur-uracil. When metabolized, it becomes 5-FU.

Teicoplanin

Teicoplanin is an antibiotic used in the prophylaxis and treatment of serious infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis. It is a glycopeptide antiobiotic extracted from Actinoplanes teichomyceticus, with a similar spectrum of activity to vancomycin. Its mechanism of action is to inhibit bacterial cell wall synthesis. Teicoplanin is marketed by Sanofi-Aventis under the trade name Targocid.

Telangiectasia

Telangiectasias are small dilated blood vessels near the surface of the skin or mucous membranes, measuring between 0.5 and 1 millimeter in diameter. They can develop anywhere on the body but are commonly seen on the face around the nose, cheeks, and chin. They can also develop on the legs, specifically on the upper thigh, below the knee joint, and around the ankles.

Temoporfin

Temoporfin (INN) is a photosensitizer (based on porphyrin) used in photodynamic therapy for the treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck . It is marketed in the European Union under the brand name Foscan. The US FDA deemed Foscan non-approvable in 2000. The EU approved its use in June 2001.

Temozolomide

Temozolomide (brand names Temodar and Temodal Schering-Plough Corporation) is an oral alkylating agent which can be used for the treatment of Grade IV astrocytoma -- an aggressive brain tumor, also known as glioblastoma multiforme as well as Melanoma, a form of skin cancer. It is also indicated for Grade III Anaplastic Astrocytoma and not indicated for, but now used to treat oligodendroglioma brain tumors in some countries, replacing the older (and less well-tolerated) PCV (Procarbazine-Lomustine-Vincristine) regimen. The agent was developed by Malcolm Stevens and his team at Aston University in Birmingham, A derivative of imidazotetrazine, temozolomide is the prodrug of MTIC (3-methyl-(triazen-1-yl)imidazole-4-carboxamide). It has been available in the US since August 1999, and in other countries since the early 2000s.

Teniposide

Teniposide (Vumon, VM-26) is a chemotherapeutic medication mainly used in the treatment of childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL). It is in a class of drugs known as podophyllotoxin derivatives and slows the growth of cancer cells in the body.

TENS

Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (acronym TENS) is the use of electric current produced by a device to stimulate the nerves for therapeutic purposes. TENS by definition covers the complete range of transcutaneously applied currents used for nerve excitation although the term is often used with a more restrictive intent, namely to describe the kind of pulses produced by portable stimulators used to treat pain. The unit is usually connected to the skin using two or more electrodes. A typical battery-operated TENS unit is able to modulate pulse width, frequency and intensity. Generally TENS is applied at high frequency (>50 Hz) with an intensity below motor contraction (sensory intensity) or low frequency (<10 Hz) with an intensity that produces motor contraction.

Teratoma

A teratoma is an encapsulated tumor with tissue or organ components resembling normal derivatives of all three germ layers. There are rare occasions when not all three germ layers are identifiable. The tissues of a teratoma, although normal in themselves, may be quite different from surrounding tissues, and may be highly disparate; teratomas have been reported to contain hair, teeth, bone and, very rarely, more complex organs such as eyes, torso, and hands, feet, or other limbs.

Terminal disease

Terminal illness is a medical term popularized in the 20th century to describe a disease that cannot be cured or adequately treated and that is reasonably expected to result in the death of the patient within a relatively short period of time. This term is more commonly used for progressive diseases such as cancer or advanced heart disease than for trauma. In popular use, it indicates a disease which will eventually end the life of the sufferer.

Tetanus toxoid

Tetanus toxin is the neurotoxin produced by the vegetative cell of Clostridium tetani in anaerobic conditions, causing tetanus. It has no known function for clostridia in the soil environment where they are normally encountered. It is sometimes called spasmogenic toxin, tetanospasmin or abbreviated to TeTx or TeNT.

Theophylline

Theophylline, also known as dimethylxanthine, is a methylxanthine drug used in therapy for respiratory diseases such as COPD and asthma under a variety of brand names. Because of its numerous side-effects, the drug is now rarely administered for clinical use. As a member of the xanthine family, it bears structural and pharmacological similarity to caffeine. It is naturally found in tea, although in trace amounts (~1 mg/L), significantly less than therapeutic doses. It is found also in cocoa beans. Amounts as high as 3.7 mg/g have been reported in Criollo cocoa beans.

Thermal ablation

Ablation is removal of material from the surface of an object by vaporization, chipping, or other erosive processes. The term occurs in spaceflight associated with atmospheric reentry, in glaciology, medicine, and passive fire protection.

Thermography

Infrared thermography, thermal imaging, and thermal video are examples of infrared imaging science. Thermal imaging cameras detect radiation in the infrared range of the electromagnetic spectrum (roughly 9000–14,000 nanometers or 9–14 µm) and produce images of that radiation, called thermograms. Since infrared radiation is emitted by all objects near room temperature, according to the black body radiation law, thermography makes it possible to see one's environment with or without visible illumination. The amount of radiation emitted by an object increases with temperature; therefore, thermography allows one to see variations in temperature. When viewed through a thermal imaging camera, warm objects stand out well against cooler backgrounds; humans and other warm-blooded animals become easily visible against the environment, day or night. As a result, thermography is particularly useful to military and other users of surveillance cameras.

Thiotepa

N,N'N'-triethylenethiophosphoramide (ThioTEPA or thiotepa) is an alkylating agent used to treat cancer. ThioTEPA is an organophosphorus compound with the formula SP(NC2H4)3. It is an analogue of N,N',N''- triethylenephosphoramide (TEPA). This molecule features tetrahedral phosphorus and is structurally akin to phosphate. It is derived from aziridine and thiophosphoryl chloride.

Thoracentesis

Thoracentesis (also known as thoracocentesis or pleural tap) is an invasive procedure to remove fluid or air from the pleural space for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. A cannula, or hollow needle, is carefully introduced into the thorax, generally after administration of local anesthesia. The procedure was first described in 1852.

Thoracoscopy

Thoracoscopy is a medical procedure involving internal examination, biopsy, and/or resection of disease or masses within the pleural cavity and thoracic cavity. Thoracoscopy may be performed either under general anaesthesia or under sedation with local anaesthetic.

Thoracotomy

Thoracotomy is an incision into the pleural space of the chest. It is performed by a surgeon, and, rarely, by emergency physicians, to gain access to the thoracic organs, most commonly the heart, the lungs, the esophagus or thoracic aorta, or for access to the anterior spine such as is necessary for access to tumors in the spine.

Thrombocyte

Platelets, or thrombocytes (from Greek θρόμβος, "clot" and κύτος, "cell"), are small, regularly-shaped clear cell fragments (i.e. cells that do not have a nucleus containing DNA), 2–3 µm in diameter, which are derived from fragmentation of precursor megakaryocytes. The average lifespan of a platelet is normally just 5 to 9 days. Platelets play a fundamental role in hemostasis and are a natural source of growth factors. They circulate in the blood of mammals and are involved in hemostasis, leading to the formation of blood clots.

Thrombocytopenia

Thrombocytopenia (thrombopenia in short) is the presence of relatively few platelets in blood. Generally speaking, in human beings a normal platelet count ranges from 150,000 to 450,000 platelets per microliter of blood. These limits are determined by the 2.5th lower and upper percentile, so values outside this range do not necessarily indicate disease. One common definition of thrombocytopenia is a platelet count below 50,000 per microliter.

Thrombohemorrhagic event

A thrombohemorrhagic event is a process that involves either a blood clot or bleeding, such as a heart attack or stroke.

Thrombophlebitis

Thrombophlebitis is phlebitis (vein inflammation) related to a thrombus (blood clot). When it occurs repeatedly in different locations, it is known as "Thrombophlebitis migrans" or "migrating thrombophlebitis".

Thrombopoietin

Thrombopoietin (leukemia virus oncogene ligand, megakaryocyte growth and development factor), also known as TPO, is a glycoprotein hormone produced mainly by the liver and the kidney that regulates the production of platelets by the bone marrow. It stimulates the production and differentiation of megakaryocytes, the bone marrow cells that fragment into large numbers of platelets.

Thymidine

Thymidine (more precisely called deoxythymidine; can also be labelled deoxyribosylthymine, and thymine deoxyriboside) is a chemical compound, more precisely a pyrimidine deoxynucleoside. Deoxythymidine is the DNA nucleoside T, which pairs with deoxyadenosine (A) in double-stranded DNA. In cell biology it is used to synchronize the cells in S phase.

Thymidylate synthase inhibitor

Thymidylate synthase inhibitors are chemical agents which inhibit the enzyme Thymidylate synthase and have potential as an anticancer chemotherapy.

Thymoma

Thymoma is a tumor originating from the epithelial cells of the thymus. It also contains lymphocytes (thymocytes) that are often abundant and non-neoplastic. Thymoma is frequently encapsulated; but, when it invades the capsule it staged as Masaoka IIA or greater depending on the extent of the invasion. All thymomas should be considered as malignant as even the encapsulated ones may recur and metastasize. Extrathoracic metastasis are rare. Malignant lymphomas that involve the thymus, such as lymphoblastic lymphoma and Hodgkin lymphoma (erroneously termed "granulomatous thymoma" in the past), should not be regarded as thymomas. Thymoma is an uncommon tumor, best known for its association with the neuromuscular disorder myasthenia gravis. Thymoma is found in 15% of patients with myasthenia gravis.

Thyrogen

A synthetic drug called recombinant human TSH alpha (rhTSHα or simply rhTSH, (trade name Thyrogen), is manufactured by Genzyme Corp.. The rhTSH is used to treat thyroid cancer.

Thyroglobulin

Thyroglobulin (Tg) is a 660 kDa, dimeric protein produced by and used entirely within the thyroid gland. In earlier literature, Tg was referred to as colloid.

Thyroid follicular cell

Thyroid epithelial cells (also called follicular cells or principal cells) are cells in the thyroid gland that are responsible for the production and secretion of thyroid hormones, that is, thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3).

Thyroid hormone

The thyroid hormones, thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), are tyrosine-based hormones produced by the thyroid gland primarily responsible for regulation of metabolism. An important component in the synthesis of thyroid hormones is iodine. The major form of thyroid hormone in the blood is thyroxine (T4), which has a longer half life than T3. The ratio of T4 to T3 released into the blood is roughly 20 to 1. Thyroxine is converted to the active T3 (three to four times more potent than T4) within cells by deiodinases (5'-iodinase). These are further processed by decarboxylation and deiodination to produce iodothyronamine (T1a) and thyronamine (T0a).

Thyroid-stimulating hormone

Thyroid-stimulating hormone (also known as TSH or thyrotropin) is a peptide hormone synthesized and secreted by thyrotrope cells in the anterior pituitary gland, which regulates the endocrine function of the thyroid gland.

Thyroidectomy

A thyroidectomy is an operation that involves the surgical removal of all or part of the thyroid gland. Surgeons often perform a thyroidectomy when a patient has thyroid cancer or some other condition of the thyroid gland (such as hyperthyroidism). Other indications for surgery include cosmetic (very enlarged thyroid), or symptomatic obstruction (causing difficulties in swallowing or breathing). One of the complications of "thyroidectomy" is voice change and patients are strongly advised to only be operated on by surgeons who protect the voice by using electronic nerve monitoring. Most thyroidectomies are now performed by minimally invasive surgery using a cut in the neck of no more than 2.5 cms(1 inch).

Thyrotropin alfa

Thyroid-stimulating hormone (also known as TSH or thyrotropin) is a peptide hormone synthesized and secreted by thyrotrope cells in the anterior pituitary gland, which regulates the endocrine function of the thyroid gland.

Tiazofurin

Tiazofurin is an inhibitor of IMP dehydrogenase. Tiazofurin and its analogues are under investigation for potential use in the treatment of cancer.

Time to progression

Tinidazole

Tinidazole is an anti-parasitic drug used against protozoan infections. It is widely known throughout Europe and the developing world as treatment for a variety of amoebic and parasitic infections. It was developed in 1972.

Tioguanine

Tioguanine (INN), formerly thioguanine (BAN), is a drug that is used in the treatment of cancer.

Tipifarnib

Tipifarnib (Zarnestra) is a farnesyltransferase inhibitor that is being investigated in patients 65 years of age and older with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia (AML). It is also being tested in clinical trials in patients in certain stages of breast cancer.

Tirapazamine

Tirapazamine (SR-4233) is an experimental anticancer drug that is activated to a toxic radical only at very low levels of oxygen (hypoxia). Such levels are common in human solid tumors, a phenomenon known as tumor hypoxia. Thus, tirapazamine is activated to its toxic form preferentially in the hypoxic areas of solid tumors. Cells in these regions are resistant to killing by radiotherapy and most anticancer drugs. Thus the combination of tirapazamine with conventional anticancer treatments is particularly effective. As of 2006, tirapazamine is undergoing phase III testing in patients with head and neck cancer and gynecological cancer, and similar trials are being undertaken for other solid tumor types.

Tissue plasminogen activator

Tissue plasminogen activator (abbreviated TPA or PLAT) is a protein involved in the breakdown of blood clots. It is a serine protease (EC 3.4.21.68) found on endothelial cells, the cells that line the blood vessels. As an enzyme, it catalyzes the conversion of plasminogen to plasmin, the major enzyme responsible for clot breakdown. Because it works on the clotting system, tPA is used in clinical medicine to treat only embolic or thrombotic stroke. Use is contraindicated in hemorrhagic stroke and head trauma.

TNF

Tumor necrosis factors (or the TNF-family) refers to a group of cytokines family that can cause cell death (apoptosis).

  • Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) is the best-known member of this class, and sometimes referred to when the term "tumor necrosis factor" is used.
  • Tumor necrosis factor-beta (TNF-β), also known as lymphotoxin is a cytokine that is inhibited by interleukin 10

TNFerade

GenVec, Inc. is a biopharmaceutical company developing pharmaceuticals and vaccines based on novel biotechnology such as targeted delivery systems. The company has a number of drugs currently in various phases of clinical trials. Its lead product candidate is TNFerade, being developed for the treatment of solid tumors. The company has been contracted by the United States Department of Homeland Security to develop a vaccine for foot-and-mouth disease.

TNM staging system

The TNM Classification of Malignant Tumors (TNM) is a cancer staging system that describes the extent of cancer in a patient's body.

  • T describes the size of the tumor and whether it has invaded nearby tissue,
  • N describes regional lymph nodes that are involved,
  • M describes distant metastasis (spread of cancer from one body part to another).

Tomography

Tomography is imaging by sections or sectioning, through the use of any kind of penetrating wave. A device used in tomography is called a tomograph, while the image produced is a tomogram. The method is used in radiology, archaeology, biology, geophysics, oceanography, materials science, astrophysics and other sciences. In most cases it is based on the mathematical procedure called tomographic reconstruction. The word was derived from the Greek word tomos which means "part" or "section", representing the idea of "a section", "a slice" or "a cutting". A tomography of several sections of the body is known as a polytomography.

Topoisomerase inhibitor

Topoisomerase inhibitors are agents designed to interfere with the action of topoisomerase enzymes (topoisomerase I and II), which are enzymes that control the changes in DNA structure by catalyzing the breaking and rejoining of the phosphodiester backbone of DNA strands during the normal cell cycle.

Topotecan

Topotecan hydrochloride (trade name Hycamtin) is a chemotherapy agent that is a topoisomerase I inhibitor. It is the water-soluble derivative of camptothecin. It is used to treat ovarian cancer and lung cancer, as well as other cancer types.

Toremifene

Toremifene citrate is an oral selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) which helps oppose the actions of estrogen in the body. Licensed in the United States under the brand name Fareston, toremifene citrate is FDA approved for use in advanced (metastatic) breast cancer. It is also being evaluated for prevention of prostate cancer under the brand name Acapodene.

Tositumomab

Tositumomab is a drug for the treatment of follicular lymphoma. It is a IgG2a anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody derived from immortalized mouse cells.

Total parenteral nutrition

Parenteral nutrition (PN) is feeding a person intravenously, bypassing the usual process of eating and digestion. The person receives nutritional formulas that contain nutrients such as salts, glucose, amino acids, lipids and added vitamins. It is called total parenteral nutrition or total nutrient admixture (TPN or TNA) when no food is given by other routes.

Total-body irradiation

Total body irradiation (TBI) is a form of radiotherapy used primarily as part of the preparative regimen for haematopoietic stem cell (or bone marrow) transplantation. As the name implies, TBI involves irradiation of the entire body, though in modern practice the lungs are often partially shielded to lower the risk of radiation-induced lung injury. Total body irradiation in the setting of bone marrow transplantation serves to destroy or suppress the recipient's immune system, preventing immunologic rejection of transplanted donor bone marrow or blood stem cells. Additionally, high doses of total body irradiation can eradicate residual cancer cells in the transplant recipient, increasing the likelihood that the transplant will be successful.

Trabecular cancer

Trabecular cancer is a rare type of cancer that forms on or just beneath the skin and in hair follicles. Trabecular cancer is a type of Merkel cell cancer.

Transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation

Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (acronym TENS) is the use of electric current produced by a device to stimulate the nerves for therapeutic purposes. TENS by definition covers the complete range of transcutaneously applied currents used for nerve excitation although the term is often used with a more restrictive intent, namely to describe the kind of pulses produced by portable stimulators used to treat pain. The unit is usually connected to the skin using two or more electrodes. A typical battery-operated TENS unit is able to modulate pulse width, frequency and intensity. Generally TENS is applied at high frequency (>50 Hz) with an intensity below motor contraction (sensory intensity) or low frequency (<10 Hz) with an intensity that produces motor contraction.

Transdermal

Transdermal is a route of administration wherein active ingredients are delivered across the skin for systemic distribution. Examples include transdermal patches used for medicine delivery, and transdermal implants used for medical or aesthetic purposes.

Transitional cell

Epithelium is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with connective tissue, muscle tissue and nervous tissue. Epithelial tissues line the cavities and surfaces of structures throughout the body, and also form many glands. Functions of epithelial cells include secretion, selective absorption, protection, transcellular transport and detection of sensation. In Greek "Epi" means, "on, upon," and "Theli" meaning, "nipple," or in general "tissue."

Transitional cell carcinoma

Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC, also urothelial cell carcinoma or UCC) is a type of cancer that typically occurs in the urinary system: the kidney, urinary bladder, and accessory organs. It is the most common type of bladder cancer and cancer of the ureter, urethra, and urachus; it is the second most common type of kidney cancer.

Transperineal biopsy

Transrectal biopsy is a biopsy procedure in which a sample of tissue is removed from the prostate using a thin needle that is inserted through the rectum and into the prostate. Transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) is usually used to guide the needle. The sample is examined under a microscope to see if it contains cancer.

Transrectal biopsy

Transrectal biopsy is a biopsy procedure in which a sample of tissue is removed from the prostate using a thin needle that is inserted through the rectum and into the prostate. Transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) is usually used to guide the needle. The sample is examined under a microscope to see if it contains cancer.

Transrectal ultrasound

Transrectal ultrasound uses inaudible sound waves produced by a probe inserted into the rectum to create an image of organs in the pelvis. The most common indication for transrectal ultrasound is for the evaluation of the prostate gland in men with elevated prostate specific antigen or prostatic nodules on digital rectal exam. Ultrasound may reveal prostate cancer, benign prostatic hypertrophy, or prostatitis. Ultrasound may also be used to help guide a biopsy of the prostate.

Transurethral biopsy

Transurethral biopsy is a biopsy procedure in which a sample of tissue is removed from the prostate for examination under a microscope. A thin, lighted tube is inserted through the urethra into the prostate, and a small piece of tissue is removed with a cutting loop.

Transurethral needle ablation

Transurethral needle ablation is a procedure that is used to treat benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH). A small probe that gives off low-level radiofrequency energy is inserted through the urethra into the prostate. The energy from the probe heats and destroys the abnormal prostate tissue without damaging the urethra. Also called transurethral radiofrequency ablation.

Transurethral resection/Transurethral resection of the prostate

Transurethral resection of the prostate (also known as TURP, plural TURPs and as a transurethral prostatic resection, TUPR) is a urological operation. It is used to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). As the name indicates, it is performed by visualising the prostate through the urethra and removing tissue by electrocautery or sharp dissection. This is considered the most effective treatment for BPH. This procedure is done with spinal or general anesthetic. A large triple lumen catheter is inserted through the urethra to irrigate and drain the bladder after the surgical procedure is complete. Outcome is considered excellent for 80-90% of BPH patients.

Transvaginal ultrasound

Gynecologic ultrasonography or Gynecologic sonography refers to the application of medical ultrasonography to the female pelvic organs, specifically the uterus, the ovaries, the Fallopian tubes, as well as the bladder, the adnexa, the Pouch of Douglas, and any findings in the pelvis of relevance outside of pregnancy.

Trastuzumab

Trastuzumab (INN; trade name Herceptin) is a monoclonal antibody that interferes with the HER2/neu receptor. The HER receptors are proteins that are embedded in the cell membrane and communicate molecular signals from outside the cell to inside the cell, and turn genes on and off. The HER proteins regulate cell growth, survival, adhesion, migration, and differentiation—functions that are amplified or weakened in cancer cells. In some cancers, notably some breast cancers, HER2 is over-expressed, and, among other effects, causes breast cells to reproduce uncontrollably.

Treosulfan

Treosulfan is a substance that is being studied in the treatment of cancer. It belongs to the family of drugs called alkylating agents.

Tretinoin

Tretinoin is the acid form of vitamin A and is also known as all-trans retinoic acid or ATRA. It is a drug commonly used to treat acne vulgaris and keratosis pilaris. It is available as a cream or gel (brand names Aberela, Airol, Renova, Atralin, Retin-A, Avita, or Stieva-A). It is also used to treat acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), and is sold for this indication by Roche under the brand name Vesanoid. It is also available as a generic.

Triamcinolone

Triamcinolone (trade names Aristocort, Kenacort, Tri-Nasal, Triaderm, Azmacort, Trilone, Volon A, Tristoject, Tricortone) is a long-acting synthetic corticosteroid given orally, by injection, inhalation, or as a topical ointment or cream.

Triapine

3-aminopyridine-2-carboxaldehyde thiosemicarbazone (3-AP, also called Triapine) is a substance that is being studied in the treatment of cancer. It belongs to the family of drugs called ribonucleotide reductase inhibitors.

Tributyrin

Butyrin, also known as tributyrin, is a triglyceride naturally present in butter. It is an ester composed of butyric acid and glycerol. Among other things, it is used as an ingredient in making margarine. It is commonly occurring in butter and can be described as a liquid fat with an acrid taste.

Trichothiodystrophy

IBIDS syndrome, also known as trichothiodystrophy (TTD), photosynthetic trichthiodystrophy (TTDP), trichothiodystrophy with congenital ichthyosis, Tay syndrome or sulfur-deficient brittle hair syndrome, was first described by Tay in 1971. It is an autosomal recessive congenital skin disease characterized by a congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma, growth and mental retardation, progeria-like facies, and brittle hair. The association of ichthyosis, brittle hair, intellectual impairment, decreased fertility, and short stature has been given the acronym IBIDS syndrome. In some cases, it can be diagnosed prenatally.

Triiodothyronine

Triiodothyronine, C15H12I3NO4, also known as T3, is a thyroid hormone. It affects almost every physiological process in the body, including growth and development, metabolism, body temperature, and heart rate .

Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole

Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole or Co-trimoxazole (abbreviated SXT, TMP-SMX, TMP-SMZ or TMP-sulfa) is a sulfonamide antibiotic combination of trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole, in the ratio of 1 to 5, used in the treatment of a variety of bacterial infections. The name co-trimoxazole is the British Approved Name, and has been marketed worldwide under many trade names including Septra (GSK), Bactrim (Roche), and various generic preparations. Sources differ as to whether co-trimoxazole usually is bactericidal or bacteriostatic.

Trimetrexate glucuronate

Trimetrexate is a quinazoline derivative. It is a dihydrofolate reductase inhibitor.

Triptorelin

Triptorelin (acetate or pamoate), a decapeptide (pGlu-His-Trp-Ser-Tyr-D-Trp-Leu-Arg-Pro-Gly-NH2), is a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH agonist). By causing constant stimulation of the pituitary, it decreases pituitary secretion of gonadotropins luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). Like other GnRH agonists, triptorelin may be used in the treatment of hormone-responsive cancers such as prostate cancer or breast cancer, precocious puberty, estrogen-dependent conditions (such as endometriosis or uterine fibroids), and in assisted reproduction. Triptorelin is marketed under the brand names Decapeptyl (Ipsen) and Diphereline and Gonapeptyl (Ferring Pharmaceuticals). In the United States, it is sold by Watson as Trelstar.

Troglitazone

Troglitazone (Rezulin, Resulin or Romozin) is an anti-diabetic and antiinflammatory drug, and a member of the drug class of the thiazolidinediones. It was developed by Daiichi Sankyo Co.(Japan). In the United States, it was introduced and manufactured by Parke-Davis in the late 1990s, but turned out to be associated with an idiosyncratic reaction leading to drug-induced hepatitis. One FDA medical officer evaluating troglitazone, John Gueriguian, did not recommend its approval due to potential high liver toxicity, but a full panel of experts approved it in January 1997. Subsequently, once the prevalence of adverse liver effects became known, troglitazone was withdrawn from the United Kingdom market in December 1997, from the USA market in 2000, and from the Japan market soon afterwards.

Tropisetron

Tropisetron (INN) is a serotonin 5-HT3 receptor antagonist used mainly as an antiemetic to treat nausea and vomiting following chemotherapy, although it has been used experimentally as an analgesic in cases of fibromyalgia. The drug is available in a 5 mg oral preparation or in 2 mg intravenous form. It is marketed by Novartis in Europe, Australia, New Zealand, Japan, South Korea and the Philippines as Navoban, but is not available in the U.S. It is also available from Novell Pharmaceutical Laboratories and marketed in several ASIAN countries as Setrovel

Troxacitabine

Troxacitabine (brand name Troxatyl) is a nucleoside analogue with anticancer activity. Its use is being studied in patients with refractory lymphoproliferative diseases.

TRUS

Transrectal ultrasound uses inaudible sound waves produced by a probe inserted into the rectum to create an image of organs in the pelvis. The most common indication for transrectal ultrasound is for the evaluation of the prostate gland in men with elevated prostate specific antigen or prostatic nodules on digital rectal exam. Ultrasound may reveal prostate cancer, benign prostatic hypertrophy, or prostatitis. Ultrasound may also be used to help guide a biopsy of the prostate.

Tuberous sclerosis

Tuberous sclerosis or tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a rare, multi-system genetic disease that causes non-malignant tumors to grow in the brain and on other vital organs such as the kidneys, heart, eyes, lungs, and skin. A combination of symptoms may include seizures, developmental delay, behavioral problems, skin abnormalities, lung and kidney disease. TSC is caused by a mutation of either of two genes, TSC1 and TSC2, which encode for the proteins hamartin and tuberin respectively. These proteins act as tumor growth suppressors, agents that regulate cell proliferation and differentiation.

Tubulovillous adenoma

Tubulovillous adenoma, TVA, is a type of polyp that grows in the colon and other places in the gastrointestinal tract and sometimes in other parts of the body. These adenomas may become malignant (cancerous).

Tumor

A tumor or tumour is the name for a neoplasm or a solid lesion formed by an abnormal growth of cells (termed neoplastic) which looks like a swelling. Tumor is not synonymous with cancer. A tumor can be benign, pre-malignant or malignant, whereas cancer is by definition malignant.

Tumor antigen vaccine

A tumor antigen vaccine is a vaccine made of cancer cells, parts of cancer cells, or pure tumor antigens (substances isolated from tumor cells). A tumor antigen vaccine may stimulate the body's immune system to find and kill cancer cells.

Tumor board review

Tumor board review is a treatment planning approach in which a number of doctors who are experts in different medical specialties review and discuss the medical condition and treatment options of a patient. In cancer treatment, a tumor board review may include that of a medical oncologist (who provides cancer treatment with drugs), a surgical oncologist (who provides cancer treatment with surgery), and a radiation oncologist (who provides cancer treatment with radiation). Also called a multidisciplinary opinion.

Tumor infiltrating lymphocyte

Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes are white blood cells that have left the bloodstream and migrated into a tumor. They are an important prognostic factor in melanoma.

Tumor marker

A tumor marker is a substance found in the blood, urine, or body tissues that can be elevated in cancer, among other tissue types. There are many different tumor markers, each indicative of a particular disease process, and they are used in oncology to help detect the presence of cancer. An elevated level of a tumor marker can indicate cancer; however, there can also be other causes of the elevation.

Tumor suppressor gene

A tumor suppressor gene, or anti-oncogene, is a gene that protects a cell from one step on the path to cancer. When this gene is mutated to cause a loss or reduction in its function, the cell can progress to cancer, usually in combination with other genetic changes.

Tumor-specific antigen

Tumor antigen is an antigenic substance produced in tumor cells, i.e., it triggers an immune response in the host. Tumor antigens are useful in identifying tumor cells and are potential candidates for use in cancer therapy.

TUR

Turkey (Turkish: Türkiye), known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( Türkiye Cumhuriyeti (help·info)), is a Eurasian country that stretches across the Anatolian peninsula in western Asia and Thrace in the Balkan region of southeastern Europe. Turkey is bordered by eight countries: Bulgaria to the northwest; Greece to the west; Georgia to the northeast; Armenia, Azerbaijan (the exclave of Nakhchivan) and Iran to the east; and Iraq and Syria to the southeast. The Mediterranean Sea and Cyprus are to the south; the Aegean Sea to the west; and the Black Sea is to the north. The Sea of Marmara, the Bosphorus and the Dardanelles (which together form the Turkish Straits) demarcate the boundary between Eastern Thrace and Anatolia; they also separate Europe and Asia. Turkey's location at the crossroads of Europe and Asia makes it a country of significant geostrategic importance.

TURP

Transurethral resection of the prostate (also known as TURP, plural TURPs and as a transurethral prostatic resection, TUPR) is a urological operation. It is used to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). As the name indicates, it is performed by visualising the prostate through the urethra and removing tissue by electrocautery or sharp dissection. This is considered the most effective treatment for BPH. This procedure is done with spinal or general anesthetic. A large triple lumen catheter is inserted through the urethra to irrigate and drain the bladder after the surgical procedure is complete. Outcome is considered excellent for 80-90% of BPH patients.

TVS

Gynecologic ultrasonography or Gynecologic sonography refers to the application of medical ultrasonography to the female pelvic organs, specifically the uterus, the ovaries, the Fallopian tubes, as well as the bladder, the adnexa, the Pouch of Douglas, and any findings in the pelvis of relevance outside of pregnancy.

Tympanites

Tympanites (from the Greek τύμπανο, "drum"), also known as meteorism, is a medical condition in which excess gas accumulates in the gastrointestinal tract.

Type I and type II errors

In statistical hypothesis testing, Type I and Type II errors refer to incorrect conclusions that can be drawn during a test. In any test there are four basic options: two which are accurate--something is true and a test says it is true; something is false and a test says it is false--and two options which are errors--something is false but a test says it is true; and something is true but a test says it is false. In a hypothetical example of a patient being tested for HIV, statisticians approach it like this: Begin with the null hypothesis, that the patient does not have the disease; the alternative hypothesis is that HIV is present. If the null hypothesis is rejected when it is in fact true (the patient tests positive for infection when the patient is well), this is a Type I error or "false positive." If the null hypothesis is not rejected when it is in fact false (the patient tests negative when the patient is infected), this is a Type II error or "false negative".

Tyrosine kinase inhibitor

A tyrosine-kinase inhibitor (TKI) is a pharmaceutical drug that inhibits tyrosine kinases, enzymes responsible for the activation of signal transduction cascades (through phosphorylation of various proteins). TKIs are typically used as anti-cancer drugs. They are also called tyrphostins, the short name for "tyrosine phosphorylation inhibitor", originally coined in a 1988 publication, which was the first description of compounds inhibiting the catalytic activity of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR).

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Published - April 2011







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