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Oncology-related Terms Glossary
(Starting with "J")

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_oncology-related_terms






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J-pouch coloanal anastomosis

J-pouch coloanal anastomosis is a surgical procedure in which the colon is attached to the anus after the rectum has been removed. A 2-4 inch section of the colon is formed into a J-shaped pouch in order to replace the function of the rectum and store stool until it can be eliminated. This procedure is similar to the side-to-end coloanal anastomosis but a larger pouch is formed.

Jaundice

Jaundice, (also known as icterus, attributive adjective: icteric) is a yellowish pigmentation of the skin, the conjunctival membranes over the sclerae (whites of the eyes), and other mucous membranes caused by hyperbilirubinemia (increased levels of bilirubin in the blood). This hyperbilirubinemia subsequently causes increased levels of bilirubin in the extracellular fluids. Typically, the concentration of bilirubin in the plasma must exceed 1.5 mg/dL ( > 35 micromoles/L), three times the usual value of approximately 0.5 mg/dL, for the coloration to be easily visible. Jaundice comes from the French word jaune, meaning yellow.

One of the first tissues to change color as bilirubin levels rise in jaundice is the conjunctiva of the eye, a condition sometimes referred to as scleral icterus. However, the sclera themselves are not "icteric" (stained with bile pigment) but rather the conjunctival membranes that overlie them. The yellowing of the "white of the eye" is thus more properly conjunctival icterus.

Jewett staging system

ABCD rating, also called the Jewett staging system or the Whitmore-Jewett staging system, is a staging system for prostate cancer that uses the letters A, B, C, and D.

  • "A" and "B" refer to cancer that is confined to the prostate.
  • "C" refers to cancer that has grown out of the prostate but has not spread to lymph nodes or other places in the body.
  • "D" refers to cancer that has spread to lymph nodes or to other places in the body.
  • Junctional nevus

    A junctional nevus is a mole found in the junction (border) between the epidermis and dermis layers of the skin. These moles may be pigmented and slightly raised, and have a higher risk of developing into malignant melanoma.

    Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia

    Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML) is a serious chronic leukemia (cancer of the blood) that affects children mostly aged 4 and younger. The average age of patients at diagnosis is 2 years old. The World Health Organization has included JMML in the category of Myelodysplastic and Myeloproliferative disorders. The name JMML now encompasses all diagnoses formerly referred to as Juvenile Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (JCML), Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia of Infancy, and Infantile Monosomy 7 Syndrome.

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    Published - April 2011







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