Oncology-related Terms Glossary Free glossaries at TanslationDirectory.com translation jobs
Home Free Glossaries Free Dictionaries Post Your Translation Job! Free Articles Jobs for Translators

Oncology-related Terms Glossary
(Starting with "E")

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_oncology-related_terms






Become a member of TranslationDirectory.com at just $8 per month (paid per year)




Advertisements:



Use the search bar to look for terms in all glossaries, dictionaries, articles and other resources simultaneously




0-9 | A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z

E7389

Eribulin is an anticancer drug marketed by Eisai Co. under the trade name Halaven. Eribulin mesylate was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration on November 15, 2010, to treat patients with metastatic breast cancer who have received at least two prior chemotherapy regimens for late-stage disease, including both anthracycline- and taxane-based chemotherapies.

EBV

The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), also called human herpesvirus 4 (HHV-4), is a virus of the herpes family, which includes herpes simplex virus 1 and 2, and is one of the most common viruses in humans. It is best known as the cause of infectious mononucleosis. It is also associated with particular forms of cancer, particularly Hodgkin's lymphoma, Burkitt's lymphoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, and central nervous system lymphomas associated with HIV. Finally, there is evidence that infection with the virus is associated with a higher risk of certain autoimmune diseases, especially dermatomyositis, systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, Sjögren's syndrome, and multiple sclerosis.

Ecchymosis

An ecchymosis (from the Ancient Greek ἐκχύμωσις from ἐκ, out + χέω, I pour) is the medical term for a subcutaneous purpura larger than 1 centimeter or a hematoma, commonly called a bruise. It can be located in the skin or in a mucous membrane.

Echocardiography

An echocardiogram, often referred to in the medical community as a cardiac ECHO or simply an ECHO, is a sonogram of the heart (it is not abbreviated as ECG, which in medicine usually refers to an electrocardiogram). Also known as a cardiac ultrasound, it uses standard ultrasound techniques to image two-dimensional slices of the heart. The latest ultrasound systems now employ 3D real-time imaging.

Ecteinascidin 743

Trabectedin (also known as ecteinascidin 743 or ET-743) is an anti-tumor drug. It is sold by Zeltia and Johnson and Johnson under the brand name Yondelis. It is approved for use in Europe, Russia and South Korea for the treatment of advanced soft tissue sarcoma. It is also undergoing clinical trials for the treatment of breast, prostate, and paediatric sarcomas. The European Commission and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) have granted orphan drug status to trabectedin for soft tissue sarcomas and ovarian cancer.

Edrecolomab

Edrecolomab (MAb17-1A, trade name Panorex) is a chimeric mouse/human monoclonal antibody to the cell-surface glycoprotein EpCAM (17-1A), which is expressed on epithelial tissues and on various carcinomas.

EF5

EF5 is a nitroimidazole used in oncology research. Due to its similarity in chemical structure to etanidazole, EF5 binds in cells displaying hypoxia.

Efaproxiral

Efaproxiral (INN) is an allosteric effector of hemoglobin. It increases the oxygen-carrying capacity of hemoglobin, and is normally used to increase the efficacy of certain chemotherapy drugs which have reduced efficacy against hypoxic (oxygen-poor) tumours, and can thus be made more effective by increasing oxygenation of the tumour tissues. However this increased oxygenation of tissues can also produced enhanced exercise capacity, which has led to efaproxiral being added to the World Anti-Doping Agency banned list for athletes in competition.

Efficacy

Efficacy is the capacity to produce an effect. It has different specific meanings in different fields.

Eflornithine

Eflornithine (α-difluoromethylornithine or DFMO) is a drug found to be effective in the treatment of facial hirsutism (excessive hair growth) as well as in African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness). Eflornithine hydrochloride cream, which is for topical administration in women suffering from facial hirsutism, is marketed under the brand name Vaniqa by Almirall in Europe, CSL in Australia, Triton in Canada, Medison in Israel and SkinMedica in the USA. Eflornithine for injection against sleeping sickness is manufactured by Sanofi Aventis and sold under the brand name Ornidyl in the USA. Both are prescription drugs.

EGFR

The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR; ErbB-1; HER1 in humans) is the cell-surface receptor for members of the epidermal growth factor family (EGF-family) of extracellular protein ligands. The epidermal growth factor receptor is a member of the ErbB family of receptors, a subfamily of four closely related receptor tyrosine kinases: EGFR (ErbB-1), HER2/c-neu (ErbB-2), Her 3 (ErbB-3) and Her 4 (ErbB-4). Mutations affecting EGFR expression or activity could result in cancer. Epidermal Growth Factor was discovered by Stanley Cohen of Vanderbilt University along with Rita Levi-Montalcini for which both received the Nobel prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1986.

Electroacupuncture

Electroacupuncture is a form of acupuncture in which pairs of acupuncture needles are attached to a device that generates continuous electric pulses between them. Another term is Percutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (PENS).

Electrodesiccation

Electrocauterization is the process of destroying tissue using heat conduction from a metal probe heated by electric current. The procedure is used to stop bleeding from small vessels (larger vessels being ligated) or for cutting through soft tissue. Unlike electrocautery, electrosurgery is based on generation of heat inside tissue, using electric current passing through the tissue itself, and when used to stop bleeding, is technically referred to as electrocoagulation. Electrosurgery techniques are used in the treatment of skin cancers via electrodessication and curettage.

Electrolarynx

A mechanical larynx, also referred to as a "throat back" or "cancer kazoo", is a medical device used to produce clearer speech by those who have lost their original voicebox, usually due to cancer of the larynx. The most common device is the electrolarynx which is handheld, battery operated and placed under the mandible producing vibration to allow speech. Along with developing esophageal voice or undergoing a surgical procedure, the mechanical larynx serves as a mode of speech recovery for postlaryngectomy patients.

Embolism

In medicine, an embolism (plural embolisms; from the Greek ἐμβολισμός "insertion") is the event of lodging of an embolus ("any detached, itinerant intravascular mass (solid, liquid, or gaseous) as carried by circulation and capable of clogging arterial capillary beds at a site distant from its point of origin") into a narrow capillary vessel of an arterial bed which causes a blockage (vascular occlusion) in a distant part of the body.

Embolization

Embolization is a non-surgical, minimally-invasive procedure performed by an interventional radiologist and interventional neuroradiologists. It involves the selective occlusion of blood vessels by purposely introducing emboli.

Embryoma

Embryonal tumor is a mass of rapidly growing cells. It is believed that it begins in embryonic (fetal) tissue. Embryonal tumors may be benign or malignant, and include neuroblastomas and Wilms tumors. Also called embryoma.

Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma/tumor

Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (ERMS) is a rare histological form of cancer of connective tissue wherein the mesenchymally-derived malignant cells resemble the primitive developing skeletal muscle of the embryo. It is the most common soft tissue sarcoma occurring in children.

Embryonic

An embryo (irregularly from Greek: ἔμβρυον, plural ἔμβρυα, lit. "that which grows," from en- "in" + bryein "to swell, be full"; the proper Latinate form would be embryum) is a multicellular diploid eukaryote in its earliest stage of development, from the time of first cell division until birth, hatching, or germination. In humans, it is called an embryo until about eight weeks after fertilization (i.e. ten weeks LMP), and from then it is instead called a fetus.

Emodin

Emodin (from Rheum emodi, a Himalayan rhubarb) is a purgative resin, 6-methyl-1,3,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone, from rhubarb, the buckthorn and Japanese Knotweed (Fallopia japonica). The term may also refer to any one of a series of principles isomeric with the emodin of rhubarb.

Enalapril

Enalapril (marketed as Renitec and Vasotec) [ENVAS in India; Farhaad] is an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor used in the treatment of hypertension and some types of chronic heart failure. ACE raises blood pressure by constricting blood vessels. ACE inhibitors like enalapril prevent this effect. Enalapril has been shown to lower the death rate in systolic heart failure. Enalapril was the first member of the group of ACE inhibitors known as the dicarboxylate-containing ACE inhibitors.

Encephalopathy

Encephalopathy means disorder or disease of the brain. In modern usage, encephalopathy does not refer to a single disease, but rather to a syndrome of global brain dysfunction; this syndrome can be caused by many different illnesses.

Enchondroma

An Enchondroma is a cartilage cyst found in the bone marrow. Typically, enchondroma is discovered on a X-ray scan. Enchondromas have a characteristic appearance on Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) as well. They have also been reported to cause increased uptake on PET examination.

Endocervical curettage

Endocervical curettage is a procedure in which the mucous membrane of the cervical canal is scraped using a spoon-shaped instrument called a curette.

Endocrine pancreas cell

The islets of Langerhans are the regions of the pancreas that contain its endocrine (i.e., hormone-producing) cells. Discovered in 1869 by German pathological anatomist Paul Langerhans at the age of 22, the islets of Langerhans constitute approximately 1 to 2% of the mass of the pancreas. There are about one million islets in a healthy adult human pancreas, which are distributed throughout the organ; their combined mass is 1 to 1.5 grams.

Endometrial

The endometrium is the inner membrane of the mammalian uterus.

Endometrial biopsy

The endometrial biopsy is a medical office procedure that is used to remove a sample of the lining of the uterus. The tissue subsequently undergoes a histologic evaluation which is supplied to the physician to aid in the diagnosis.

Endometrial hyperplasia

Endometrial hyperplasia is a condition of excessive proliferation of the cells of the endometrium, or inner lining of the uterus.

Endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia

Endometrial Intraepithelial Neoplasia, (EIN) is a premalignant lesion of the uterine lining that predisposes to endometrioid endometrial adenocarcinoma. It is composed of a collection of abnormal endometrial cells, arising from the glands that line the uterus, which have a tendency, over time to progress to the most common form of uterine cancer - endometrial adenocarcinoma, endometrioid type.

Endometriosis

Endometriosis (from endo, "inside", and metra, "womb") is a gynecological medical condition in which endometrial-like cells appear and flourish in areas outside the uterine cavity, most commonly on the ovaries. The uterine cavity is lined by endometrial cells, which are under the influence of female hormones. These endometrial-like cells in areas outside the uterus (endometriosis) are influenced by hormonal changes and respond in a way that is similar to the cells found inside the uterus. Symptoms often worsen with the menstrual cycle.

Endometrium

The endometrium is the inner membrane of the mammalian uterus.

Endoscope/Endoscopy

Endoscopy means looking inside and typically refers to looking inside the body for medical reasons using an endoscope, an instrument used to examine the interior of a hollow organ or cavity of the body. Unlike most other medical imaging devices, endoscopes are inserted directly into the organ. Endoscopy can also refer to using a borescope in technical situations where direct line of-sight observation is not feasible.

Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is a technique that combines the use of endoscopy and fluoroscopy to diagnose and treat certain problems of the biliary or pancreatic ductal systems. Through the endoscope, the physician can see the inside of the stomach and duodenum, and inject dyes into the ducts in the biliary tree and pancreas so they can be seen on x-rays.

Endoscopic ultrasound

Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) or echo-endoscopy is a medical procedure in endoscopy (insertion of a probe into a hollow organ) is combined with ultrasound to obtain images of the internal organs in the chest and abdomen. It can be used to visualize the wall of these organs, or to look at adjacent structures. Combined with Doppler imaging, nearby blood vessels can also be evaluated.

Endostatin

Endostatin is a naturally-occurring 20-kDa C-terminal fragment derived from type XVIII collagen. It is reported to serve as an anti-angiogenic agent, similar to angiostatin and thrombospondin.

Endothelial cell

The endothelium is the thin layer of cells that lines the interior surface of blood vessels, forming an interface between circulating blood in the lumen and the rest of the vessel wall. These cells are called endothelial cells. Endothelial cells line the entire circulatory system, from the heart to the smallest capillary. These cells reduce turbulence of the flow of blood, allowing the fluid to be pumped farther.

Endothelin receptor antagonist

A endothelin receptor antagonist (ERA) is a drug that blocks endothelin receptors.

Enoxaparin

Enoxaparin is a low molecular weight heparin marketed as Lovenox or Clexane, as Indenox (India, Nucleus) and Xaparin (India, New Medicon Pharma). It is an anticoagulant used to prevent and treat deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism, and is given as a subcutaneous injection (by a health care provider or the patient). Its use is evolving in acute coronary syndromes (ACS).

ENT

Otolaryngology or ENT (ear, nose, and throat) is the branch of medicine and surgery that specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of ear, nose, throat, and head and neck disorders. The full name of the specialty is otolaryngology–head and neck surgery. Practitioners are called otolaryngologists–head and neck surgeons, or sometimes otorhinolaryngologists (ORL).

Enterostomal therapist

An enterostomal therapist is a health professional trained in the care of persons with stomas, such as colostomies or urostomies.

Enucleation

In the context of microbiology, enucleation refers to removing the nuclear body of a cell.

Enveloped virus

Many viruses (e.g. influenza and many animal viruses) have viral envelopes covering their protein capsids. The envelopes typically are derived from portions of the host cell membranes (phospholipids and proteins), but include some viral glycoproteins. Functionally, viral envelopes are used to help viruses enter host cells. Glycoproteins on the surface of the envelope serve to identify and bind to receptor sites on the host's membrane. The viral envelope then fuses with the host's membrane, allowing the capsid and viral genome to enter and infect the host.

Eosinophil

Eosinophil granulocytes, usually called eosinophils or eosinophiles (or, less commonly, acidophils), are white blood cells that are one of the immune system components responsible for combating multicellular parasites and certain infections in vertebrates. Along with mast cells, they also control mechanisms associated with allergy and asthma. They are granulocytes that develop during haematopoiesis in the bone marrow before migrating into blood.

Eosinophilia

Eosinophilia is a condition in which the eosinophil count in the peripheral blood exceeds 0.45X109/L (450/μl). A marked increase in non-blood tissue eosinophil count noticed upon histopathologic examination is diagnostic for tissue eosinophilia. Several causes are known, with the most common being some form of allergic reaction or parasitosis. Diagnosis of eosinophilia is via a complete blood count, but diagnostic procedures directed at the underlying cause vary depending on the suspected condition(s). An absolute eosinophil count is not generally needed if CBC shows marked eosinophilia. The location of the causal factor can be used to classify eosinophilia into two general types: extrinsic, in which the factor lies outside of the eosinophil cell lineage; and intrinsic eosinophilia, which denotes etiologies within the eosiniphil cell line. Specific treatments are dictated by the causative condition, though in idiopathic eosinophilia, the disease may be controlled with corticosteroids. With the exception of the idiopathic form, eosinophilia is a sign of a disorder, and not a disorder in and of itself.

Ependymal tumor

An ependymal tumor is a type of brain tumor that begins in cells lining the spinal cord central canal (fluid-filled space down the center) or the ventricles (fluid-filled spaces of the brain). Ependymal tumors may also form in the choroid plexus (tissue in the ventricles that makes cerebrospinal fluid). Also called ependymoma.

Ependymoma

Ependymoma is a tumor that arises from the ependyma, a tissue of the central nervous system. Usually, in children the location is intracranial, while in adults it is spinal. The common location of intracranial ependymoma is the fourth ventricle. Rarely, ependymoma can occur in the pelvic cavity.

Epidemiology

Epidemiology is the study of patterns of health and illness and associated factors at the population level. It is the cornerstone method of public health research, and helps inform evidence-based medicine for identifying risk factors for disease and determining optimal treatment approaches to clinical practice and for preventive medicine. In the study of communicable and non-communicable diseases, epidemiologists are involved in outbreak investigation to study design, data collection, statistical analysis, documentation of results and submission for publication. Epidemiologists rely on a number of other scientific disciplines such as biology (to better understand disease processes), biostatistics (the current raw information available) and social science disciplines (to better understand proximate and distal risk factors).

Epidermoid carcinoma

Squamous-cell carcinoma (SCC) is a carcinomatous cancer occurring in multiple organs. These include the skin, lips, mouth, esophagus, urinary bladder, prostate, lungs, vagina, and cervix. It is a malignant tumor of squamous epithelium (epithelium that shows squamous-cell differentiation). Despite the common name, these are unique cancers with large differences in manifestation and prognosis.

Epigastric

The epigastrium (or epigastric region) is the upper central region of the abdomen. It is located between the costal margins and the subcostal plane.

Epiglottis

The epiglottis is a flap of elastic cartilage tissue covered with a mucous membrane, attached to the entrance of the larynx. It projects obliquely upwards behind the tongue and the hyoid bone, pointing dorsally. The term, like tonsils, is often incorrectly used to refer to the uvula. There are taste buds on the epiglottis.

Epinephrine

Epinephrine (also known as adrenaline) is a hormone and a neurotransmitter. It increases heart rate, constricts blood vessels, dilates air passages and participates in the fight-or-flight response of the sympathetic nervous system. Chemically, epinephrine is a catecholamine, a monoamine produced only by the adrenal glands from the amino acids phenylalanine and tyrosine.

Epipodophyllotoxin

Epipodophyllotoxins are alkaloids naturally occurring in the root of American Mayapple plant (Podophyllum peltatum).

Epirubicin/Epithelium

Epirubicin is an anthracycline drug used for chemotherapy. It is marketed by Pfizer under the trade name Ellence in the US and Pharmorubicin or Epirubicin Ebewe elsewhere.

Epithelial

Epithelium is one of the twenty basic types of animal tissue, along with connective tissue, muscle tissue and nervous tissue. Epithelial tissues line the cavities and surfaces of structures throughout the body, and also form many glands. Functions of epithelial cells include secretion, selective absorption, protection, transcellular transport and detection of sensation. In Greek "Epi" means, "on, upon," and "Theli" meaning, "nipple," or in general "tissue."

Epitope

An epitope, also known as antigenic determinant, is the part of an antigen that is recognized by the immune system, specifically by antibodies, B cells, or T cells. The part of an antibody that recognizes the epitope is called a paratope. Although epitopes are usually thought to be derived from non-self proteins, sequences derived from the host that can be recognized are also classified as epitopes.

Epoetin alfa

Epoetin alfa (rINN) is human erythropoietin produced in cell culture using recombinant DNA technology. It stimulates erythropoiesis (increases red blood cell levels) and is used to treat anemia, commonly associated with chronic renal failure and cancer chemotherapy. Epoetin is marketed under the trade names Procrit and Epogen.

Epoetin beta

Epoetin beta (rINN) is a synthetic, recombinant form of erythropoietin. It stimulates erythropoiesis (increases red blood cell levels) and is used to treat anemia, commonly associated with chronic renal failure and cancer chemotherapy.

Epothilone

The epothilones are a new class of cancer drugs. Like taxanes, they prevent cancer cells from dividing by interfering with tubulin, but in early trials epithilones have better efficacy and milder adverse effects than taxanes.

Epothilone B

The epothilones are a new class of cancer drugs. Like taxanes, they prevent cancer cells from dividing by interfering with tubulin, but in early trials epithilones have better efficacy and milder adverse effects than taxanes.

Epratuzumab

Epratuzumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody. Potential uses may be found in oncology and in treatment of inflammatory autoimmune disorders, such as lupus (SLE). The manufacturers in August 2009 announced success in early trials against SLE.

ER/ER+/ER-

Estrogen receptor refers to a group of receptors that are activated by the hormone 17β-estradiol (estrogen). Two types of estrogen receptor exist: ER, which is a member of the nuclear hormone family of intracellular receptors, and the estrogen G protein-coupled receptor GPR30 (GPER), which is a G protein-coupled receptor. This article refers to the nuclear hormone receptor ER.

Erlotinib

Erlotinib hydrochloride (trade name Tarceva) is a drug used to treat non-small cell lung cancer, pancreatic cancer and several other types of cancer. It is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, which acts on the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). It is marketed in the United States by Genentech and OSI Pharmaceuticals and elsewhere by Roche.

Erythema

Erythema (from the Greek erythros, meaning red) is redness of the skin, caused by hyperemia of the capillaries in the lower layers of the skin. It occurs with any skin injury, infection, or inflammation. Examples of erythema not associated with pathology include nervous blushes.

Erythrocyte

Red blood cells (also referred to as erythrocytes) are the most common type of blood cell and the vertebrate organism's principal means of delivering oxygen (O2) to the body tissues via the blood flow through the circulatory system. They take up oxygen in the lungs or gills and release it while squeezing through the body's capillaries.

Erythrocyte sedimentation rate

The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), also called a sedimentation rate or Biernacki Reaction, is the rate at which red blood cells sediment in a period of 1 hour. It is a common hematology test that is a non-specific measure of inflammation. To perform the test, anticoagulated blood is placed in an upright tube, known as a Westergren tube, and the rate at which the red blood cells fall is measured and reported in mm/h.

Erythrodysplasia

Erythroid dysplasia is a condition in which immature red blood cells (erythroid cells) in the bone marrow are abnormal in size, shape, organization, and/or number. Erythroid dysplasia may be caused by vitamin deficiency or chemotherapy, or it may be a sign of refractory anemia, which is a myelodysplastic syndrome. Also called erythrodysplasia.

Erythroleukemia

Acute erythroid leukemia (or "acute Di Guglielmo syndrome") is a rare form of acute myeloid leukemia where the myeloproliferation is of erythroblastic precursors.

Erythroplakia

Erythroplakia (also known as "Erythroplasia") is a flat red patch or lesion in the mouth that cannot be attributed to any other pathology.:805

Erythropoietin

Erythropoietin, or its alternatives erythropoetin or erithropoyetin is a glycoprotein hormone that controls erythropoiesis, or red blood cell production. It is a cytokine for erythrocyte (red blood cell) precursors in the bone marrow.

Esophagectomy

Esophagectomy or Oesophagectomy (regional variation in spelling) is the surgical removal of all or part of the esophagus (also spelled 'oesophagus').

Esophagitis

Esophagitis (or oesophagitis) is inflammation of the esophagus. It may be acute or chronic. The acute esophagitis can be catarrhal or phlegmonous, whereas the chronic esophagitis may be hypertrophic or atrophic.

Esophagoscopy

In medicine (gastroenterology), esophagogastroduodenoscopy is a diagnostic endoscopic procedure that visualizes the upper part of the gastrointestinal tract up to the duodenum. It is considered a minimally invasive procedure since it does not require an incision into one of the major body cavities and does not require any significant recovery after the procedure (unless sedation or anesthesia has been used). A sore throat is also common.

Esophagram

An esophagram is a series of x-rays of the esophagus. The x-ray pictures are taken after the person drinks a solution that contains barium. The barium coats and outlines the esophagus on the x-ray. Also called barium swallow and upper GI series.

Esophagus/Esophageal

The esophagus (or oesophagus; see spelling differences), sometimes known as the gullet, is an organ in vertebrates which consists of a muscular tube through which food passes from the pharynx to the stomach. During swallowing food passes from the mouth through the pharynx into the esophagus and travels via peristalsis to the stomach. The word esophagus is derived from the Latin œsophagus, which derives from the Greek word oisophagos , lit. "entrance for eating." In humans the esophagus is continuous with the laryngeal part of the pharynx at the level of the C6 vertebra. The esophagus passes through posterior mediastinum in thorax and enters abdomen through a hole in the diaphragm at the level of the tenth thoracic vertebrae (T10). It is usually about 25–30 cm long and connects the mouth to the stomach. It is divided into cervical, thoracic and abdominal parts. Due to the inferior pharyngeal constrictor muscle, the entry to the esophagus opens only when swallowing or vomiting.

Essential thrombocythemia/thrombocytosis

Essential thrombocythemia (ET, also known as essential thrombocytosis) is a rare chronic blood disorder characterized by the overproduction of platelets by megakaryocytes in the bone marrow in the absence of an alternative cause. In some cases this disorder may be progressive, and rarely may evolve into acute myeloid leukemia or myelofibrosis. It is one of four myeloproliferative disorders.

Estradiol

Estradiol (E2 or 17β-estradiol, also oestradiol) is a sex hormone. Estradiol is the predominant sex hormone present in females. It is also present in males, being produced as an active metabolic product of testosterone. It represents the major estrogen in humans. Estradiol has not only a critical impact on reproductive and sexual functioning, but also affects other organs including the bones.

Estramustine

Estramustine (Emcyt, Estracit) is a chemotherapy agent used to treat prostate cancer. It is a derivative of estrogen (specifically, estradiol) with a nitrogen mustard-carbamate ester moiety that makes it a alkylating antineoplastic agent similar to mechlorethamine, with estrogen-induced specificity.

Estrogen

Estrogens (AmE), oestrogens (BE), or œstrogens, are a group of compounds named for their importance in the estrous cycle of humans and other animals, and functioning as the primary female sex hormones. Natural estrogens are steroid hormones, while some synthetic ones are non-steroidal. Their name comes from the Greek words estrus/οίστρος = sexual desire + gen/γόνο = to generate.

Estrogen receptor test

An estrogen receptor test is a laboratory test to find out if cancer cells have estrogen receptors (proteins to which estrogen will bind). If the cells have estrogen receptors, they may need estrogen to grow, and this may affect how the cancer is treated.

Estrogen replacement therapy

Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is a system of medical treatment for surgically menopausal, perimenopausal and to a lesser extent postmenopausal women. It is based on the idea that the treatment may prevent discomfort caused by diminished circulating estrogen and progesterone hormones. It involves the use of one or more of a group of medications designed to artificially boost hormone levels. The main types of hormones involved are estrogens, progesterone or progestins, and sometimes testosterone. It often referred to as "treatment" rather than therapy.

Etanercept

Etanercept (trade name Enbrel) is a drug that treats autoimmune diseases by interfering with the tumor necrosis factor (TNF, a part of the immune system) by acting as a TNF inhibitor.

Etanidazole

Etanidazole is a nitroimidazole drug used for its radiosensitizing properties. Administration of etanidazole results in a decrease of glutathione concentration and inhibits glutathione S-transferase. The result is that tissues become more sensitive to the ionizing radiation used in cancer treatment.

Etidronate

Etidronic acid (INN) or 1-hydroxyethane 1,1-diphosphonic acid (HEDP) is a bisphosphonate used in detergents, water treatment, cosmetics and pharmaceutical treatment.

Etiology

Etiology is the study of causation, or origination. The word is derived from the Greek αἰτιολογία, aitiologia, "giving a reason for" (αἰτία, aitia, "cause"; and -λογία, -logia).

Etoposide

Etoposide phosphate (brand names: Eposin, Etopophos, Vepesid, VP-16) is an anti-cancer agent. It inhibits the enzyme topoisomerase II, which unwinds DNA, and by doing so causes DNA strands to break. Cancer cells are less able to repair this damage than healthy cells. It is used as a form of chemotherapy for cancers such as Ewing's sarcoma, lung cancer, testicular cancer, lymphoma, non-lymphocytic leukemia, and glioblastoma multiforme. It is often given in combination with other drugs. It is also sometimes used in a conditioning regimen prior to a bone marrow or blood stem cell transplant.

Etoposide phosphate

Etoposide phosphate (brand names: Eposin, Etopophos, Vepesid, VP-16) is an anti-cancer agent. It inhibits the enzyme topoisomerase II, which unwinds DNA, and by doing so causes DNA strands to break. Cancer cells are less able to repair this damage than healthy cells. It is used as a form of chemotherapy for cancers such as Ewing's sarcoma, lung cancer, testicular cancer, lymphoma, non-lymphocytic leukemia, and glioblastoma multiforme. It is often given in combination with other drugs. It is also sometimes used in a conditioning regimen prior to a bone marrow or blood stem cell transplant.

Everolimus

Everolimus (RAD-001), marketed by Novartis under the tradenames Zortress (USA) and Certican (Europe and other countries) in transplantation medicine, and Afinitor in oncology, is the 40-O-(2-hydroxyethyl) derivative of sirolimus and works similarly to sirolimus as an mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) inhibitor. It is currently used as an immunosuppressant to prevent rejection of organ transplants. Much research has also been conducted on everolimus and other mTOR inhibitors for use in a number of cancers.

Ewing's sarcoma

Ewing sarcoma is a malignant round-cell tumour. It is a rare disease in which cancer cells are found in the bone or in soft tissue. The most common areas in which it occurs are the pelvis, the femur, the humerus, the ribs and clavicle.

Excision

Surgery (from the Greek: χειρουργική cheirourgikē, via Latin: chirurgiae, meaning "hand work") is an ancient medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental techniques on a patient to investigate and/or treat a pathological condition such as disease or injury, to help improve bodily function or appearance, and sometimes for religious reasons. An act of performing surgery may be called a surgical procedure, operation, or simply surgery. In this context, the verb operate means performing surgery. The adjective surgical means pertaining to surgery; e.g. surgical instruments or surgical nurse. The patient or subject on which the surgery is performed can be a person or an animal. A surgeon is a person who performs operations on patients. In rare cases, surgeons may operate on themselves. Persons described as surgeons are commonly physicians, but the term is also applied to podiatric physicians, dentists (or known as oral and maxillofacial surgeon) and veterinarians. Surgery can last from minutes to hours, but is typically not an ongoing or periodic type of treatment.

Excisional biopsy

A biopsy is a medical test involving the removal of cells or tissues for examination. It is the medical removal of tissue from a living subject to determine the presence or extent of a disease. The tissue is generally examined under a microscope by a pathologist, and can also be analyzed chemically. When an entire lump or suspicious area is removed, the procedure is called an excisional biopsy. When only a sample of tissue is removed with preservation of the histological architecture of the tissue's cells, the procedure is called an incisional biopsy or core biopsy. When a sample of tissue or fluid is removed with a needle in such a way that cells are removed without preserving the histological architecture of the tissue cells, the procedure is called a needle aspiration biopsy.

Exemestane

Exemestane (trade name Aromasin) is an oral steroidal aromatase inhibitor used in the adjuvant treatment of hormonally-responsive (also called hormone-receptor-positive, estrogen-responsive) breast cancer in postmenopausal women. An aim in the treatment of hormone-receptor-positive patients in preventing recurrence is to lower estrogen levels that this breast cancer thrives on.

Exisulind

Exisulind is a drug used to treat cancer. It acts by inhibiting the enzyme cyclic guanosine monophosphate phosphodiesterase. Trademark by OSI Pharmaceuticals is Aptosyn.

Exocrine pancreas cell

An exocrine pancreas cell is a pancreatic cell that produces enzymes that are secreted into the small intestine. These enzymes help digest food as it passes through the gastrointestinal tract.

Expanded access trial

Expanded access refers to the use of an investigational drug outside of a clinical trial by patients with serious or life-threatening conditions who do not meet the enrollment criteria for the clinical trial in progress. This type of access may be available, in accordance with United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations, when it is clear that patients may benefit from the treatment, the therapy can be given safely outside the clinical trial setting, no other alternative therapy is available, and the drug developer agrees to provide access to the drug. The FDA refers to such a program as an expanded access program (EAP). EAPs can be leveraged in a wide range of therapeutic areas including HIV/AIDS and other infectious diseases, cancer, rare diseases, and cardiovascular diseases, to name a few.

0-9 | A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z








See all medical glossaries:





Published - April 2011







Find free glossaries at TranslationDirectory.com

Find free dictionaries at TranslationDirectory.com

Subscribe to free TranslationDirectory.com newsletter

Need more translation jobs from translation agencies? Click here!

Translation agencies are welcome to register here - Free!

Freelance translators are welcome to register here - Free!

Submit your glossary or dictionary for publishing at TranslationDirectory.com





Free Newsletter

Subscribe to our free newsletter to receive news from us:

 
Menu
Use More Glossaries
Use Free Dictionaries
Use Free Translators
Submit Your Glossary
Read Translation Articles
Register Translation Agency
Submit Your Resume
Obtain Translation Jobs
Subscribe to Free Newsletter
Buy Database of Translators
Obtain Blacklisted Agencies
Vote in Polls for Translators
Read News for Translators
Advertise Here
Read our FAQ
Read Testimonials
Use Site Map
Advertisements
translation directory

christianity portal
translation jobs


 

 
Copyright © 2003-2020 by TranslationDirectory.com
Legal Disclaimer
Site Map