Oncology-related Terms Glossary Free glossaries at TanslationDirectory.com translation jobs
Home Free Glossaries Free Dictionaries Post Your Translation Job! Free Articles Jobs for Translators

Oncology-related Terms Glossary
(Starting with "I")

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_oncology-related_terms






Become a member of TranslationDirectory.com at just $8 per month (paid per year)




Advertisements:



Use the search bar to look for terms in all glossaries, dictionaries, articles and other resources simultaneously




0-9 | A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z

Ibandronate

Ibandronic acid (INN) or ibandronate sodium (USAN), marketed under the trade names Boniva, Bondronat and Bonviva, is a potent bisphosphonate drug used in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.

ICI 182,780

Fulvestrant, also known as ICI 182,780, is a drug treatment of hormone receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer in postmenopausal women with disease progression following anti-estrogen therapy. It is an estrogen receptor antagonist with no agonist effects, which works both by down-regulating and by degrading the estrogen receptor. It is administered as a once-monthly injection.

Idarubicin

Idarubicin or 4-demethoxydaunorubicin is an anthracycline antileukemic drug. It inserts itself into DNA and prevents DNA from unwinding by interfering with the enzyme topoisomerase II. It is an analog of daunorubicin, but the absence of a methoxy group increases its fat solubility and cellular uptake.

Idiopathic

Idiopathic is an adjective used primarily in medicine meaning arising spontaneously or from an obscure or unknown cause. From Greek ἴδιος, idios (one's own) + πάθος, pathos (suffering), it means approximately "a disease of its own kind". It is technically a term from nosology, the classification of disease. For some medical conditions, one or more causes are somewhat understood, but in a certain percentage of people with the condition, the cause may not be readily apparent or characterized. In these cases, the origin of the condition is said to be idiopathic.

Idiopathic myelofibrosis

Myelofibrosis, also known as myeloid metaplasia, chronic idiopathic myelofibrosis, osteomyelofibrosis and primary myelofibrosis is a disorder of the bone marrow. It is currently classified as a myeloproliferative disease in which the proliferation of an abnormal type of bone marrow stem cell results in fibrosis, or the replacement of the marrow with collagenous connective tissue fibers.

Idoxuridine

Idoxuridine is an anti-herpesvirus antiviral drug. It is a nucleoside analogue, a modified form of deoxyuridine, similar enough to be incorporated into viral DNA replication, but the iodine atom added to the uracil component blocks base pairing. It is used only topically since it's cardiotoxic .

Ifosfamide

Ifosfamide (pronounced eye.fos'.fa.mide) (also marketed as Mitoxana and Ifex) is a nitrogen mustard alkylating agent used in the treatment of cancer.

IL-1/IL-1-alfa

Interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1α) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IL1A gene.

The protein encoded by this gene is a cytokine of the interleukin-1 family. Interleukin-1 alpha possesses a wide spectrum of metabolic, physiological, haematopoietic activities, and plays one of the central roles in the regulation of the immune responses. It binds to the interleukin-1 receptor.

IL-11

Interleukin 11 (IL-11) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IL11 gene.

IL-11 is a multifunctional cytokine first isolated in 1990 from bone marrow-derived stromal cells. It is a key regulator of multiple events in hematopoiesis, most notably the stimulation of megakaryocyte maturation. It is also known under the names adipogenesis inhibitory factor (AGIF) and oprelvekin.

IL-12

Interleukin 12 (IL-12) is an interleukin that is naturally produced by dendritic cells, macrophages and human B-lymphoblastoid cells (NC-37) in response to antigenic stimulation.

IL-2

Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is an interleukin, a type of cytokine immune system signaling molecule, which is a leukocytotrophic hormone that is instrumental in the body's natural response to microbial infection and in discriminating between foreign (non-self) and self. IL-2 mediates its effects by binding to IL-2 receptors, which are expressed by lymphocytes, the cells that are responsible for immunity.

IL-3

Interleukin 3, also known as IL-3, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IL3 gene.

IL-4

Interleukin-4, abbreviated IL-4, is a cytokine that induces differentiation of naive helper T cells (Th0 cells) to Th2 cells. Upon activation by IL-4, Th2 cells subsequently produce additional IL-4. The cell that initially produces IL-4, thus inducing Th0 differentiation, has not been identified, but recent studies suggest that basophils may be the effector cell. It is closely related and has functions similar to Interleukin 13.

IL-6

Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IL6 gene.

IL-6 is an interleukin that acts as both a pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine. It is secreted by T cells and macrophages to stimulate immune response to trauma, especially burns or other tissue damage leading to inflammation.

Ileostomy

An ileostomy is a surgical opening constructed by bringing the end or loop of small intestine (the ileum) out onto the surface of the skin. Intestinal waste passes out of the ileostomy and is collected in an external pouching system stuck to the skin. Ileostomies are usually sited above the groin on the right hand side of the abdomen.

Iloprost

Iloprost is a drug used to treat pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), scleroderma, Raynaud's phenomenon and ischaemia. It was developed by the pharmaceutical company Schering AG and is marketed by Bayer Schering Pharma AG in Europe and Actelion Pharmaceuticals in the USA.

Imatinib mesylate

Imatinib (originally STI571) is a drug used to treat certain types of cancer. It is currently marketed by Novartis as Gleevec (USA) or Glivec (Europe/Australia/Latin America) as its mesylate salt, imatinib mesilate (INN). It is used in treating chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) and some other diseases. By 2011, Gleevec has been FDA approved to treat ten different cancers. In CML, the tyrosine kinase enzyme ABL is stuck in its activated form; imatinib binds to the site of tyrosine kinase activity, and prevents its activity.

Imipenem

Imipenem is an intravenous β-lactam antibiotic developed in 1985. It has an extremely broad spectrum of activity. Imipenem belongs to the subgroup of carbapenems. It is derived from a compound called thienamycin, which is produced by the bacteria Streptomyces cattleya. Imipenem has a broad spectrum of activity against aerobic and anaerobic Gram positive as well as Gram negative bacteria. It is particularly important for its activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the Enterococcus species. It is not active against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, however. Imipenem and other drugs in the carbapenem class are typically restricted in use, in order to avoid widespread bacterial resistance.

Imiquimod

Imiquimod (INN) is a prescription medication that acts as an immune response modifier. It is marketed by MEDA AB, Graceway Pharmaceuticals and iNova Pharmaceuticals under the trade names Aldara and Zyclara, and by Mochida as Beselna.

Immune function/Immune response/Immune system

An immune system is a system of biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease by identifying and killing pathogens and tumor cells. It detects a wide variety of agents, from viruses to parasitic worms, and needs to distinguish them from the organism's own healthy cells and tissues in order to function properly. Detection is complicated as pathogens can evolve rapidly, and adapt to avoid the immune system and allow the pathogens to successfully infect their hosts.

Immunoassay

An immunoassay is a biochemical test that measures the presence or concentration of a substance in solutions that frequently contain a complex mixture of substances. Analytes in biological liquids such as serum or urine are frequently assayed using immunoassay methods. Such assays are based on the unique ability of an antibody to bind with high specificity to one or a very limited group of molecules. A molecule that binds to an antibody is called an antigen. Immunoassays can be carried out for either member of an antigen/antibody pair. For antigen analytes, an antibody that specifically binds to that antigen can frequently be prepared for use as an analytical reagent. When the analyte is a specific antibody its cognate antigen can be used as the analytical reagent. In either case the specificity of the assay depends on the degree to which the analytical reagent is able to bind to its specific binding partner to the exclusion of all other substances that might be present in the sample to be analyzed. In addition to the need for specificity, a binding partner must be selected that has a sufficiently high affinity for the analyte to permit an accurate measurement. The affinity requirements depend on the particular assay format that is used.

Immunocompetence/Immunocompetent

Immunocompetence is the ability of the body to produce a normal immune response (i.e., antibody production and/or cell-mediated immunity) following exposure to an antigen, which might be an actual virus itself or an immunization shot. Immunocompetence is the opposite of immunodeficiency or immuno-incompetent or immuno-compromised.

Immunocompromised/Immunodeficiency

Immunodeficiency (or immune deficiency) is a state in which the immune system's ability to fight infectious disease is compromised or entirely absent. Most cases of immunodeficiency are acquired ("secondary") but some people are born with defects in their immune system, or primary immunodeficiency.

Immunoglobulin

An antibody also known as an immunoglobulin is a large Y-shaped protein used by the immune system to identify and neutralize foreign objects like bacteria and viruses. The antibody recognizes a unique part of the foreign target, termed an antigen. Each tip of the "Y" of an antibody contains a paratope (a structure analogous to a lock) that is specific for one particular epitope (that is equivalent to a key) on an antigen, allowing these two structures to bind together with precision. Using this binding mechanism, an antibody can tag a microbe or an infected cell for attack by other parts of the immune system, or can neutralize its target directly (for example, by blocking a part of a microbe that is essential for its invasion and survival). The production of antibodies is the main function of the humoral immune system.

Immunology

Immunology is a broad branch of biomedical science that covers the study of all aspects of the immune system in all organisms. It deals with the physiological functioning of the immune system in states of both health and disease; malfunctions of the immune system in immunological disorders (autoimmune diseases, hypersensitivities, immune deficiency, transplant rejection); the physical, chemical and physiological characteristics of the components of the immune system in vitro, in situ, and in vivo. Immunology has applications in several disciplines of science, and as such is further divided.

Immunomodulation

An immunomodulator is a substance (e. g. a drug) which has an effect on the immune system. There are two types of effects - immunostimulation and immunosuppression.

Immunophenotyping

Immunophenotyping is a technique used to study the protein expressed by cells. This technique is commonly used in basic science research and laboratory diagnostic purpose. This can be done on tissue section (fresh or fixed tissue), cell suspension, etc. An example is the diagnosis of leukemia. It involves the labelling of white blood cells with antibodies directed against surface proteins on their membrane. By choosing appropriate antibodies, the differentiation of leukemic cells can be accurately determined. The labelled cells are processed in a flow cytometer, a laser-based instrument capable of analyzing thousands of cells per second. The whole procedure can be performed on cells from the blood, bone marrow or spinal fluid in a matter of a few hours.

Immunoscintigraphy

Immunoscintigraphy is a commonly used procedure to find cancer cells in the body by injecting a radioactive compound which binds to cancer cells and then scanning for concentrations of radioactive emissions.

Immunostimulant

Immunostimulants, also known as immunostimulators, are substances (drugs and nutrients) that stimulate the immune system by inducing activation or increasing activity of any of its components. One notable example is the granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor.

Immunosuppression/Immunosuppressive/Immunosuppressive therapy

Immunosuppression involves an act that reduces the activation or efficacy of the immune system. Some portions of the immune system itself have immuno-suppressive effects on other parts of the immune system, and immunosuppression may occur as an adverse reaction to treatment of other conditions.

Immunotherapy

Immunotherapy is a medical term defined as "treatment of disease by inducing, enhancing, or suppressing an immune response".

Immunotherapies designed to elicit or amplify an immune response are classified as activation immunotherapies.

Immunotoxin

An immunotoxin is a human-made protein that consists of a targeting portion linked to a toxin. When the protein binds to that cell, it is taken in through endocytosis, and the toxin kills the cell. They are used for the treatment of some kinds of cancer and a few viral infections.

Incisional biopsy

A biopsy is a medical test involving the removal of cells or tissues for examination. It is the medical removal of tissue from a living subject to determine the presence or extent of a disease. The tissue is generally examined under a microscope by a pathologist, and can also be analyzed chemically. When an entire lump or suspicious area is removed, the procedure is called an excisional biopsy. When only a sample of tissue is removed with preservation of the histological architecture of the tissue's cells, the procedure is called an incisional biopsy or core biopsy. When a sample of tissue or fluid is removed with a needle in such a way that cells are removed without preserving the histological architecture of the tissue cells, the procedure is called a needle aspiration biopsy.

Indinavir

Indinavir (IDV; trade name Crixivan, manufactured by Merck) is a protease inhibitor used as a component of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) to treat HIV infection and AIDS.

Indium In 111 ibritumomab tiuxetan

Ibritumomab tiuxetan, sold under the trade name Zevalin, is a monoclonal antibody radioimmunotherapy treatment for some forms of B cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, a myeloproliferative disorder of the lymphatic system. The drug uses the monoclonal mouse IgG1 antibody ibritumomab (pronounced as ) in conjunction with the chelator tiuxetan, to which a radioactive isotope (either yttrium-90 or indium-111) is added. Tiuxetan is a modified version of DTPA whose carbon backbone contains an isothiocyanatobenzyl and a methyl group.

Indole-3-carbinol

Indole-3-carbinol (C9H9NO) is produced by the breakdown of the glucosinolate glucobrassicin, which can be found at relatively high levels in cruciferous vegetables. Indole-3-carbinol is the subject of on-going Biomedical research into its possible anticarcinogenic, antioxidant, and anti-atherogenic effects.

Indometacin

Indometacin (INN) or indomethacin (USAN and former BAN) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug commonly used to reduce fever, pain, stiffness, and swelling. It works by inhibiting the production of prostaglandins, molecules known to cause these symptoms. It is marketed under many trade names, including Indocin, Indocid, Indochron E-R, and Indocin-SR.

Inflammatory breast cancer

Inflammatory breast cancer is an especially aggressive type of breast cancer that can occur in women of any age (and extremely rarely, in men).

It is called inflammatory because it frequently presents with symptoms resembling an inflammation. However it can present with very variable signs and symptoms, frequently without detectable tumors and therefore is often not detected by mammography or ultrasound.

Infliximab

Infliximab (INN; trade name Remicade) is a monoclonal antibody against tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα). It is used to treat autoimmune diseases. Remicade is marketed by Centocor Ortho Biotech, Inc. (Centocor) in the USA, Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma in Japan, Xian Janssen in China, and Schering-Plough (now part of Merck & Co) elsewhere.

Inguinal orchiectomy

Inguinal orchiectomy (also spelled orchidectomy) is a surgical procedure to remove a testicle and the full spermatic cord through an incision in the abdomen. The procedure is generally performed by a urologist. Often it is performed as same-day surgery, with the patient returning home within hours of the procedure. Some patients elect to have a prosthetic testicle inserted into their scrotum.

Inoperable

Operability is the ability to keep an equipment, a system or a whole industrial installation in a safe and reliable functioning condition, according to pre-defined operational requirements.

In a computing systems environment with multiple systems this includes the ability of products, systems and business processes to work together to accomplish a common task such as finding and returning availability of inventory for flight.

Inositol

Inositol or cyclohexane-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexol is a chemical compound with formula C6H12O6 or (-CHOH-)6, a sixfold alcohol (polyol) of cyclohexane. It exists in nine possible stereoisomers, of which the most prominent form, widely occurring in nature, is cis-1,2,3,5-trans-4,6-cyclohexanehexol, or myo-inositol (former name meso-inositol). Inositol is a carbohydrate, though not a classical sugar. It is almost tasteless, with a small amount of sweetness.

Inositol hexaphosphate

Phytic acid (known as inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6), or phytate when in salt form) is the principal storage form of phosphorus in many plant tissues, especially bran and seeds. Phytate is not digestable to humans or non-ruminant animals, however, so it is not a source of either inositol or phosphate if eaten directly. Morever, it chelates and thus makes unabsorbable certain important minor minerals such as zinc and iron, and to a lesser extent, also macro minerals such as calcium and magnesium.

Instillation

To instil or instill is to slowly but firmly establish something.

Institutional Review Board

An institutional review board (IRB), also known as an independent ethics committee (IEC) or ethical review board (ERB), is a committee that has been formally designated to approve, monitor, and review biomedical and behavioral research involving humans with the aim to protect the rights and welfare of the research subjects. In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and Department of Health and Human Services (specifically Office for Human Research Protections) regulations have empowered IRBs to approve, require modifications in planned research prior to approval, or disapprove research. An IRB performs critical oversight functions for research conducted on human subjects that are scientific, ethical, and regulatory.

Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy

Radiation therapy (in the USA), radiation oncology, or radiotherapy (in the UK, Canada and Australia), sometimes abbreviated to XRT, is the medical use of ionizing radiation as part of cancer treatment to control malignant cells (not to be confused with radiology, the use of radiation in medical imaging and diagnosis). Radiotherapy may be used for curative or adjuvant treatment. It is used as palliative treatment (where cure is not possible and the aim is for local disease control or symptomatic relief) or as therapeutic treatment (where the therapy has survival benefit and it can be curative).

Interferon

Interferons (IFNs) are proteins made and released by lymphocytes in response to the presence of pathogens—such as viruses, bacteria, or parasites—or tumor cells. They allow communication between cells to trigger the protective defenses of the immune system that eradicate pathogens or tumors.

Interleukin

Interleukins are a group of cytokines (secreted proteins/signaling molecules) that were first seen to be expressed by white blood cells (leukocytes). The term interleukin derives from (inter-) "as a means of communication", and (-leukin) "deriving from the fact that many of these proteins are produced by leukocytes and act on leukocytes". The name is something of a relic though (the term was coined by Dr. Paetkau, University of Victoria); it has since been found that interleukins are produced by a wide variety of body cells. The function of the immune system depends in a large part on interleukins, and rare deficiencies of a number of them have been described, all featuring autoimmune diseases or immune deficiency. The majority of interleukins are synthesized by helper CD4+ T lymphocytes, as well as through monocytes, macrophages, and endothelial cells. They promote the development and differentiation of T, B, and hematopoietic cells.

Internal radiation

Brachytherapy (from the Greek word brachys, meaning "short-distance"), also known as internal radiotherapy, sealed source radiotherapy, curietherapy or endocurietherapy, is a form of radiotherapy where a radiation source is placed inside or next to the area requiring treatment. Brachytherapy is commonly used as an effective treatment for cervical, prostate, breast, and skin cancer and can also be used to treat tumours in many other body sites. Brachytherapy can be used alone or in combination with other therapies such as surgery, External Beam Radiotherapy (EBRT) and chemotherapy.

Intestinal villi

Intestinal villi (singular: villus) are tiny, finger-like projections that protrude from the epithelial lining of the intestinal wall. Each villus is approximately 0.5-1 mm in length and has many microvilli (singular: microvillus), each of which are much smaller than a single villus. Intestinal villi should not be confused with the larger folds of mucous membrane in the bowel known as the plicae circulares. A villus is much smaller than a single fold of plicae circulares.

Intracellular

In cell biology, molecular biology and related fields, the word intracellular means "inside the cell".

It is used in contrast to extracellular (outside the cell). The cell membrane (and, in plants, the cell wall) is the barrier between the two, and chemical composition of intra- and extracellular milieu can be radically different. In most organisms, for example, a Na+/K+ ATPase maintains a high potassium level inside cells while keeping sodium low, leading to chemical excitability. This terms also means existing within the cells.

Intracranial tumor

A brain tumor (or brain tumour) is an intracranial solid neoplasm, a tumor (defined as an abnormal growth of cells) within the brain or the central spinal canal.

Intradermal

The dermis is a layer of skin between the epidermis (with which it makes up the cutis) and subcutaneous tissues, and is composed of two layers, the papillary and reticular dermis. Structural components of the dermis are collagen, elastic fibers, and extrafibrillar matrix (previously called ground substance).

Intraductal carcinoma

Intraductal carcinoma is a noninvasive condition in which abnormal cells are found in the lining of a breast duct. The abnormal cells have not spread outside the duct to other tissues in the breast. In some cases, intraductal carcinoma may become invasive cancer and spread to other tissues, although it is not known at this time how to predict which lesions will become invasive. Also called ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS).

Intrahepatic bile ducts

Intrahepatic bile ducts are part of the outflow system of exocrine bile product from the liver.

Intramuscular injection (IM)

Intramuscular (or IM) injection is the injection of a substance directly into a muscle. In medicine, it is one of several alternative methods for the administration of medications (see route of administration). It is used for particular forms of medication that are administered in small amounts. Depending on the chemical properties of the drug, the medication may either be absorbed fairly quickly or more gradually. Intramuscular injections are often given in the deltoid, vastus lateralis, ventrogluteal and dorsogluteal muscles.

Intraocular melanoma

Uveal melanoma is a cancer (melanoma) of the eye involving the iris, ciliary body, or choroid (collectively referred to as the uvea). Tumors arise from the pigment cells (melanocytes) that reside within the uvea giving color to the eye. These melanocytes are distinct from the Retinal pigment epithelium cells underlying the retina that do not form melanomas.

Intraoperative radiation therapy

Intraoperative radiation therapy is applying therapeutic levels of radiation to a target area, such as a cancer tumor, while the area is exposed during surgery.

Intraperitoneal

Intraperitoneal injection or IP injection is the injection of a substance into the peritoneum (body cavity). IP injection is more often applied to animals than humans. It is generally preferred when large amounts of blood replacement fluids are needed, or when low blood pressure or other problems prevent the use of a suitable blood vessel for intravenous injection.

Intraperitoneal hyperthermic chemoperfusion

Intraperitoneal hyperthermic chemoperfusion (IPHC) is a type of hyperthermia therapy for cancer. IPHC is also called intra-abdominal hyperthermic chemoperfusion, intraperitoneal hyperthermic chemotherapy, or Sugarbaker technique, after Paul Sugarbaker, developer and advocate of this procedure.

Intrapleural

In human anatomy, the pleural cavity is the body cavity that surrounds the lungs. The pleura is a serous membrane which folds back onto itself to form a two-layered, membrane structure. The thin space between the two pleural layers is known as the pleural cavity; it normally contains a small amount of pleural fluid. The outer pleura (parietal pleura) is attached to the chest wall. The inner pleura (visceral pleura) covers the lungs and adjoining structures, viz. blood vessels, bronchi and nerves.

Intrathecal

Intrathecal (Latin intra- "inside", Greek theka "capsule", "hull") is an adjective that refers to something introduced into or occurring in the space under the arachnoid membrane of the brain or spinal cord. For example, intrathecal immunoglobulin production means production of this substance in the spinal cord.

Intravenous pyelography/pyelogram

An intravenous pyelogram (also known as IVP, pyelography, intravenous urogram or IVU) is a radiological procedure used to visualize abnormalities of the urinary system, including the kidneys, ureters, and bladder.

Intravesical

In human anatomy, the urinary bladder is the organ that collects urine excreted by the kidneys before disposal by urination. A hollow muscular, and distensible (or elastic) organ, the bladder sits on the pelvic floor. Urine enters the bladder via the ureters and exits via the urethra.

Inverted papilloma

An inverted papilloma is a type of tumor in which surface epithelial cells grow downward into the underlying supportive tissue. It may occur in the nose and/or sinuses or in the urinary tract (bladder, renal pelvis, ureter, urethra). When it occurs in the nose or sinuses, it may cause symptoms similar to those caused by sinusitis, such as nasal congestion. When it occurs in the urinary tract, it may cause blood in the urine.

Inviable

Viable or viability is the ability of a thing (a living organism, an artificial system, an idea, etc.) to maintain itself or recover its potentialities.

Iodine I 131 tositumomab

Tositumomab is a drug for the treatment of follicular lymphoma. It is a IgG2a anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody derived from immortalized mouse cells.

Ionomycin

Ionomycin is an ionophore produced by the bacterium Streptomyces conglobatus. It is used in research to raise the intracellular level of calcium (Ca2+) and as a research tool to understand Ca2+ transport across biological membranes. It is also used to stimulate the intracellular production of the cytokines interferon, perforin, IL-2, and IL-4 usually in conjunction with PMA. These cytokines are important in the inflammatory response.

IORT

Intraoperative radiation therapy is applying therapeutic levels of radiation to a target area, such as a cancer tumor, while the area is exposed during surgery.

Incontinentia pigmenti

Incontinentia Pigmenti (also known as "Bloch–Siemens syndrome," "Bloch–Sulzberger disease," "Bloch–Sulzberger syndrome" "melanoblastosis cutis," and "naevus pigmentosus systematicus") is a genetic disorder that affects the skin, hair, teeth, nails, and central nervous system. It is named due to its microscopic appearance.

IP6

Phytic acid (known as inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6), or phytate when in salt form) is the principal storage form of phosphorus in many plant tissues, especially bran and seeds. Phytate is not digestable to humans or non-ruminant animals, however, so it is not a source of either inositol or phosphate if eaten directly. Morever, it chelates and thus makes unabsorbable certain important minor minerals such as zinc and iron, and to a lesser extent, also macro minerals such as calcium and magnesium.

Irinotecan

Irinotecan (Camptosar, Pfizer; Campto, Yakult Honsha) is a drug used for the treatment of cancer.

Irinotecan is a topoisomerase 1 inhibitor, which prevents DNA from unwinding. Chemically, it is a semisynthetic analogue of the natural alkaloid camptothecin.

Irofulven

Irofulven or 6-hydroxymethylacylfulvene (also known as HMAF of MGI-114) is an antitumor agent. It belongs to the family of drugs called alkylating agents.

Irradiated/Irradiation

Irradiation is the process by which an item is exposed to radiation. The exposure can originate from any of various sources, including those occurring naturally, or as part of a mechanical process, or otherwise. In common usage the term refers specifically to ionizing radiation, and to a level of radiation that will serve that specific purpose, rather than radiation exposure to normal levels of background radiation or abnormal levels of radiation due to accidental exposure. This term also applies to 'non-ionizing radiation as microwaves or to low frequency (50/60 Hz power supply), high frequency (as cellular phones, radio and TV transmissions).

Islet cell

The islets of Langerhans are the regions of the pancreas that contain its endocrine (i.e., hormone-producing) cells. Discovered in 1869 by German pathological anatomist Paul Langerhans at the age of 22, the islets of Langerhans constitute approximately 1 to 2% of the mass of the pancreas. There are about one million islets in a healthy adult human pancreas, which are distributed throughout the organ; their combined mass is 1 to 1.5 grams.

Islet cell cancer

Islet cell carcinoma or nesidioblastoma is an uncommon cancer of the endocrine pancreas.

It accounts for approximately 1.3% of pancreatic cancer.

Isoflavone

Isoflavones comprise a class of organic compounds, often naturally occurring, related to the isoflavonoids. Many act as phytoestrogens in mammals. Being phytochemicals, they are able to be termed antioxidants because of their ability to trap singlet oxygen. Some isoflavones, in particular soy isoflavones, when studied in populations eating soy protein, have indicated that there is a lower incidence of breast cancer and other common cancers because of its role in influencing sex hormone metabolism and biological activity through intracellular enzymes, protein synthesis, growth factor actions, malignant cell proliferations, differentation and angiogenesis. Isoflavones are produced almost exclusively by the members of the Fabaceae/Leguminosae (bean) family.

Isolated hepatic perfusion

Isolated hepatic perfusion is a procedure in which a catheter is placed into the artery that provides blood to the liver; another catheter is placed into the vein that takes blood away from the liver. This temporarily separates the liver's blood supply from blood circulating throughout the rest of the body and allows high doses of anticancer drugs to be directed to the liver only.

Isolated limb perfusion

Limb perfusion is a medical technique that may be used to deliver anticancer drugs directly to an arm or leg. The flow of blood to and from the limb is temporarily stopped with a tourniquet, and anticancer drugs are put directly into the blood of the limb. This allows the person to receive a high dose of drugs in the area where the cancer occurred.

Isolated lung perfusion

Isolated lung perfusion is a surgical procedure during which the circulation of blood to the lungs is separated from the circulation of blood through the rest of the body, and a drug is delivered directly into the lung circulation. This allows a higher concentration of chemotherapy to reach tumors in the lungs.

Isotretinoin

Isotretinoin is a medication used for the treatment of a number of cancers and severe skin conditions. It was first developed to be used as a chemotherapy medication for the treatment of brain cancer, pancreatic cancer, and more. It is still used in the treatment of these cancers to this day because of its ability to kill rapidly dividing cells.

Itraconazole

Itraconazole (marketed as Sporanox by Janssen Pharmaceutica), invented in 1984, is a triazole antifungal agent that is prescribed to patients with fungal infections. The drug may be given orally or intravenously.

IU

In pharmacology, international unit measures biological activity, or effect, of a substance. It is abbreviated as IU, as UI (French unité internationale or Italian unità internazionale), or as IE (German Internationale Einheit). It is used to quantify vitamins, hormones, some medications, vaccines, blood products, and similar biologically active substances. IU has the advantage over a measure of mass, as milligram (mg), in being consistent in nominal quantity across various forms of a biological agent (as vitamin A in the form of retinol or beta-carotene). Despite its name, IU is not part of the International System of Units used in physics and chemistry.

IV

Intravenous therapy or IV therapy is the giving of substances directly into a vein. The word intravenous simply means "within a vein". Therapies administered intravenously are often called specialty pharmaceuticals. It is commonly referred to as a drip because many systems of administration employ a drip chamber, which prevents air entering the blood stream (air embolism) and allows an estimate of flow rate.

IVP

An intravenous pyelogram (also known as IVP, pyelography, intravenous urogram or IVU) is a radiological procedure used to visualize abnormalities of the urinary system, including the kidneys, ureters, and bladder.

Ixabepilone

Ixabepilone also known as azaepothilone B, codenamed BMS-247550) is an epothilone B analog developed by Bristol-Myers Squibb as a cancer drug.

0-9 | A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z








See all medical glossaries:





Published - April 2011







Find free glossaries at TranslationDirectory.com

Find free dictionaries at TranslationDirectory.com

Subscribe to free TranslationDirectory.com newsletter

Need more translation jobs from translation agencies? Click here!

Translation agencies are welcome to register here - Free!

Freelance translators are welcome to register here - Free!

Submit your glossary or dictionary for publishing at TranslationDirectory.com





Free Newsletter

Subscribe to our free newsletter to receive news from us:

 
Menu
Use More Glossaries
Use Free Dictionaries
Use Free Translators
Submit Your Glossary
Read Translation Articles
Register Translation Agency
Submit Your Resume
Obtain Translation Jobs
Subscribe to Free Newsletter
Buy Database of Translators
Obtain Blacklisted Agencies
Vote in Polls for Translators
Read News for Translators
Advertise Here
Read our FAQ
Read Testimonials
Use Site Map
Advertisements
translation directory

christianity portal
translation jobs


 

 
Copyright © 2003-2020 by TranslationDirectory.com
Legal Disclaimer
Site Map