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Oncology-related Terms Glossary
(Starting with "D")

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_oncology-related_terms






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Da-huang

Rheum palmatum, known as Turkey rhubarb, Chinese rhubarb, ornamental rhubarb, and East Indian rhubarb, is a plant in the family Polygonaceae. Closely related to the false rhubarb Rheum rhaponticum, it has a similar purgative effect upon the human body.

Turkey rhubarb is cited in the Yorkshire Federation of Women's Institutes cookbook Through Yorkshire's kitchen door as part of a cure for indigestion: full recipe half oz. turkey rhubarb, half oz ground ginger, half oz bicarb. of soda, one oz magnesia: mix well together, dose half teaspoonful in a little water before each meal.

Dacarbazine

Dacarbazine (da-KAR-ba-zeen) (brand names DTIC, DTIC-Dome; also known as DIC or Imidazole Carboxamide) is an antineoplastic chemotherapy drug used in the treatment of various cancers, among them malignant melanoma, Hodgkin lymphoma, sarcoma, and islet cell carcinoma of the pancreas.

Dacarbazine is a member of the class of alkylating agents, which destroy cancer cells by adding an alkyl group (CnH2n+1) to its DNA.

Dacarbazine is normally administered by injection (a shot) or intravenous infusion (IV) under the immediate supervision of a doctor or nurse.

Dacliximab/Daclizumab

Daclizumab (trade name Zenapax) is a therapeutic humanized monoclonal antibody to the alpha subunit of the IL-2 receptor of T cells. It is used to prevent rejection in organ transplantation, especially in kidney transplants. Daclizumab is currently in phase II clinical trials in the U.S.

Dactinomycin

The actinomycins are a class of polypeptide antibiotics isolated from soil bacteria of the genus Streptomyces, of which the most significant is actinomycin D. It was the first antibiotic isolated by Selman Waksman and his co-worker H. B. Woodruff in 1940.

Daidzein

Daidzein belongs to the group of isoflavones. Daidzein and other isoflavone compounds, such as genistein, are present in a number of plants and herbs like the Thai Kwao Krua or Pueraria mirifica, Kudzu or Pueraria lobata, and in food sources such as soybeans and soy products like tofu and textured vegetable protein. Soy isoflavones are a group of compounds found in and isolated from the soybean. Besides functioning as antioxidants, many isoflavones have been shown to interact with animal and human estrogen receptors, and are therefore known as phytoestrogens. Soy isoflavones also produce non-hormonal effects.

Dalteparin

Dalteparin is a low molecular weight heparin. It is marketed as Fragmin® by Pfizer Inc. Like other low molecular weight heparins, dalteparin is used for prophylaxis or treatment of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. The CLOT study, published in 2003, showed that in patients with malignancy and acute venous thromboembolism, dalteparin was more effective than coumadin in reducing the risk of recurrent embolic events. Dalteparin is not superior to unfractionated heparin in preventing blood clots.

Danazol

Danazol is a derivative of the synthetic steroid ethisterone, a modified testosterone. Also known as 17alpha-ethinyl testosterone. Before becoming available as a generic drug, Danazol was marketed as Danocrine in the United States. It was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as the first drug to specifically treat endometriosis in the early 1970s. Although effective for endometriosis, its use is limited by its masculinizing side-effects. Its role as a treatment for endometriosis has been largely replaced by the GnRH agonists.

Darbepoetin alfa

Darbepoetin alfa (rINN) is a synthetic form of erythropoietin. It stimulates erythropoiesis (increases red blood cell levels) and is used to treat anemia, commonly associated with chronic renal failure and cancer chemotherapy. Darbepoetin is marketed by Amgen under the trade name Aranesp. The drug was approved in September 2001 by the Food and Drug Administration for treatment of anemia in patients with chronic renal failure by intravenous or subcutaneous injection. In June 2001, it had been approved by the European Medicines Agency for this indication as well as the treatment of anemia in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy.

Darkfield microscope

Dark field microscopy (dark ground microscopy) describes microscopy methods, in both light and electron microscopy, which exclude the unscattered beam from the image. As a result, the field around the specimen (i.e. where there is no specimen to scatter the beam) is generally dark.

Daunorubicin

Daunorubicin or daunomycin (daunomycin cerubidine) is chemotherapeutic of the anthracycline family that is given as a treatment for some types of cancer. It is most commonly used to treat specific types of leukaemia (acute myeloid leukemia and acute lymphocytic leukemia). It was initially isolated from Streptomyces peucetius.

DCIS

Ductal carcinoma In Situ, DCIS (also known as intraductal carcinoma) is the most common type of noninvasive breast cancer or pre-cancer in women. Ductal carcinoma refers to the development of cancer cells within the milk ducts of the breast. In situ means "in place" and refers to the fact that the cancer has not moved out of the duct and into any surrounding tissue.

De novo

In molecular biology and genetics, mutations are changes in a genomic sequence: the DNA sequence of a cell's genome or the DNA or RNA sequence of a virus. They can be defined as sudden and spontaneous changes in the cell. Mutations are caused by radiation, viruses, transposons and mutagenic chemicals, as well as errors that occur during meiosis or DNA replication. They can also be induced by the organism itself, by cellular processes such as hypermutation.

Death cap

Amanita phalloides, commonly known as the death cap, is a deadly poisonous basidiomycete fungus, one of many in the genus Amanita. Widely distributed across Europe, A. phalloides forms ectomycorrhizas with various broadleaved trees. In some cases, death cap has been accidentally introduced to new regions with the cultivation of non-native species of oak, chestnut, and pine. The large fruiting bodies (mushrooms) appear in summer and autumn; the caps are generally greenish in color, with a white stipe and gills.

Debulking operation

Debulking is the surgical removal of part of a malignant tumour which cannot be completely excised, so as to enhance the effectiveness of radiation or chemotherapy. It is used only in specific malignancies, as generally partial removal of a tumor is not considered a worthwhile intervention. Ovarian carcinoma and some types of brain tumor are debulked prior to commencing radio- or chemotherapy. It may also be used in the case of slow growth tumors to shift tumor cells from phase of cell cycle to replicative pool.

Decitabine

Decitabine (trade name Dacogen), or 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, is a cytosine nucleoside (cytidine) analog.

Decortication

Decortication is a medical procedure involving the surgical removal of the surface layer, membrane, or fibrous cover of an organ. The procedure is usually performed when the lung is covered by a thick, inelastic pleural peel restricting lung expansion. In a non-medical aspect, decortication is the removal of the bark, husk, or outer layer, or peel of an object. It may also be done in the treatment of chronic laryngitis.

Deferoxamine

Deferoxamine (also known as desferrioxamine B, desferoxamine B, DFO-B, DFOA, DFB or desferal) is a bacterial siderophore produced by the actinobacteria Streptomyces pilosus. It has medical applications as a chelating agent used to remove excess iron from the body. The mesylate salt of DFO-B is commercially available.

Defibrotide

Defibrotide is a deoxyribonucleic acid derivative (single stranded) derived from cow lung or porcine mucosa. It is an anticoagulant with a multiple mode of action (see below). It has been used with antithrombin III.

Degenerative disease

A degenerative disease, also called neurodegenerative disease, is a disease in which the function or structure of the affected tissues or organs will progressively deteriorate over time, whether due to normal bodily wear or lifestyle choices such as exercise or eating habits. Degenerative diseases are often contrasted with infectious diseases.

Dehydroepiandrosterone

5-Dehydroepiandrosterone (5-DHEA) is a 19-carbon endogenous natural steroid hormone. It is the major secretory steroidal product of the adrenal glands and is also produced by the gonads and the brain. DHEA is the most abundant circulating steroid in humans.

Delayed-type hypersensitivity response

Type IV hypersensitivity is often called delayed type hypersensitivity as the reaction takes two to three days to develop. Unlike the other types, it is not antibody mediated but rather is a type of cell-mediated response.

Dendritic cell

Dendritic cells (DCs) are immune cells forming part of the mammalian immune system. Their main function is to process antigen material and present it on the surface to other cells of the immune system. That is, they function as antigen-presenting cells. They act as messengers between the innate and adaptive immunity.

Denileukin diftitox

Denileukin diftitox (trade name Ontak) is an antineoplastic agent, an engineered protein combining Interleukin-2 and Diphtheria toxin. This can bind to Interleukin-2 receptors and introduce the diphtheria toxin into cells that express those receptors, killing the cells. In some Leukemias and Lymphomas malignant cells express these receptors, so denileukin diftitox can target these.

Dental implant

A dental implant is a titanium "root" used in dentistry to support restorations that resemble a tooth or group of teeth to replace missing teeth. Virtually all dental implants placed today are root-form endosseous implants, i.e., they appear similar to an actual tooth root (and thus possess a "root-form") and are placed within the bone (end- being the Greek prefix for "in" and osseous referring to "bone"). The bone of the jaw accepts and osseointegrates with the titanium post. The osseointegration is the component of this implant procedure that makes it resemble the look and feel of a natural tooth.

Deoxycytidine

Deoxycytidine is a deoxyribonucleoside. It is like cytidine, but with one oxygen atom removed.

Deoxyribonucleic acid

Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms (with the exception of RNA viruses). The main role of DNA molecules is the long-term storage of information. DNA is often compared to a set of blueprints, like a recipe or a code, since it contains the instructions needed to construct other components of cells, such as proteins and RNA molecules. The DNA segments that carry this genetic information are called genes, but other DNA sequences have structural purposes, or are involved in regulating the use of this genetic information.

Depsipeptide

A depsipeptide is a peptide in which one or more of the amide (-CONHR-) bonds are replaced by ester (COOR) bonds. Depsipeptides have often been used in research to probe the importance of hydrogen bond networks in protein folding kinetics and thermodynamics. They are also found in nature as natural products. An infamous example is the L-Lys-D-Ala-D-Lac motif found in vancomycin resistant bacteria's cell wall building blocks. The amide to ester mutation disrupts its hydrogen bonding network with vancomycin, which is key to the antibiotic's activity.

Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans

Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) is a very rare tumor. It is a rare neoplasm of the dermis layer of the skin, and is classified as a sarcoma. There is only about 1 case per million per year. DFSP is a fibrosarcoma, more precisely a cutaneous soft tissue sarcoma. In many respects, the disease behaves as a benign tumor, but in 2-5% of cases it can metastasize, so it should be considered to have malignant potential. It occurs most often in adults in their thirties; it has been described congenitally, in children, and the elderly. It accounts for approximately 2-6% of soft tissue sarcoma cancers.

Dermatologist

Dermatology is the branch of medicine dealing with the skin and its diseases, a unique specialty with both medical and surgical aspects. A dermatologist takes care of diseases, in the widest sense, and some cosmetic problems of the skin, scalp, hair, and nails.

Dermis

The dermis is a layer of skin between the epidermis (with which it makes up the cutis) and subcutaneous tissues, and is composed of two layers, the papillary and reticular dermis. Structural components of the dermis are collagen, elastic fibers, and extrafibrillar matrix (previously called ground substance).

DES

Diethylstilbestrol (DES, spelled diethylstilboestrol in British English) is a synthetic nonsteroidal estrogen that was first synthesized in 1938. Human exposure to DES occurred through diverse sources, such as dietary ingestion from supplemented cattle feed and medical treatment for certain conditions, including breast and prostate cancers. From about 1940 to 1970, DES was given to pregnant women under the mistaken belief it would reduce the risk of pregnancy complications and losses. In 1971, DES was shown to cause a rare vaginal tumor in girls and young women who had been exposed to this drug in utero. The United States Food and Drug Administration subsequently withdrew DES from use in pregnant women.

Deslorelin

Deslorelin acetate is an injectable gonadotropin releasing hormone super-agonist (GnRH agonist) also known as an LHRH agonist. It stops the production of sex hormones (testosterone and oestrogen). Deslorelin Acetate is marketed by Peptech with the brand name Ovuplant. It is currently approved for use in veterinary medicine and is used to induce ovulation in mares as part of the artificial insemination process. It is also used to stabilize high-risk pregnancies, mainly of livestock. Unlike other GnRH agonists, which are mainly used to inhibit luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone by their ultimate downregulation of the pituitary gland, Deslorelin is primarily used for the initial flare effect upon the pituitary, and its associated surge of LH secretion.

Desmoid tumor

Aggressive fibromatosis is a rare condition marked by the presence of desmoid tumors, which are benign, slow-growing tumors without any metastatic potential. However, Aggressive Fibromatosis is locally aggressive. Despite their benign nature, they can damage nearby structures causing organ dysfunction. Most cases are sporadic, but some are associated with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). Approximately 10% of individuals with Gardner's syndrome, a type of FAP with extracolonic features, have desmoid tumors.

Desmoplastic

In medicine, a desmoplastic fibroma is a benign fibrous tumour of bone, affecting children and young adults, potentially resulting in cortical bone destruction.

Desmoplastic melanoma

Desmoplastic melanoma (also known as a "Neurotropic melanoma," or "Spindled melanoma") is a cutaneous condition characterized by a deeply infiltrating type of melanoma.

Desmoplastic small round cell tumor

Desmoplastic small-round-cell tumor is classified as a soft tissue sarcoma. It is an aggressive and rare tumor that primarily occurs as masses in the abdomen. Other areas affected may include the lymph nodes, the lining of the abdomen, diaphragm, spleen, liver, chest wall, skull, spinal cord, large intestine, small intestine, bladder, brain, lungs, testicles, ovaries, and the pelvis. Reported sites of metatastic spread include the liver, lungs, lymph nodes, brain, skull, and bones.

Dexamethasone

Dexamethasone is a potent synthetic member of the glucocorticoid class of steroid drugs. It acts as an anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressant. It is 20 to 30 times more potent than the naturally occurring hormone cortisol and 4 to 5 times more potent than prednisone.

Dexmethylphenidate

Dexmethylphenidate, otherwise known as d-threo-methylphenidate (D-TMP), is the dextrorotatory enantiomer of methylphenidate. It is a norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor (NDRI) and releasing agent and thus a psychostimulant, which affects the CNS. Dexmethylphenidate is sold as Focalin by Novartis and as a generic drug by Teva.

Dexrazoxane

Dexrazoxane hydrochloride (Zinecard by Pfizer in USA and Canada; Cardioxane by Novartis for EU and other countries) is a cardioprotective agent.

DFMO

Eflornithine (α-difluoromethylornithine or DFMO) is a drug found to be effective in the treatment of facial hirsutism (excessive hair growth) as well as in African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness). Eflornithine hydrochloride cream, which is for topical administration in women suffering from facial hirsutism, is marketed under the brand name Vaniqa by Almirall in Europe, CSL in Australia, Triton in Canada, Medison in Israel and SkinMedica in the USA. Eflornithine for injection against sleeping sickness is manufactured by Sanofi Aventis and sold under the brand name Ornidyl in the USA. Both are prescription drugs.

DHA-paclitaxel

DHA-paclitaxel (or Taxoprexin) is an investigational drug (from Protarga Inc) made by linking paclitaxel to docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a fatty acid that is easily taken up by tumor cells; the DHA-paclitaxel "appears not to be cytotoxic until the bond with DHA is cleaved within the cell." The advantage of DHA-paclitaxel over paclitaxel is DHA-paclitaxel's ability to carry much higher concentrations of paclitaxel to the cells, which are maintained for longer periods in the tumor cells, thus increasing their action. With increased activity, DHA-paclitaxel, also known as Taxoprexin may have a more successful response in cancer patients than Taxol, and it may be able to treat more types of cancer than Taxol has been able to treat.

DHEA

5-Dehydroepiandrosterone (5-DHEA) is a 19-carbon endogenous natural steroid hormone. It is the major secretory steroidal product of the adrenal glands and is also produced by the gonads and the brain. DHEA is the most abundant circulating steroid in humans.

Diagnosis

Medical diagnosis refers to the process of attempting to determine and/or identify a possible disease or disorder and the opinion reached by this process.

The term diagnostic criteria designates the combination of signs, symptoms, and test results that the clinician uses to attempt to determine the correct diagnosis. The plural of diagnosis is diagnoses, the verb is to diagnose, and a person who diagnoses is called a diagnostician. The word diagnosis is derived through Latin from the Greek word διάγιγνῶσκειν, meaning to discern or distinguish. This Greek word is formed from διά, meaning apart, and γιγνῶσκειν, meaning to learn.

Diagnostic procedures

Diagnosis (from ancient Greek διάγνωσις = discernment) is the identification of the nature and cause of anything. Diagnosis is used in many different disciplines with variations in the use of logics, analytics, and experience to determine the cause and effect relationships. In systems engineering and computer science, diagnosis is typically used to determine the causes of symptoms, mitigations for problems, and solutions to issues.

Diathermy

Dielectric heating (also known as electronic heating, RF heating, high-frequency heating) is the process in which radiowave or microwave electromagnetic radiation heats a dielectric material. This heating is caused by dipole rotation.

Didanosine

Didanosine (2',3'-dideoxyinosine, ddI, DDI) is sold under the trade names Videx and Videx EC. It is a reverse transcriptase inhibitor, effective against HIV and used in combination with other antiretroviral drug therapy as part of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).

DIEP flap

A DIEP flap is a type of breast reconstruction in which blood vessels called deep inferior epigastric perforators (DIEP), and the skin and fat connected to them are removed from the lower abdomen and transferred to the chest to reconstruct a breast after mastectomy without the sacrifice of any of the abdominal muscles. The DIEP flap is similar to the muscle-sparing free TRAM flap but only requires the removal of skin and fat. Unlike with the TRAM procedure no muscle is sacrificed. The blood vessels, or perforators, required to keep the tissue alive lay just beneath or within the abdominal muscle. Therefore, a small incision is made in the abdominal muscle in order to access the vessels.

Differentiation

In developmental biology, cellular differentiation is the process by which a less specialized cell becomes a more specialized cell type. Differentiation occurs numerous times during the development of a multicellular organism as the organism changes from a simple zygote to a complex system of tissues and cell types. Differentiation is a common process in adults as well: adult stem cells divide and create fully-differentiated daughter cells during tissue repair and during normal cell turnover. Differentiation dramatically changes a cell's size, shape, membrane potential, metabolic activity, and responsiveness to signals. These changes are largely due to highly-controlled modifications in gene expression. With a few exceptions, cellular differentiation almost never involves a change in the DNA sequence itself. Thus, different cells can have very different physical characteristics despite having the same genome.

Difluoromethylornithine

Eflornithine (α-difluoromethylornithine or DFMO) is a drug found to be effective in the treatment of facial hirsutism (excessive hair growth) as well as in African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness). Eflornithine hydrochloride cream, which is for topical administration in women suffering from facial hirsutism, is marketed under the brand name Vaniqa by Almirall in Europe, CSL in Australia, Triton in Canada, Medison in Israel and SkinMedica in the USA. Eflornithine for injection against sleeping sickness is manufactured by Sanofi Aventis and sold under the brand name Ornidyl in the USA. Both are prescription drugs.

Digital mammography

Digital mammography is a specialized form of mammography that uses digital receptors and computers instead of x-ray film to help examine breast tissue for breast cancer. The electrical signals can be read on computer screens, permitting more manipulation of images to theoretically allow radiologists to more clearly view the results. Digital mammography may be "spot view", for breast biopsy, or "full field" (FFDM) for screening.

Digital photography

Digital photography is a form of photography that uses an array of light sensitive sensors to capture the image focused by the lens, as opposed to an exposure on light sensitive film. The captured image is then stored as a digital file ready for digital processing (colour correction, sizing, cropping, etc.), viewing or printing.

Digital rectal examination

A rectal examination or rectal exam is an internal examination of the rectum such as by a physician or other healthcare professional.

Dimethyl sulfoxide

Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is the organosulfur compound with the formula (CH3)2SO. This colorless liquid is an important polar aprotic solvent that dissolves both polar and nonpolar compounds and is miscible in a wide range of organic solvents as well as water. It penetrates the skin very readily, giving it the unusual property of being secreted onto the surface of the tongue after contact with the skin and causing a garlic-like taste in the mouth.

Diphosphonate

Bisphosphonates (also called diphosphonates) are a class of drugs that prevent the loss of bone mass, used to treat osteoporosis and similar diseases. They are called bisphosphonates because they have two phosphonate (PO3) groups.

Dipyridamole

Dipyridamole (trade name Persantine) is a drug that inhibits thrombus formation when given chronically and causes vasodilation when given at high doses over a short time.

Disease-free survival

A cure or remission is the end of a medical condition. The term may refer specifically to a substance or procedure that ends the medical condition, such as a medication, a surgical operation, a change in lifestyle, or even a philosophical mindset that helps a person suffer. It may also refer to the state of being healed, or cured.

Distal

The term proximal (Latin proximus; nearest; aka. "proxil") (not to be confused with paroxysmal) describes where the appendage joins the body, and the term distal (Latin distare; to stand away from) is used for the point furthest from the point of attachment to the body. Since appendages often move independently of (and therefore change position with respect to) the main body, these separate directional terms are used when describing them.

Distal pancreatectomy

In medicine, a pancreatectomy is the surgical removal of all or part of the pancreas. Several types of pancreatectomy exist, including pancreaticoduodenectomy (Whipple procedure), distal pancreatectomy, segmental pancreatectomy, and total pancreatectomy. These procedures are used in the management of several conditions involving the pancreas, such as benign pancreatic tumors, pancreatic cancer, and pancreatitis.

Distraction

Distraction is the divided attention of an individual or group from the chosen object of attention onto the source of distraction. Distraction is caused by: the lack of ability to pay attention; lack of interest in the object of attention; or the great intensity, novelty or attractiveness of something other than the object of attention. Distractions come from both external sources, and internal sources. Multitasking could also be considered as distraction in situations requiring full attention on a single object (e.g. sports, academic tests, performance).

Disulfiram

Disulfiram is a drug used to support the treatment of chronic alcoholism by producing an acute sensitivity to alcohol. Trade names for disulfiram in different countries are Antabuse and Antabus manufactured by Odyssey Pharmaceuticals. Disulfiram is also being studied as a treatment for cocaine dependence, as it prevents the breakdown of dopamine (a neurotransmitter whose release is stimulated by cocaine); the excess dopamine results in increased anxiety, higher blood pressure, restlessness and other unpleasant symptoms. Several studies have reported that it has anti-protozoal activity as well. Research for possible disulfiram use in cancer therapy has been announced.

DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms (with the exception of RNA viruses). The main role of DNA molecules is the long-term storage of information. DNA is often compared to a set of blueprints, like a recipe or a code, since it contains the instructions needed to construct other components of cells, such as proteins and RNA molecules. The DNA segments that carry this genetic information are called genes, but other DNA sequences have structural purposes, or are involved in regulating the use of this genetic information.

Docetaxel

Docetaxel (as generic or with trade name Taxotere) is a clinically well established anti-mitotic chemotherapy medication (that is, it interferes with cell division). It is used mainly for the treatment of breast, ovarian, and non-small cell lung cancer. Docetaxel has an FDA approved claim for treatment of patients who have locally advanced, or metastatic breast or non small-cell lung cancer who have undergone anthracycline-based chemotherapy and failed to stop cancer progression or relapsed. and a European approval for use in hormone-refractory prostate cancer.

Dock

The docks and sorrels, genus Rumex L., are a genus of about 200 species of annual, biennial and perennial herbs in the buckwheat family Polygonaceae. Members of this family are very common perennial herbs growing mainly in the northern hemisphere, but various species have been introduced almost everywhere.

Dolasetron

Dolasetron (trade name Anzemet) is a serotonin 5-HT3 receptor antagonist used to treat nausea and vomiting following chemotherapy. Its main effect is to reduce the activity of the vagus nerve, which is a nerve that activates the vomiting center in the medulla oblongata. It does not have much antiemetic effect when symptoms are due to motion sickness. This drug does not have any effect on dopamine receptors or muscarinic receptors.

Donepezil

Donepezil, marketed under the trade name Aricept by its developer Eisai and partner Pfizer, is a centrally acting reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitor. Its main therapeutic use is in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease where it is used to increase levels of cortical acetylcholine. It has an oral bioavailability of 100% and easily crosses the blood-brain barrier. Because it has a half life of about 70 hours, it can be taken once a day. The initial dose is 5 mg per day, which can be increased to 10 mg per day after an adjustment period of at least 4 weeks, and then after 3 months can be titrated to 23 mg if necessary.

Dose

A dose is a quantity of something (chemical, physical, or biological) that may impact an organism biologically; the greater the quantity, the larger the dose. In nutrition, the term is usually applied to how much of a specific nutrient is in a person's diet or in a particular food, meal, or dietary supplement. In medicine, the term is usually applied to the quantity of a drug or other agent administered for therapeutic purposes. In toxicology dose may refer to the amount of a harmful agent (such as a poison, carcinogen, mutagen, or teratogen), to which an organism is exposed.

Dose-dense chemotherapy

Dose-dense chemotherapy is a chemotherapy treatment plan in which drugs are given with less time between treatments than in a standard chemotherapy treatment plan.

Double-blinded

A blind or blinded experiment is a scientific experiment where some of the persons involved are prevented from knowing certain information that might lead to conscious or unconscious bias on their part, invalidating the results.

Double-contrast barium enema

A double-contrast barium enema is a procedure in which x-rays of the colon and rectum are taken after a liquid containing barium is put into the rectum. Barium is a silver-white metallic compound that outlines the colon and rectum on an x-ray and helps show abnormalities. Air is put into the rectum and colon to further enhance the x-ray.

Doubling time

The doubling time is the period of time required for a quantity to double in size or value. It is applied to population growth, inflation, resource extraction, consumption of goods, compound interest, the volume of malignant tumours, and many other things which tend to grow over time. When the relative growth rate (not the absolute growth rate) is constant, the quantity undergoes exponential growth and has a constant doubling time or period which can be calculated directly from the growth rate.

Doxorubicin

Doxorubicin (INN, trade name Adriamycin; also known as hydroxydaunorubicin) is a drug used in cancer chemotherapy. It is an anthracycline antibiotic, closely related to the natural product daunomycin, and like all anthracyclines, it works by intercalating DNA.

Doxycycline

Doxycycline INN is a member of the tetracycline antibiotics group and is commonly used to treat a variety of infections. Doxycycline is a semi-synthetic tetracycline invented and clinically developed in the early 1960s by Pfizer Inc. and marketed under the brand name Vibramycin. Vibramycin received U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval in 1967, becoming Pfizer's first once-a-day broad-spectrum antibiotic. Other brand names include Monodox, Microdox, Periostat, Vibra-Tabs, Oracea, Doryx, Vibrox, Adoxa, Doxyhexal, Doxylin, Doxoral, and Atridox (topical doxycycline hyclate for periodontitis).

DPPE

1,2-Bis(diphenylphosphino)ethane (dppe) is a commonly used bidentate ligand in coordination chemistry. Dppe is almost invariably chelated, although there are examples of unidentate (e.g., W(CO)5(dppe)) and of bridging behavior.

DRE

Disability & Rehabilitation is a peer-reviewed medical journal which provides information on all aspects of disability and information on rehabilitation medicine, including practise and policy aspects of the rehabilitation process.. The journal is published by Informa and is edited by Dave Müller (Suffolk New College, UK). It was established in 1978 and has an impact factor of 1.395. The journal is published 26 times a year.

Dronabinol

Tetrahydrocannabinol, also known as delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), Δ1-THC (using an older chemical nomenclature), or dronabinol, is the main psychoactive substance found in the cannabis plant. There is no evidence to suggest that THC is physically addictive.

Drug tolerance

In physiology, physiological tolerance or drug tolerance is commonly encountered in pharmacology, when a subject's reaction to a drug (such as an opiate painkiller, benzodiazepine or other psychotropic drug) decreases so that larger doses are required to achieve the same effect. Drug tolerance can involve both psychological drug tolerance and physiological factors. Characteristics of drug tolerance: it is reversible, the rate depends on the particular drug, dosage and frequency of use, differential development occurs for different effects of the same drug. Physiological tolerance also occurs when an organism builds up a resistance to the effects of a substance after repeated exposure. This can occur with environmental substances, such as salt or pesticides.

Dry orgasm

Orgasm (from Greek orgasmos, from organ to mature, swell, also sexual climax) is the peak of the plateau phase of the sexual response cycle, characterized by an intense sensation of pleasure. Experienced by males and females, orgasm is controlled by the involuntary, or autonomic, limbic system, and is accompanied by quick cycles of muscle contraction in the lower pelvic muscles, which surround the primary sexual organs and the anus. Orgasms are often associated with other involuntary actions, including muscular spasms in multiple areas of the body, a general euphoric sensation and, frequently, body movements and vocalizations are expressed. In males, orgasm may lead to ejaculation.

Ductal carcinoma

Ductal carcinoma is a type of tumor that primarily presents in the ducts of a gland.

Ductal lavage

Ductal lavage is a method used to collect cells from milk ducts in the breast. A hair-size catheter (tube) is inserted into the nipple, and a small amount of salt water is released into the duct. The water picks up breast cells, and is removed. The cells are checked under a microscope. Ductal lavage may be used in addition to clinical breast examination and mammography to detect breast cancer.

Dukes' classification

In 1932 the British pathologist Cuthbert Dukes (1890-1977) devised a famous classification system for colorectal cancer. Several different forms of the Dukes classification were developed. However, this system has largely been replaced by the more detailed TNM staging system and is no longer recommended for use in clinical practice.

  • Dukes' A: Invasion into but not through the bowel wall
  • Dukes' B: Invasion through the bowel wall but not involving lymph nodes
  • Dukes' C: Involvement of lymph nodes
  • Dukes' D: Widespread metastases

Dumping syndrome

Gastric dumping syndrome, or rapid gastric emptying is a condition where ingested foods bypass the stomach too rapidly and enter the small intestine largely undigested. It happens when the upper end of the small intestine, the duodenum, expands too quickly due to the presence of hyperosmolar (substances with increased osmolarity) food from the stomach. "Early" dumping begins concurrently or immediately succeeding a meal. Symptoms of early dumping include nausea, vomiting, bloating, cramping, diarrhea, dizziness and fatigue. "Late" dumping happens 1 to 3 hours after eating. Symptoms of late dumping include weakness, sweating, and dizziness. Many people have both types. The syndrome is most often associated with gastric surgery.

Duodenitis

Duodenitis is inflammation of the duodenum. It may persist acutely or chronically.

DX-8951f

Exatecan is a drug which is an analogue of camptothecin.

Dyscrasia

Dyscrasia is a concept from ancient Greek medicine with the word "dyskrasia", meaning bad mixture. The concept of dyscrasia was developed by the ancient Greek physician Galen (130–199 AD), who elaborated a model of health and disease as a structure of elements, qualities, humors, organs, and temperaments. Health was understood in this perspective to be a condition of harmony or balance among these basic components, called eucrasia. Disease was interpreted as the disproportion of bodily fluids or four humours: phlegm, blood, and yellow and black bile. The imbalance was called dyscrasia.

Dysesthesia

Dysesthesia (dysaesthesia) comes from the Greek word "dys", meaning "bad" and "aesthesis", which means "sensation" (bad sensation). It is defined as an unpleasant, abnormal sense of touch, and it may be, or not be, considered as a kind of pain. It is caused by lesions of the nervous system, peripheral or central, and it involves sensations, whether spontaneous or evoked, such as burning, wetness, itching, electric shock, and pins and needles.

Dysgeusia

Dysgeusia is the distortion of the sense of taste. Dysgeusia is also often associated with ageusia, which is the complete lack of taste, and hypogeusia, which is the decrease in taste sensitivity. An alteration in taste or smell may be a secondary process in various disease states, or it may be the primary symptom. The distortion in the sense of taste is the only symptom, and diagnosis is usually complicated since the sense of taste is tied together with other sensory systems. Common causes of dysgeusia include chemotheraphy and zinc deficiency. Different drugs could also be responsible for altering taste and resulting in dysgeusia. Due to the variety of causes of dysgeusia, there are many possible treatments that are effective in alleviating or terminating the symptoms of dysgeusia. These include artificial saliva, pilocarpine, zinc supplementation, alterations in drug therapy, and alpha lipoic acid.

Dysphagia

Dysphagia is the medical term for the symptom of difficulty in swallowing. Although classified under "symptoms and signs" in ICD-10, the term is sometimes used as a condition in its own right. Sufferers are sometimes unaware of their dysphagia.

Dysplasia

Dysplasia (from the Greek δυσπλασία "malformation", δυσ- "mal-" + πλάθω "to create, to form"), is a term used in pathology to refer to an abnormality of development. This generally consists of an expansion of immature cells, with a corresponding decrease in the number and location of mature cells. Dysplasia is often indicative of an early neoplastic process. The term dysplasia is typically used when the cellular abnormality is restricted to the originating tissue, as in the case of an early, in-situ neoplasm.

Dysplastic nevi

A dysplastic nevus (also known as a: Atypical mole, Atypical nevus, B-K mole, Clark's nevus, Dysplastic melanocytic nevus, Nevus with architectural disorder) is an atypical melanocytic nevus; a mole whose appearance is different from that of common moles. Dysplastic nevi are generally larger than ordinary moles and have irregular and indistinct borders. Their color frequently is not uniform and ranges from pink to dark brown; they usually are flat, but parts may be raised above the skin surface. Dysplastic nevi can be found anywhere, but are most common on the trunk in men, and on the calves in women. In 1992, the NIH recommended that the term "dysplastic nevus" be avoided in favor of more descriptive language.

Dysplastic nevus

A dysplastic nevus (also known as a: Atypical mole, Atypical nevus, B-K mole, Clark's nevus, Dysplastic melanocytic nevus, Nevus with architectural disorder) is an atypical melanocytic nevus; a mole whose appearance is different from that of common moles. Dysplastic nevi are generally larger than ordinary moles and have irregular and indistinct borders. Their color frequently is not uniform and ranges from pink to dark brown; they usually are flat, but parts may be raised above the skin surface. Dysplastic nevi can be found anywhere, but are most common on the trunk in men, and on the calves in women. In 1992, the NIH recommended that the term "dysplastic nevus" be avoided in favor of more descriptive language.

Dyspnea

Dyspnea (also spelled dyspnoea) or (shortness of breath (SOB), air hunger), is the subjective symptom of breathlessness. It is a normal symptom of heavy exertion but becomes pathological if it occurs in unexpected situations. In 85% of cases it is due to either asthma, pneumonia, cardiac ischemia, interstitial lung disease, congestive heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or psychogenic causes. Treatment typically depends on the underlying cause.

 

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Published - April 2011







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