Oncology-related Terms Glossary
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Vandetanib (rINN, proposed trade name Zactima), also known as ZD6474, is an antagonist of the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) and the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). It is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor.
Drug has a third target: inhibits RET-tyrosine kinase activity, an important growth driver in certain types of thyroid cancer
Ziconotide (SNX-111; Prialt) is a non-opioid and non-NSAID analgesic agent used for the amelioration of severe and chronic pain. Derived from Conus magus ("Cone Snail"), it is the synthetic form of an ω-conotoxin peptide.
In December 2004 the Food and Drug Administration approved ziconotide when delivered as an infusion into the cerebrospinal fluid using an intrathecal pump system.
Zidovudine (INN) or azidothymidine (AZT) (also called ZDV) is a nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI), a type of antiretroviral drug used for the treatment of HIV/AIDS. It is an analog of thymidine.
AZT was the first approved treatment for HIV, sold under the names Retrovir and Retrovis. AZT use was a major breakthrough in AIDS therapy in the 1990s that significantly altered the course of the illness and helped destroy the notion that HIV/AIDS was a death sentence. AZT slows HIV spread significantly, but does not stop it entirely. This allows HIV to become AZT-resistant over time, and for this reason AZT is usually used in conjunction with other NRTIs and anti-viral drugs. In this form, AZT is used as an ingredient in Combivir and Trizivir, among others. Zidovudine is included in the World Health Organization's "Essential Drugs List", which is a list of minimum medical needs for a basic health care system.
Zileuton (trade name ZYFLO) is an orally active inhibitor of 5-lipoxygenase, and thus inhibits leukotrienes (LTB4, LTC4, LTD4, and LTE4) formation. Zileuton is used for the maintenance treatment of asthma. Zileuton was introduced in 1996 by Abbott Laboratories and is now marketed in two formulations by Cornerstone Therapeutics Inc. under the brand names ZYFLO and ZYFLO CR. The original immediate-release formulation of zileuton, known as ZYFLO, is taken four-times-per-day. The extended-release formulation, ZYFLO CR, is taken twice daily.
Although the extended release formulation of zileuton is still available (Zyflo CR), the immediate release tablet was withdrawn from the U.S. market on February 12, 2008.
Zoledronic acid (INN) or zoledronate (marketed by Novartis under the trade names Zometa, Zomera, Aclasta and Reclast) is a bisphosphonate. Zometa is used to prevent skeletal fractures in patients with cancers such as multiple myeloma and prostate cancer, as well as for treating osteoporosis. It can also be used to treat hypercalcemia of malignancy and can be helpful for treating pain from bone metastases.
An annual dose of zoledronic acid may also prevent recurring fractures in patients with a previous hip fracture.
Reclast is a single 5 mg infusion for the treatment of Paget's disease of bone. In 2007, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) also approved Reclast for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis.
Zollinger–Ellison syndrome is a triad of gastric acid hypersecretion, severe peptic ulceration, and non-beta cell islet tumor of pancreas (gastrinoma). In this syndrome increased levels of the hormone gastrin are produced, causing the stomach to produce excess hydrochloric acid. Often the cause is a tumor (gastrinoma) of the duodenum or pancreas producing the hormone gastrin. Gastrin then causes an excessive production of acid which can lead to peptic ulcers in almost 95% of patients.
Sertraline hydrochloride (trade names Zoloft and Lustral) is an antidepressant of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class. It was introduced to the market by Pfizer in 1991. Sertraline is primarily used to treat major depression in adult outpatients as well as obsessive–compulsive, panic, and social anxiety disorders in both adults and children. In 2007, it was the most prescribed antidepressant on the U.S. retail market, with 29,652,000 prescriptions.
The efficacy of sertraline for depression is similar to that of older tricyclic antidepressants, but its side effects are much less pronounced. Differences with newer antidepressants are subtler and also mostly confined to side effects. Evidence suggests that sertraline may work better than fluoxetine (Prozac) for some subtypes of depression. Sertraline is highly effective for the treatment of panic disorder, but cognitive behavioral therapy is a better treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder, whether by itself or in combination with sertraline. Although approved for social phobia and posttraumatic stress disorder, sertraline leads to only modest improvement in these conditions. Sertraline also alleviates the symptoms of premenstrual dysphoric disorder and can be used in sub-therapeutic doses or intermittently for its treatment.
Sertraline shares the common side effects and contraindications of other SSRIs, with high rates of nausea, diarrhea, insomnia, and sexual side effects; however, its effects on cognition are mild. The unique effect of sertraline on dopaminergic neurotransmission may be related to its favorable action on cognitive functions. In pregnant women taking sertraline, the drug was present in significant concentrations in fetal blood, and was also associated with a higher rate of various birth defects. Similarly to other antidepressants, the use of sertraline for depression may be associated with a higher rate of suicidal behavior. Due to the rarity of this side effect, statistically significant data are difficult to obtain, and suicidal behavior continues to be a subject of controversy.
Zolpidem is a prescription medication used for the short-term treatment of insomnia, as well as some brain disorders. It is a short-acting nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic that potentiates gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), an inhibitory neurotransmitter, by binding to GABAA receptors at the same location as benzodiazepines. It works quickly (usually within 15 minutes) and has a short half-life (2–3 hours). Trade names of zolpidem include Adormix, Ambien, Ambien CR, Edluar, Zolpimist, Damixan, Hypnogen, Ivedal, Lioran, Myslee, Nasen, Nytamel, Sanval, Somidem, Stilnoct, Stilnox, Stilnox CR, Sucedal, Zodorm, Zoldem, Zolnod, Zolnox (in South Africa) and Zolpihexal.
Zolpidem has not adequately demonstrated effectiveness in maintaining sleep, however it is effective in initiating sleep. Its hypnotic effects are similar to those of the benzodiazepine class of drugs, but it is molecularly distinct from the classical benzodiazepine molecule and is classified as an imidazopyridine. Flumazenil, a benzodiazepine receptor antagonist, which is used for benzodiazepine overdose, can also reverse zolpidem's sedative/hypnotic and memory impairing effects.
As an anticonvulsant and muscle relaxant, the beneficial effects start to emerge at 10 and 20 times the dose required for sedation, respectively. For that reason, it has never been approved for either muscle relaxation or seizure prevention. Such drastically increased doses are more inclined to induce one or more negative side-effects, including hallucinations and amnesia.
Zolpidem is one of the most common benzodiazepine related sleeping medications prescribed in the Netherlands, with a total of 582,660 prescriptions dispensed in 2008. The patent in the United States on zolpidem was held by the French pharmaceutical corporation Sanofi-Aventis. On April 23, 2007 the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved 13 generic versions of zolpidem tartrate. Zolpidem is available from several generic manufacturers in the UK, as a generic from Sandoz in South Africa, TEVA in Israel, as well as from other manufacturers such as Ratiopharm (Germany).
Zosuquidar is a compound of antineoplastic drug candidates currently under development. It is now in "Phase 3" of clinical tests in the United States. Its action mechanism consists of the inhibition of P-glycoproteins; other drugs with this mechanism include tariquidar and laniquidar. P-glycoproteins are proteins which convert the energy derived from the hydrolysis of ATP to structural changes in protein molecules, in order to perform coupling, thus discharging medicine from cells. If P-glycoprotein coded with the MDR1 gene manifests itself in cancer cells, it discharges much of the antineoplastic drugs from the cells, making cancer cells medicine tolerant, and rendering antineoplastic drugs ineffective. This protein also manifests itself in normal organs not affected by the cancer (such as the liver, small intestine, and skin cells in blood vessels of the brain), and participates in the transportation of medicine. The compound Zosuquidar inhibits this P-glycoprotein, causing the cancer cells to lose their medicine tolerance, and making antineoplastic drugs effective.
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Published - April 2011
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