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Oncology-related Terms Glossary
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G-CSF

Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF or GCSF) is a colony-stimulating factor hormone. G-CSF is also known as colony-stimulating factor 3 (CSF 3).

It is a glycoprotein, growth factor and cytokine produced by a number of different tissues to stimulate the bone marrow to produce granulocytes and stem cells. G-CSF then stimulates the bone marrow to release them into the blood.

Gabapentin

Gabapentin (brand name Neurontin) is a pharmaceutical drug, specifically a GABA analogue. It was originally developed for the treatment of epilepsy, and currently, gabapentin is widely used to relieve pain, especially neuropathic pain, as well as major depressive disorder.

Gallium nitrate

Gallium nitrate (brand name Ganite) is the gallium salt of nitric acid with the chemical formula Ga(NO3)3. It is a drug used to treat symptomatic hypercalcemia secondary to cancer. It works by preventing the breakdown of bone through the inhibition of osteoclast activity, thus lowering the amount of free calcium in the blood. Gallium nitrate is also used to synthesize other gallium compounds.

Gallium scan

A gallium scan or gallium 67 scan (also called "gallium imaging") is a type of nuclear medicine study that uses a radioactive tracer to obtain images of a specific type of tissue, or disease state of tissue. Gallium salts like gallium citrate and gallium nitrate are used. The form of salt is not important, since it is the freely dissolved gallium ion Ga+3 which is active. For these applications, the radioactive isotope gallium-67 (67Ga), which has a decay half life of 3.26 days, is used.

Gamma knife

The Gamma Knife is a product of Elekta AB, a public Swedish company, used to treat brain tumors by administering high-intensity radiation therapy in a manner that concentrates the radiation over a small volume. The device was invented at the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm, Sweden, in 1967 by Lars Leksell, a neurosurgeon, and Börje Larsson, a radiobiologist from Sweden's Uppsala University.

Gamma ray

Gamma radiation, also known as gamma rays (denoted as γ), is electromagnetic radiation of high frequency (very short wavelength). They are produced by sub-atomic particle interactions such as electron-positron annihilation, neutral pion decay, fusion, fission or inverse Compton scattering in astrophysical processes. A classical gamma ray source is a type of radioactive decay called gamma decay where an excited nucleus emits a gamma ray almost immediately on formation. However, gamma decay may also describe isomeric transition which involves an inhibited gamma decay with a relatively much longer half life

Ganciclovir

Ganciclovir is an antiviral medication used to treat or prevent cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections.Ganciclovir sodium is marketed under the trade names Cytovene and Cymevene (Roche). Ganciclovir for ocular use is marketed under the trade name Vitrasert (Bausch & Lomb). A prodrug form with improved oral bioavailability (valganciclovir) has also been developed.

Ganglioside

Ganglioside is a molecule composed of a glycosphingolipid (ceramide and oligosaccharide) with one or more sialic acids (e.g. n-acetylneuraminic acid, NANA) linked on the sugar chain. The 60+ known gangliosides differ mainly in the position and number of NANA residues.

Gastrectomy

A gastrectomy is a partial or full surgical removal of the stomach.

Gastrinoma

A gastrinoma is a tumor in the pancreas or duodenum that secretes excess of gastrin leading to ulceration in the duodenum, stomach and the small intestine. There is hypersecretion of the HCl in the duodenum which causes the ulcers. HCl also causes hyperperistalsis and inhibits the activity of lipase causing severe diarrhoea.

Gastroenterologist

Gastroenterology (MeSH heading) is the branch of medicine whereby the digestive system and its disorders are studied. The name is a combination of three Ancient Greek words gaster (gen.: gastros) (stomach), enteron (intestine), and logos (reason).

Gastroesophageal junction

The cardia is the anatomical term for the part of the stomach attached to the esophagus. The cardia begins immediately distal to the z-line of the gastroesophageal junction, where the squamous epithelium of the esophagus gives way to the columnar epithelium of the gastrointestinal tract.

Gastroesophageal reflux disease

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD), gastric reflux disease, or acid reflux disease is chronic symptoms or mucosal damage caused by stomach acid coming up from the stomach into the esophagus. A typical symptom is heartburn.

Gastrointestinal

The human gastrointestinal tract refers to the stomach and intestine, and sometimes to all the structures from the mouth to the anus. (The "digestive system" is a broader term that includes other structures, including the accessory organs of digestion).

Gastrointestinal stromal tumor

A gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is one of the most common mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract (1-3% of all gastrointestinal malignancies). They are typically defined as tumors whose behavior is driven by mutations in the Kit gene or PDGFRA gene, and may or may not stain positively for Kit.

Gastrointestinal tract

Digestion is the mechanical and chemical breakdown of food into smaller components that are more easily absorbed into a blood stream, for instance. Digestion is a form of catabolism: a breakdown of large food molecules to smaller ones.

Gastroscope/Gastroscopy

In medicine (gastroenterology), esophagogastroduodenoscopy is a diagnostic endoscopic procedure that visualizes the upper part of the gastrointestinal tract up to the duodenum. It is considered a minimally invasive procedure since it does not require an incision into one of the major body cavities and does not require any significant recovery after the procedure (unless sedation or anesthesia has been used). A sore throat is also common.

Gefitinib

Gefitinib (trade name Iressa) is a drug used in the treatment of certain types of cancer. Gefitinib is an EGFR inhibitor, like erlotinib, which interrupts signaling through the epidermal growth factor receptor in target cells. It is marketed by AstraZeneca and Teva.

Gemcitabine

Gemcitabine (pronunciation: jem-SITE-a-been) is a nucleoside analog used as chemotherapy. It is marketed as Gemzar by Eli Lilly and Company.

Gemtuzumab ozogamicin

Gemtuzumab ozogamicin (marketed by Wyeth as Mylotarg) is a monoclonal antibody that was used to treat acute myelogenous leukemia from 2000-2010. It was withdrawn from market in June 2010 when a clinical trial showed the drug increased patient death and added no benefit over conventional cancer therapies.

Gene expression profiling

In the field of molecular biology, gene expression profiling is the measurement of the activity (the expression) of thousands of genes at once, to create a global picture of cellular function. These profiles can, for example, distinguish between cells that are actively dividing, or show how the cells react to a particular treatment. Many experiments of this sort measure an entire genome simultaneously, that is, every gene present in a particular cell.

Gene therapy

Gene therapy is the insertion, alteration, or removal of genes within an individual's cells and biological tissues to treat disease. It is a technique for correcting defective genes that are responsible for disease development. The most common form of gene therapy involves the insertion of functional genes into an unspecified genomic location in order to replace a mutated gene, but other forms involve directly correcting the mutation or modifying normal gene that enables a viral infection. Although the technology is still in its infancy, it has been used with some success.

Gene transfer

Horizontal gene transfer (HGT), also Lateral gene transfer (LGT), is any process in which an organism incorporates genetic material from another organism without being the offspring of that organism. By contrast, vertical transfer occurs when an organism receives genetic material from its ancestor, e.g., its parent or a species from which it has evolved.

Genetic analysis

Genetic analysis can be used generally to describe methods both used in and resulting from the sciences of genetics and molecular biology, or to applications resulting from this research.

Genetic analysis may be done to identify genetic/inherited disorders and also to make a differential diagnosis in certain somatic diseases such as cancer. Genetic analyses of cancer include detection of mutations, fusion genes, and DNA copy number changes.

Genetic counseling

Genetic counseling or counselling (British English) is the process by which patients or relatives, at risk of an inherited disorder, are advised of the consequences and nature of the disorder, the probability of developing or transmitting it, and the options open to them in management and family planning in order to prevent, avoid or ameliorate it. This complex process can be separated into diagnostic (the actual estimation of risk) and supportive aspects.

Genetic deletion

In genetics, a deletion (also called gene deletion, deficiency, or deletion mutation) is a mutation (a genetic aberration) in which a part of a chromosome or a sequence of DNA is missing. Deletion is the loss of genetic material. Any number of nucleotides can be deleted, from a single base to an entire piece of chromosome. Deletions can be caused by errors in chromosomal crossover during meiosis. This causes several serious genetic diseases. Deletion is also causing frameshift.

Genetic markers

A genetic marker is a gene or DNA sequence with a known location on a chromosome that can be used to identify cells, individuals or species. It can be described as a variation (which may arise due to mutation or alteration in the genomic loci) that can be observed. A genetic marker may be a short DNA sequence, such as a sequence surrounding a single base-pair change (single nucleotide polymorphism, SNP), or a long one, like minisatellites.

Genetic susceptibility

Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are single bases within a gene sequence that differ from that gene's consensus sequence, and are present in a subset of the population. SNPs may have no effect on gene expression, or they can change the function of a gene completely. Resulting gene expression changes can, in some cases, result in disease, or in susceptibility to disease (e.g., viral or bacterial infection).

Genetic testing

Genetic Testing : Gene tests (also called DNA-based tests), the newest and most sophisticated of the techniques used to test for genetic disorders, involve direct examination of the DNA molecule itself. Other genetic tests include biochemical tests for such gene products as enzymes and other proteins and for microscopic examination of stained or fluorescent chromosomes.

Genistein

Genistein is one of several known isoflavones. Isoflavones, such as genistein and daidzein, are found in a number of plants including lupin, fava beans, soybeans, kudzu, and psoralea being the primary food source, also in the medicinal plant, Flemingia vestita and coffee Besides functioning as antioxidant and anthelmintic, many isoflavones have been shown to interact with animal and human estrogen receptors, causing effects in the body similar to those caused by the hormone estrogen. Isoflavones also produce non-hormonal effects.

Genitourinary system

In anatomy, the genitourinary system or urogenital system is the organ system of the reproductive organs and the urinary system. These are grouped together because of their proximity to each other, their common embryological origin and the use of common pathways, like the male urethra. Also, because of their proximity, the systems are sometimes imaged together.

Genome

In modern molecular biology and genetics, the genome is the entirety of an organism's hereditary information. It is encoded either in DNA or, for many types of virus, in RNA. The genome includes both the genes and the non-coding sequences of the DNA/RNA.

Germ cell

A germ cell is any biological cell that gives rise to the gametes of an organism that reproduces sexually. In many animals, the germ cells originate near the gut of an embryo and migrate to the developing gonads. There, they undergo cell division of two types, mitosis and meiosis, followed by cellular differentiation into mature gametes, either eggs or sperm. Unlike animals, plants do not have germ cells set aside in early development. Instead, germ cells can come from somatic cells in the adult floral meristem.

Germ cell tumor

A germ cell tumor (GCT) is a neoplasm derived from germ cells. Germ cell tumors can be cancerous or non-cancerous tumors. Germ cells normally occur inside the gonads (ovary and testis). Germ cell tumors that originate outside the gonads may be birth defects resulting from errors during development of the embryo.

German Commission E

The German Commission E Monographs are a therapeutic guide to herbal medicine with 380 monographs evaluating the safety and efficacy of herbs for licensed medical prescribing in Germany. The commission itself was formed in 1978, and no longer exists.

Germinoma

A germinoma is a type of germ cell tumor which is not differentiated upon examination. It may be benign or malignant.

Germline mutation

A germline mutation is any detectable and heritable variation in the lineage of germ cells. Mutations in these cells are transmitted to offspring while those in somatic cells are not.

This distinction is most important in animals, where germ cells are distinct from somatic cells. However, in plants, the reproductive cells in a particular flower will be derived from the same meristem as the cells in that flower and on the stem leading to the flower, which is a different population of cells than those that give rise to the other flowers on the plant. Single-celled organisms have no distinction between germline and somatic tissues.

Gerota's capsule/Gerota's fascia

The renal fascia is a layer of connective tissue encapsulating the kidneys. The deeper layers below the renal fascia are, in order, the perinephric fat (or "perirenal fat"), renal capsule, and finally the parenchyma of the renal cortex. The spaces about the kidney are typically divided into three compartments: the perinephric space and anterior and posterior pararenal spaces.

Gestational trophoblastic disease/neoplasia/tumor

Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) is a rare tumour in women of childbearing age. GTD is a unique disease, because here, gestational cells grow into a tumour (and not the normal body cells of the woman in question). Gestational cells are the cells of tissues that are formed in the uterus after conception, i.e. after the fertilisation of an egg of the woman.

Giant cell fibroblastoma

Giant cell fibroblastoma is a rare type of soft tissue tumor marked by painless nodules in the dermis (the inner layer of the two main layers of tissue that make up the skin) and subcutaneous (beneath the skin) tissue. These tumors may come back after surgery, but they do not spread to other parts of the body. They occur mostly in boys and are related to dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans.

GIST

A gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is one of the most common mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract (1-3% of all gastrointestinal malignancies). They are typically defined as tumors whose behavior is driven by mutations in the Kit gene or PDGFRA gene, and may or may not stain positively for Kit.

Gleason score

The Gleason Grading system is used to help evaluate the prognosis of men with prostate cancer. Together with other parameters, it is incorporated into a strategy of prostate cancer staging which predicts prognosis and helps guide therapy. A Gleason score is given to prostate cancer based upon its microscopic appearance. Cancers with a higher Gleason score are more aggressive and have a worse prognosis.

Gleevec

Imatinib (originally STI571) is a drug used to treat certain types of cancer. It is currently marketed by Novartis as Gleevec (USA) or Glivec (Europe/Australia/Latin America) as its mesylate salt, imatinib mesilate (INN). It is used in treating chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) and some other diseases. By 2011, Gleevec has been FDA approved to treat ten different cancers. In CML, the tyrosine kinase enzyme ABL is stuck in its activated form; imatinib binds to the site of tyrosine kinase activity, and prevents its activity.

Glial cell

Glial cells, sometimes called neuroglia or simply glia are non-neuronal cells that maintain homeostasis, form myelin, and provide support and protection for the brain's neurons. In the human brain, there is roughly one glia for every neuron with a ratio of about two neurons for every three glia in the cerebral gray matter.

Glial tumor

Glial tumor is a general term for numerous tumors of the central nervous system, including astrocytomas, ependymal tumors, glioblastoma multiforme, and primitive neuroectodermal tumors.

Glioblastoma

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and most aggressive type of primary brain tumor in humans, involving glial cells and accounting for 52% of all parenchymal brain tumor cases and 20% of all intracranial tumors. Despite being the most prevalent form of primary brain tumor, GBMs occur in only 2–3 cases per 100,000 people in Europe and North America. According to the WHO classification of the tumors of the central nervous system‎, the standard name for this brain tumor is "glioblastoma"; it presents two variants: giant cell glioblastoma and gliosarcoma. Glioblastomas are also an important brain tumor of the canine, and research is ongoing to use this as a model for developing treatments in humans. Treatment can involve chemotherapy, radiation, radiosurgery, corticosteroids, antiangiogenic therapy, and surgery.

Glioblastoma multiforme

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and most aggressive type of primary brain tumor in humans, involving glial cells and accounting for 52% of all parenchymal brain tumor cases and 20% of all intracranial tumors. Despite being the most prevalent form of primary brain tumor, GBMs occur in only 2–3 cases per 100,000 people in Europe and North America. According to the WHO classification of the tumors of the central nervous system, the standard name for this brain tumor is "glioblastoma"; it presents two variants: giant cell glioblastoma and gliosarcoma. Glioblastomas are also an important brain tumor of the canine, and research is ongoing to use this as a model for developing treatments in humans. Treatment can involve chemotherapy, radiation, radiosurgery, corticosteroids, antiangiogenic therapy, and surgery.

Glioma

A glioma is a type of tumor that starts in the brain or spine. It is called a glioma because it arises from glial cells. The most common site of gliomas is the brain.

Gliosarcoma

Gliosarcoma is a rare type of glioma, a cancer of the brain that comes from glial, or supportive, brain cells, as opposed to the neural brain cells. Gliosarcoma is a malignant cancer, and is defined as a glioblastoma consisting of gliomatous and sarcomatous components.

Glossectomy

A glossectomy is the surgical removal of all or part of the tongue. It is performed in order to curtail malignant growth such as oral cancer. Often, only a portion of the tongue needs to be removed, in which case the procedure is called a hemiglossectomy.

Glucagon

Glucagon is a hormone, secreted by the pancreas, that raises blood glucose levels. Its effect is opposite that of insulin, which lowers blood glucose levels. The pancreas releases glucagon when blood glucose levels fall too low. Glucagon causes the liver to convert stored glycogen into glucose, which is released into the bloodstream. Glucagon also stimulates the release of insulin, so that glucose can be taken up and used by insulin-dependent tissues. Thus, glucagon and insulin are part of a feedback system that keeps blood glucose levels at a stable level. Glucagon belongs to a family of several other related hormones.

Glucagonoma

A glucagonoma is a rare tumor of the alpha cells of the pancreas that results in up to a 1000-fold overproduction of the hormone glucagon. Alpha cell tumors are commonly associated with glucagonoma syndrome, though similar symptoms are present in cases of pseudoglucagonoma syndrome in the absence of a glucagon-secreting tumor.

Glucocorticoid

Glucocorticoids (GC) are a class of steroid hormones that bind to the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), which is present in almost every vertebrate animal cell. The name glucocorticoid (glucose + cortex + steroid) derives from their role in the regulation of the metabolism of glucose, their synthesis in the adrenal cortex, and their steroidal structure (see structure to the right).

Gluconeogenesis

Gluconeogenesis (abbreviated GNG) is a metabolic pathway that results in the generation of glucose from non-carbohydrate carbon substrates such as lactate, glycerol, and glucogenic amino acids.

Glutamine

Glutamine (abbreviated as Gln or Q) is one of the 20 amino acids encoded by the standard genetic code. It is not recognized as an essential amino acid but may become conditionally essential in certain situations, including intensive athletic training or certain gastrointestinal disorders. Its side-chain is an amide formed by replacing the side-chain hydroxyl of glutamic acid with an amine functional group. Therefore, it can be considered the amide of glutamic acid. Its codons are CAA and CAG. In human blood, glutamine is the most abundant free amino acid, with a concentration of about 500-900 µmol/l.

Glutathione

Glutathione (GSH) is a tripeptide that contains an unusual peptide linkage between the amine group of cysteine and the carboxyl group of the glutamate side-chain. It is an antioxidant, preventing damage to important cellular components caused by reactive oxygen species such as free radicals and peroxides.

Glutathione S-transferase

Enzymes of the glutathione S-transferase (GST) family are composed of many cytosolic, mitochondrial, and microsomal (now designated as MAPEG) proteins. GSTs are present in eukaryotes and in prokaryotes, where they catalyze a variety of reactions and accept endogenous and xenobiotic substrates.

Glycolysis

Glycolysis (from glycose, an older term for glucose + -lysis degradation) is the metabolic pathway that converts glucose C6H12O6, into pyruvate, CH3COCOO− + H+. The free energy released in this process is used to form the high-energy compounds ATP (adenosine triphosphate) and NADH (reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide).

Glycopeptide

Glycopeptides are peptides that contain carbohydrate moieties (glycans) covalently attached to the side chains of the amino acid residues that constitute the peptide. Over the past few decades it has been recognised that glycans on cell surface (attached to membrane proteins or lipids) and those bound to proteins (glycoproteins) play a critical role in biology. For example these constructs have been showed to play important roles in fertilization, the immune system, brain development, the endocrine system and inflammation. The synthesis of glycopeptides provides biological probes for researchers to elucidate glycan function in nature and products that have useful therapeutic and biotechnological applications.

Glycoprotein

Glycoproteins are proteins that contain oligosaccharide chains (glycans) covalently attached to polypeptide side-chains. The carbohydrate is attached to the protein in a cotranslational or posttranslational modification. This process is known as glycosylation. In proteins that have segments extending extracellularly, the extracellular segments are often glycosylated. Glycoproteins are often important integral membrane proteins, where they play a role in cell-cell interactions. Glycoproteins also occur in the cytosol, but their functions and the pathways producing these modifications in this compartment are less well-understood.

Glycoprotein 100

Glycoprotein 100 or gp100 is a melanoma antigen ie a tumor-specific antigen.

Glycosaminoglycan

Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) or mucopolysaccharides are long unbranched polysaccharides consisting of a repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating unit consists of a hexose (six-carbon sugar) or a hexuronic acid, linked to a hexosamine (six-carbon sugar containing nitrogen).

GM-CSF

Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, often abbreviated to GM-CSF, is a protein secreted by macrophages, T cells, mast cells, endothelial cells, and fibroblasts.

GnRH

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), also known as Luteinizing-hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) and luliberin, is a tropic peptide hormone responsible for the release of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) from the anterior pituitary. GnRH is synthesized and released from neurons within the hypothalamus. The peptide belongs to gonadotropin-releasing hormone family.

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), also known as Luteinizing-hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) and luliberin, is a tropic peptide hormone responsible for the release of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) from the anterior pituitary. GnRH is synthesized and released from neurons within the hypothalamus. The peptide belongs to gonadotropin-releasing hormone family.

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist

A gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH agonist, GnRH–A) is a synthetic peptide modeled after the hypothalamic neurohormone GnRH that interacts with the gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor to elicit its biologic response, the release of the pituitary hormones FSH and LH.

Gonzalez regimen

Dr. Nicholas James Gonzalez, M.D., is a New York-based physician. Dr. Gonzalez has received significant attention for his controversial therapies that target cancer. His practice is currently based in New York City. He developed the Gonzalez protocol, a treatment of cancer is based on the belief that cancer is caused by toxins and physiological imbalances. Gonzalez's treatment methods have been rejected by the medical establishment, and Gonzalez has been characterized as a quack and fraud by other doctors and health fraud watchdog groups. In 1994 he was reprimanded and placed on two years' probation by the New York state medical board for "departing from accepted practice," although he has never explicitly rejected more orthodox treatments and practices. In 1999 a clinical trial for the possible treatment of pancreatic cancer with the Gonzalez Regimen demonstrated that the Gonzalez Regimen was significantly worse for cancer patients than conventional treatment.

Gorlin syndrome

Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS), also known as basal cell nevus syndrome, multiple basal cell carcinoma syndrome, Gorlin syndrome, and Gorlin–Goltz syndrome, is an inherited medical condition involving defects within multiple body systems such as the skin, nervous system, eyes, endocrine system, and bones. People with this syndrome are particularly prone to developing a common and usually non-life-threatening form of non-melanoma skin cancers.

Goserelin

Goserelin acetate (Zoladex, AstraZeneca) is an injectable gonadotropin releasing hormone super-agonist (GnRH agonist), also known as a luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) agonist. Goserelin acetate is used to suppress production of the sex hormones (testosterone and oestrogen), particularly in the treatment of breast and prostate cancer.

Gossypol

Gossypol is a natural phenol derived from the cotton plant (genus Gossypium). Gossypol is a phenolic aldehyde that permeates cells and acts as an inhibitor for several dehydrogenase enzymes. It is a yellow pigment.

Grade IV astrocytoma

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and most aggressive type of primary brain tumor in humans, involving glial cells and accounting for 52% of all parenchymal brain tumor cases and 20% of all intracranial tumors. Despite being the most prevalent form of primary brain tumor, GBMs occur in only 2–3 cases per 100,000 people in Europe and North America. According to the WHO classification of the tumors of the central nervous system‎, the standard name for this brain tumor is "glioblastoma"; it presents two variants: giant cell glioblastoma and gliosarcoma. Glioblastomas are also an important brain tumor of the canine, and research is ongoing to use this as a model for developing treatments in humans. Treatment can involve chemotherapy, radiation, radiosurgery, corticosteroids, antiangiogenic therapy, and surgery.

Graft-versus-host disease/GVHD

Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a common complication of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in which functional immune cells in the transplanted marrow recognize the recipient as "foreign" and mount an immunologic attack. It can also take place in a blood transfusion under certain circumstances.

Graft-versus-tumor

Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the transplantation of multipotent hematopoietic stem cell or blood, often derived from bone marrow, umbilical cord blood or hemopoietic stem cells derived from a placenta. Stem cell transplantation is a medical procedure in the fields of hematology and oncology, most often performed for people with diseases of the blood, bone marrow, or certain cancer.

Granisetron

Granisetron is a serotonin 5-HT3 receptor antagonist used as an antiemetic to treat nausea and vomiting following chemotherapy. Its main effect is to reduce the activity of the vagus nerve, which is a nerve that activates the vomiting center in the medulla oblongata. It does not have much effect on vomiting due to motion sickness. This drug does not have any effect on dopamine receptors or muscarinic receptors.

Granulocyte

Granulocytes are a category of white blood cells characterized by the presence of granules in their cytoplasm. They are also called polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN or PML) because of the varying shapes of the nucleus, which is usually lobed into three segments. In common parlance, the term polymorphonuclear leukocyte often refers specifically to neutrophil granulocytes, the most abundant of the granulocytes. Granulocytes or PMN are released from the bone marrow by the regulatory complement proteins.

Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor

Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF or GCSF) is a colony-stimulating factor hormone. G-CSF is also known as colony-stimulating factor 3 (CSF 3). It is a glycoprotein, growth factor and cytokine produced by a number of different tissues to stimulate the bone marrow to produce granulocytes and stem cells. G-CSF then stimulates the bone marrow to release them into the blood.

Granulocytic sarcoma

A myeloid sarcoma (chloroma, granulocytic sarcoma, extramedullary myeloid tumor), is a solid tumor composed of immature white blood cells called myeloblasts. A chloroma is an extramedullary manifestation of acute myeloid leukemia; in other words, it is a solid collection of leukemic cells occurring outside of the bone marrow.

Granulocytopenia

Granulocytopenia is an abnormally low concentration of granulocytes in the blood. This condition reduces the body's resistance to many infections. Closely-related terms include agranulocytosis (no granulocytes at all) and neutropenia (deficiency of neutrophil granulocytes). Transfusion of granulocytes would have been a solution to the problem. However, granulocytes live only ~10 hours in the circulation (for days in spleen or other tissue), which gives a very short-lasting effect. In addition, there are many complications of such procedure.

Granulosa cell tumor

Granulosa cell tumours (or granulosa-theca cell tumours) are tumours that arise from granulosa cells. These tumours are part of the sex cord-gonadal stromal tumour group of tumours. Although granulosa cells normally occur only in the ovary, granulosa cell tumours occur in both ovaries and testicles (see Ovarian cancer and Testicular cancer). Most of these tumours are benign. The peak age at which they occur is 50–55 years, but they may occur at any age.

GW572016

Lapatinib (INN), used in the form of lapatinib ditosylate, (USAN) (Tykerb/Tyverb, GSK) is an orally active drug for breast cancer and other solid tumours. It is a dual tyrosine kinase inhibitor which interrupts the HER2 growth receptor pathway. It is used in combination therapy for HER2-positive breast cancer. It has been approved as front-line therapy in triple positive breast cancer and as an adjuvant therapy when patients have progressed on Herceptin.

Gynecologic

Gynaecology or gynecology, from the Greek, gynaika (γυναίκα) meaning woman, is the medical practice dealing with the health of the female reproductive system (uterus, vagina, and ovaries). Literally, outside medicine, it means "the science of women". It is the counterpart to andrology, which deals with medical issues specific to the male reproductive system.

Gynecologic cancer/Gynecologic oncologist

Gynecologic oncology is a specialized field of medicine that focuses on cancers of the female reproductive system, including ovarian cancer, uterine cancer, endometrial cancer, cervical cancer, and vulvar cancer. As specialists, they are generally the most appropriate type of physician to treat these kinds of cancers.

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Published - April 2011







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