Oncology-related Terms Glossary Free glossaries at TanslationDirectory.com translation jobs
Home Free Glossaries Free Dictionaries Post Your Translation Job! Free Articles Jobs for Translators

Oncology-related Terms Glossary
(Starting with "L")

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_oncology-related_terms






Become a member of TranslationDirectory.com at just $8 per month (paid per year)




Advertisements:



Use the search bar to look for terms in all glossaries, dictionaries, articles and other resources simultaneously




0-9 | A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z

L-carnitine (see Carnitine)

Carnitine is a quaternary ammonium compound biosynthesized from the amino acids lysine and methionine. In living cells, it is required for the transport of fatty acids from the cytosol into the mitochondria during the breakdown of lipids (fats) for the generation of metabolic energy. It is often sold as a nutritional supplement. Carnitine was originally found as a growth factor for mealworms and labeled vitamin Bt. Carnitine exists in two stereoisomers: Its biologically active form is L-carnitine, whereas its enantiomer, D-carnitine, is biologically inactive.

Lacrimal gland

The lacrimal glands are paired almond-shaped glands, one for each eye, that secrete the aqueous layer of the tear film. They are situated in the upper, outer portion of each orbit, in the lacrimal fossa of the orbit formed by the frontal bone. Inflammation of the lacrimal glands is called dacryoadenitis. The lacriminal gland produces tears which then flow into canals that lead to the lacriminal sac. From this sac, the tears drain through a passage into the nose.

Lactate (acid) dehydrogenase

Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH or LD) is an enzyme (EC 1.1.1.27) present in a wide variety of organisms, including plants and animals.

LAK cell

In cell biology, a lymphokine-activated killer cell (also known as a LAK cell) is a white blood cell that has been stimulated to kill tumour cells. If lymphocytes are cultured in the presence of Interleukin 2, it results in the development of effector cells which are cytotoxic to tumour cells.

Lamina propria

The lamina propria is a constituent of the moist linings known as mucous membranes or mucosa, which line various tubes in the body (such as the respiratory tract, the gastrointestinal tract, and the urogenital tract).

Lamivudine

Lamivudine (2',3'-dideoxy-3'-thiacytidine, commonly called 3TC) is a potent nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitor (nRTI).

Lamotrigine

Lamotrigine, marketed as Lamictal by GlaxoSmithKline, is an anticonvulsant drug used in the treatment of epilepsy and bipolar disorder. For epilepsy it is used to treat partial seizures, primary and secondary tonic-clonic seizures, and seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. Like many other anticonvulsant medications, Lamotrigine also seems to act as an effective mood stabilizer, and in fact has been the only U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved drug for this purpose since lithium, a drug approved almost 30 years earlier. It is approved for the maintenance treatment of bipolar type I. Chemically unrelated to other anticonvulsants (due to lamotrigine being a Phenyltriazine), lamotrigine has relatively few side-effects and does not require blood monitoring in monotherapy. The exact way lamotrigine works is unknown. Some think that it is a sodium channel blocker, though it is interesting to note that lamotrigine shares very few side-effects with other, unrelated anticonvulsants known to inhibit sodium channels, (e.g. Oxcarbazepine), which may suggest that lamotrigine has a different mechanism of action. Lamotrigine is inactivated by hepatic glucuronidation.

Laparoscope/Laparoscopy

Laparoscopy is an operation performed in the abdomen or pelvis through small incisions (usually 0.5–1.5 cm) with the aid of a camera. It can either be used to inspect and diagnose a condition or to perform surgery. It can be used in endometriosis surgery.

Laparotomy

A laparotomy is a surgical procedure involving a large incision through the abdominal wall to gain access into the abdominal cavity. It is also known as coeliotomy.

Large cell carcinoma

Large-cell lung carcinoma (LCLC) is a heterogeneous group of undifferentiated malignant neoplasms originating from transformed epithelial cells in the lung.

Large granular lymphocyte

Natural killer cells (or NK cells) are a type of cytotoxic lymphocyte that constitute a major component of the innate immune system. NK cells play a major role in the rejection of tumors and cells infected by viruses. They kill cells by releasing small cytoplasmic granules of proteins called perforin and granzyme that cause the target cell to die by apoptosis (programmed cell death).

Laryngectomy

Laryngectomy is the removal of the larynx and separation of the airway from the mouth, nose and esophagus. The laryngectomee breathes through an opening in the neck, a stoma. This procedure is usually performed in cases of laryngeal cancer. However, many laryngeal cancer cases are now treated only with radiation and chemotherapy or other laser procedures; laryngectomy is performed when those treatments fail to conserve the larynx. Laryngectomy is also performed on individuals with other types of head and neck cancer.

Laser surgery

Laser surgery is surgery using a laser to cut tissue instead of a scalpel. Examples include the use of a laser scalpel in otherwise conventional surgery, and soft tissue laser surgery, in which the laser beam vaporizes soft tissue with high water content. Laser resurfacing is a technique in which molecular bonds of a material are dissolved by a laser.

Laser therapy

Laser medicine is the use of various types of lasers in medical diagnosis, treatment, or therapy.

LCIS

Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) is a condition caused by unusual cells in the lobules of the breast.

Lectin

Lectins are sugar-binding proteins (not to be confused with glycoproteins, which are proteins containing sugar chains or residues) that are highly specific for their sugar moieties. They play a role in biological recognition phenomena involving cells and proteins. For example, some viruses use lectins to attach themselves to the cells of the host organism during infection. Lectins may be disabled by specific mono- and oligosaccharides, which bind to them and prevent their attachment to cell membranes.

Leflunomide

Leflunomide is a medication of the DMARD type, used in active moderate to severe rheumatoid arthritis and psoriatic arthritis. It is a pyrimidine synthesis inhibitor.

Leiomyoma

A leiomyoma (plural is 'leiomyomata') is a benign smooth muscle neoplasm that is not premalignant. They can occur in any organ, but the most common forms occur in the uterus, small bowel and the esophagus.

Leiomyosarcoma

Leiomyosarcoma (Gr. "smooth muscle connective tissue tumor"), aka LMS, is rare type of cancer that is a malignant neoplasm of smooth muscle. (When a such a neoplasm is benign, it is a leiomyoma.)

Lentinan

Lentinan is a beta-glucan with a glycosidic β-1,3:β-1,6 linkage. It is an anti-tumor polysaccharide from the shiitake (Lentinula edodes) mushroom. Lentinan is a polysaccharide that has a molecular weight of approximately 500,000 Da. The Japanese pharmaceutical company Ajinomoto developed Lentinan, which is an intravenously administered anti-cancer agent.

Lepirudin

Lepirudin is an anticoagulant which functions as a direct thrombin inhibitor.

Leptomeningeal

The meninges (singular meninx from the Greek μήνιγξ) is the system of membranes which envelopes the central nervous system. The meninges consist of three layers: the dura mater, the arachnoid mater, and the pia mater. The primary function of the meninges and of the cerebrospinal fluid is to protect the central nervous system.

Leptomeningeal cancer

Leptomeningeal cancer is a tumor that involves the two innermost meninges (thin layers of tissue that cover and protect the brain and spinal cord).

Lerisetron

Lerisetron (F-0930-RS) is a drug which acts as an antagonist at the 5HT3 receptor It is a potent antiemetic and is currently in clinical trials for the treatment of nausea associated with cancer chemotherapy.

Leser-Trélat

The Leser-Trélat sign is the explosive onset of multiple seborrheic keratoses (many pigmented skin lesions),:638 often with an inflammatory base. This can be an ominous sign of internal malignancy as part of a paraneoplastic syndrome. In addition to the development of new lesions, preexisting ones frequently increase in size and become symptomatic.

Letrozole

Letrozole (INN, trade name Femara) is an oral non-steroidal aromatase inhibitor for the treatment of hormonally-responsive breast cancer after surgery.

Leucovorin

Folinic acid (INN) or leucovorin (USAN), generally administered as calcium or sodium folinate (or leucovorin calcium/sodium), is an adjuvant used in cancer chemotherapy involving the drug methotrexate. It is also used in synergistic combination with the chemotherapy agent 5-fluorouracil.

Leukapheresis

Leukapheresis is a laboratory procedure in which white blood cells are separated from a sample of blood. It is a specific type of apheresis, the more general term for separating out one particular constituent of blood and returning the remainder to the circulation.

Leukemia

Leukemia (American English) or leukaemia (British English) is a type of cancer of the blood or bone marrow characterized by an abnormal increase of white blood cells. Leukemia is a broad term covering a spectrum of diseases. In turn, it is part of the even broader group of diseases called hematological neoplasms.

Leukocyte

White blood cells, or leukocytes (also spelled "leucocytes," "leuco-" being Greek for white), are cells of the immune system involved in defending the body against both infectious disease and foreign materials. Five different and diverse types of leukocytes exist, but they are all produced and derived from a multipotent cell in the bone marrow known as a hematopoietic stem cell. Leukocytes are found throughout the body, including the blood and lymphatic system.

Leukopenia

Leukopenia (also known as leukocytopenia, or leucopenia, from Greek λευκό-white and πενία-deficiency) is a decrease in the number of white blood cells (leukocytes) found in the blood, which places individuals at increased risk of infection.

Leukoplakia

Leukoplakia is a clinical term used to describe patches of keratosis . It is visible as adherent white patches on the mucous membranes of the oral cavity, including the tongue, but also other areas of the gastro-intestinal tract, urinary tract and the genitals. The clinical appearance is highly variable. Leukoplakia is not a specific disease entity, but is diagnosis of exclusion. It must be distinguished from diseases that may cause similar white lesions, such as candidiasis or lichen planus.

Leuprolide

Leuprorelin (INN) or leuprolide acetate (USAN) is a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist. Proper Sequence: p-Pro-His-Trp-Ser-Tyr-D-Leu-Leu-Arg-Pro-NHEt

Levamisole

Levamisole (marketed as the hydrochloride salt under the trade name Ergamisol) is an anthelminthic and immunomodulator belonging to a class of synthetic imidazothiazole derivatives. It was discovered at Janssen Pharmaceutica in 1966. Levamisole has been used in humans to treat parasitic worm infections, and has been studied in combination with other forms of chemotherapy for colon cancer, melanoma, and head and neck cancer. The drug was withdrawn from the U.S. and Canadian markets in 2000 and 2003 respectively, due to the risk of serious side effects and the availability of more effective replacement medications.

Levocarnitine

Carnitine is a quaternary ammonium compound biosynthesized from the amino acids lysine and methionine. In living cells, it is required for the transport of fatty acids from the cytosol into the mitochondria during the breakdown of lipids (fats) for the generation of metabolic energy. It is often sold as a nutritional supplement. Carnitine was originally found as a growth factor for mealworms and labeled vitamin Bt. Carnitine exists in two stereoisomers: Its biologically active form is L-carnitine, whereas its enantiomer, D-carnitine, is biologically inactive.

Levofloxacin

Levofloxacin is a synthetic chemotherapeutic antibiotic of the fluoroquinolone drug class and is used to treat severe or life-threatening bacterial infections or bacterial infections that have failed to respond to other antibiotic classes. It is sold under various brand names, such as Levaquin and Tavanic, the most common. In form of ophthalmic solutions it is known as Oftaquix, Quixin and Iquix.

LH-RH

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), also known as Luteinizing-hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) and luliberin, is a tropic peptide hormone responsible for the release of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) from the anterior pituitary. GnRH is synthesized and released from neurons within the hypothalamus. The peptide belongs to gonadotropin-releasing hormone family.

Lhermitte's sign

Lhermitte's sign, sometimes called the Barber Chair phenomenon, is an electrical sensation that runs down the back and into the limbs from involvement of the posterior columns, and is produced by bending the neck forward or backward.

Li-Fraumeni syndrome

Li-Fraumeni syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant hereditary disorder. It is named after Frederick Pei Li and Joseph F. Fraumeni, Jr., the American physicians who first recognized and described the syndrome. Li-Fraumeni syndrome greatly increases susceptibility to cancer. The syndrome is linked to germline mutations of the p53 tumor suppressor gene, which normally helps control cell growth. Mutations can be inherited or can arise de novo early in embryogenesis or in one of the parent's germ cells.

Lignan

The lignans are a group of chemical compounds found in plants. Lignans are one of the major classes of phytoestrogens, which are estrogen-like chemicals and also act as antioxidants. The other classes of phytoestrogens are the isoflavones and coumestans. Plant lignans are polyphenolic substances derived from phenylalanine via dimerization of substituted cinnamic alcohols (see cinnamic acid), known as monolignols, to a dibenzylbutane skeleton 2. This reaction is catalysed by oxidative enzymes and is often controlled by dirigent proteins.

Limb perfusion

Limb perfusion is a medical technique that may be used to deliver anticancer drugs directly to an arm or leg. The flow of blood to and from the limb is temporarily stopped with a tourniquet, and anticancer drugs are put directly into the blood of the limb. This allows the person to receive a high dose of drugs in the area where the cancer occurred.

Linac

A linear particle accelerator (often shortened to linac) is a type of particle accelerator that greatly increases the velocity of charged subatomic particles or ions by subjecting the charged particles to a series of oscillating electric potentials along a linear beamline; this method of particle acceleration was invented in 1928 by Rolf Widerøe.

Liothyronine sodium

Liothyronine sodium is the L-isomer of triiodothyronine (T3), a form of thyroid hormone used to treat hypothyroidism and myxedema coma. It is marketed under the brand name Cytomel (or Tertroxin in Australia).

Lipophilic

Lipophilicity, (Gr. fat-liking), refers to the ability of a chemical compound to dissolve in fats, oils, lipids, and non-polar solvents such as hexane or toluene. These non-polar solvents are themselves lipophilic — the axiom that like dissolves like generally holds true. Thus lipophilic substances tend to dissolve in other lipophilic substances, while hydrophilic (water-loving) substances tend to dissolve in water and other hydrophilic substances.

Liposarcoma

Liposarcoma (also known as an "Atypical lipoma," and "Atypical lipomatous tumor") is a malignant tumor that arises in fat cells in deep soft tissue, such as that inside the thigh or in the retroperitoneum.

Liposomal

Liposomes are artificially prepared vesicles made of lipid bilayer. Liposomes can be filled with drugs, and used to deliver drugs for cancer and other diseases. Liposomes can be prepared by disrupting biological membranes, for example by sonication.

Lisofylline

Lisofylline (LSF) is a synthetic small molecule with novel anti-inflammatory properties. LSF can effectively prevent type 1 diabetes in preclinical models and improves the function and viability of isolated or transplanted pancreatic islets.

Hepatocellular carcinoma

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, also called malignant hepatoma) is a primary malignancy (cancer) of the liver. Most cases of HCC are secondary to either a viral hepatitide infection (hepatitis B or C) or cirrhosis (alcoholism being the most common cause of hepatic cirrhosis). In countries where hepatitis is not endemic, most malignant cancers in the liver are not primary HCC but metastasis (spread) of cancer from elsewhere in the body, e.g., the colon. Treatment options of HCC and prognosis are dependent on many factors but especially on tumor size and staging. Tumor grade is also important. High-grade tumors will have a poor prognosis, while low-grade tumors may go unnoticed for many years, as is the case in many other organs, such as the breast, where a ductal carcinoma in situ (or a lobular carcinoma in situ) may be present without any clinical signs and without correlate on routine imaging tests, although in some occasions it may be detected on more specialized imaging studies like MR mammography.

Lobectomy

Lobectomy means surgical excision of a lobe. This may refer to a lobe of the lung, a lobe of the thyroid (hemithyroidectomy), or a lobe of the brain (as in anterior temporal lobectomy).

Lobular carcinoma in situ

Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) is a condition caused by unusual cells in the lobules of the breast.

Lobule

In anatomy, a lobe is a clear anatomical division or extension that can be determined without the use of a microscope (at the gross anatomy level.) This is in contrast to a lobule, which is a clear division only visible histologically.

Lomustine

Lomustine (or "CCNU")(Marketed under the name CeeNU in US) is an alkylating nitrosourea compound used in chemotherapy. It is in the same family as streptozotocin. This is a highly lipid soluble drug, and thus crosses the blood brain barrier. This property makes it ideal for treating brain tumors, and is its primary use. Lomustine has a long time to nadir (the time when white blood cells reach their lowest number).

Lonafarnib

Lonafarnib is a farnesyl-OH-transferase inhibitor that is being investigated in a human clinical trial as a potential treatment for progeria.

Loop electrosurgical excision procedure

The loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP) is currently one of the most commonly used approaches to treat high grade cervical dysplasia (CIN II/III, HGSIL) discovered on colposcopic examination. In UK it is known as "large loop excision of the transformation zone" (LLETZ). The procedure has many advantages including low cost, high success rate, and ease of use. The procedure can be done in an office setting and usually only requires a local anesthetic, though sometimes a general anesthetic is used.

Loop excision

The loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP) is currently one of the most commonly used approaches to treat high grade cervical dysplasia (CIN II/III, HGSIL) discovered on colposcopic examination. In UK it is known as "large loop excision of the transformation zone" (LLETZ). The procedure has many advantages including low cost, high success rate, and ease of use. The procedure can be done in an office setting and usually only requires a local anesthetic, though sometimes a general anesthetic is used.

Loperamide hydrochloride

Loperamide (pronounced /loʊˈpɛrəmaɪd/), a synthetic piperidine derivative, is an opioid drug effective against diarrhea resulting from gastroenteritis or inflammatory bowel disease. In most countries it is available generically and under brand names such as Lopex, Imodium, Dimor, Fortasec and Pepto Diarrhea Control. It was developed at Janssen Pharmaceutica.

Lower GI series

A lower gastrointestinal series, also called a barium enema, is a medical procedure used to examine and diagnose problems with the human colon (large intestine). X-ray pictures are taken while barium sulfate fills the colon via the rectum.

Lubricant

A lubricant (sometimes referred to as "lube") is a substance (often a liquid) introduced between two moving surfaces to reduce the friction between them, improving efficiency and reducing wear. It may also have the function of dissolving or transporting foreign particles and of distributing heat. A lubricant's ability to lubricate moving parts and reduce friction is the property known as lubricity.

Lumbar puncture

In medicine, a lumbar puncture (or LP, and colloquially known as a spinal tap) is a diagnostic and at times therapeutic procedure that is performed in order to collect a sample of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) for biochemical, microbiological, and cytological analysis, or very rarely as a treatment ("therapeutic lumbar puncture") to relieve increased intracranial pressure.

Lumpectomy

Lumpectomy (aka: tylectomy) is a common surgical procedure designed to remove a discrete lump, usually a benign tumor or breast cancer, from an affected man or woman's breast. As the tissue removed is generally quite limited and the procedure relatively non-invasive, compared to a mastectomy, a lumpectomy is considered a viable means of "breast conservation" or "breast preservation" surgery with all the attendant physical and emotional advantages of such an approach.

Lurtotecan

Lurtotecan is an analogue of camptothecin.

Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), also known as Luteinizing-hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) and luliberin, is a tropic peptide hormone responsible for the release of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) from the anterior pituitary. GnRH is synthesized and released from neurons within the hypothalamus. The peptide belongs to gonadotropin-releasing hormone family.

Lutetium texaphyrin

Motexafin lutetium is a texaphyrin, marketed as Antrin by Pharmacyclics Inc.

LY335979

Zosuquidar is a compound of antineoplastic drug candidates currently under development. It is now in "Phase 3" of clinical tests in the United States. Its action mechanism consists of the inhibition of P-glycoproteins; other drugs with this mechanism include tariquidar and laniquidar. P-glycoproteins are proteins which convert the energy derived from the hydrolysis of ATP to structural changes in protein molecules, in order to perform coupling, thus discharging medicine from cells. If P-glycoprotein coded with the MDR1 gene manifests itself in cancer cells, it discharges much of the antineoplastic drugs from the cells, making cancer cells medicine tolerant, and rendering antineoplastic drugs ineffective. This protein also manifests itself in normal organs not affected by the cancer (such as the liver, small intestine, and skin cells in blood vessels of the brain), and participates in the transportation of medicine. The compound Zosuquidar inhibits this P-glycoprotein, causing the cancer cells to lose their medicine tolerance, and making antineoplastic drugs effective.

Lycopene

Lycopene (from the Greek word lykopersikon, meaning tomato) is a bright red carotene and carotenoid pigment and phytochemical found in tomatoes and other red fruits and vegetables, such as red carrots, watermelons and papayas (but not strawberries or cherries). Although lycopene is chemically a carotene, it has no vitamin A activity.

Lymph gland/node

A lymph node is a small ball-shaped organ of the immune system, distributed widely throughout the body including the armpit and stomach/gut and linked by lymphatic vessels. Lymph nodes are garrisons of B, T, and other immune cells. Lymph nodes are found all through the body, and act as filters or traps for foreign particles. They are important in the proper functioning of the immune system.

Lymph node dissection

Lymph node dissection, also lymphadenectomy is a surgical procedure in which the lymph nodes are removed and examined to see whether they contain cancer. For a regional lymph node dissection, some of the lymph nodes in the tumor area are removed; for a radical lymph node dissection, most or all of the lymph nodes in the tumor area are removed. lymph node dissection is used in cases of testicular cancer, breast cancer and colon cancer.

Lymph vessel/Lymphatic vessel

In anatomy, lymph vessels (or lymphatic vessels) are thin walled, valved structures that carry lymph. As part of the lymphatic system, lymph vessels are complementary to the cardiovascular system. Lymph vessels are lined by endothelial cells, and deep to that have a thin layer of smooth muscles, and adventitia that bind the lymph vessel to the surroundings. Lymph vessels are devoted to propulsion of the lymph from the lymph capillaries, which are mainly concerned with absorption of interstitial fluid from the tissues. Lymph capillaries are slightly larger than their counterpart capillaries of the vascular system. Lymph vessel that carries lymph to a lymph node are called the afferent lymph vessel, and one that carries it from a lymph node is called the efferent lymph vessel, from where the lymph may travel to another lymph node or may be returned to a vein, or may travel to a larger lymph duct. Lymph ducts drain the lymph into one of the subclavian veins and thus return it to general circulation.

Lymphadenectomy

Lymphadenectomy consists of the surgical removal of one or more groups of lymph nodes. It is almost always performed as part of the surgical management of cancer.

Lymphadenopathy

Lymphadenopathy is a term meaning "disease of the lymph nodes." It is, however, almost synonymously used with "swollen/enlarged lymph nodes". It could be due to infection, auto-immune disease, or malignancy.

Lymphangiogram/Lymphangiography

Lymphography is a medical imaging technique in which a radiopaque contrast medium is injected, and then an X-ray picture is taken to visualize structures of the lymphatic system, including lymph nodes, lymph ducts, lymphatic tissues, lymph capillaries and lymph vessels. Lymphangiography is the same procedure, used only to visualize the lymph vessels. The X-ray film or image of the vessels and nodes is called a lymphogram or a lymphangiogram.

Lymphangiosarcoma

Lymphangiosarcoma is a rare malignant tumor which occurs in long-standing cases of primary or secondary lymphedema. It involves either the upper or lower lymphedemateous extremities but is most common in upper extremities.

Lymphatic fluid

Lymph is considered a part of the interstitial fluid, the fluid which lies in the interstices of all body tissues. Interstitial fluid becomes lymph when it enters a lymph capillary. The lymph then travels to at least one lymph node before emptying ultimately into the right or the left subclavian vein, where it mixes back with blood.

Lymphatic system

The lymphatic system is the part of the immune system comprising a network of conduits called lymphatic vessels that carry a clear fluid called lymph (from Latin lympha "water") unidirectionally toward the heart. Lymphoid tissue is found in many organs, particularly the lymph nodes, and in the lymphoid follicles associated with the digestive system such as the tonsils. The system also includes all the structures dedicated to the circulation and production of lymphocytes, which includes the spleen, thymus, bone marrow and the lymphoid tissue associated with the digestive system. The lymphatic system as we know it today was first described independently by Olaus Rudbeck and Thomas Bartholin.

Lymphedema

Lymphedema (lymphoedema in British English), also known as lymphatic obstruction, is a condition of localized fluid retention and tissue swelling caused by a compromised lymphatic system.

Lymphoblast

Lymphoblasts are immature cells which typically differentiate to form mature lymphocytes. Normally lymphoblasts are found in the bone marrow, but in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), lymphoblasts proliferate uncontrollably and are found in large numbers in the peripheral blood.

Lymphocyte/Lymphocytic

A lymphocyte is a type of white blood cell in the vertebrate immune system.

Lymphocytic leukemia

Lymphoid leukemia or lymphocytic leukemia is a type of leukemia affecting circulating lymphocyte cells. This is in contrast to lymphoma, which is a solid tumor of the same type of cells.

Lymphoepithelioma

Lymphoepithelioma is a type of poorly differentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma characterized by prominent infiltration of lymphocytes in the area involved by tumor. Lymphoepithelioma is also known as "class III nasopharyngeal carcinoma" in the WHO classification system. Most cases are associated with Epstein-Barr virus infection.

Lymphoid

In the context of lymphoid leukemia, it refers specifically to lymphocytes (which are the primary cellular component of lymph.) Lymphoid leukemias and lymphomas are now considered to be tumors of the same type of cell lineage. They are called "leukemia" when in the blood or marrow and "lymphoma" when in lymphatic tissue. They are grouped together under the name "lymphoid malignancy".

Lymphokine-activated killer cell

In cell biology, a lymphokine-activated killer cell (also known as a LAK cell) is a white blood cell that has been stimulated to kill tumour cells. If lymphocytes are cultured in the presence of Interleukin 2, it results in the development of effector cells which are cytotoxic to tumour cells.

Lymphoma

Lymphoma is a cancer in the lymphatic cells of the immune system. Typically, lymphomas present as a solid tumor of lymphoid cells. Treatment might involve chemotherapy and in some cases radiotherapy and/or bone marrow transplantation, and can be curable depending on the histology, type, and stage of the disease. These malignant cells often originate in lymph nodes, presenting as an enlargement of the node (a tumor). It can also affect other organs in which case it is referred to as extranodal lymphoma. Extranodal sites include the skin, brain, bowels and bone. Lymphomas are closely related to lymphoid leukemias, which also originate in lymphocytes but typically involve only circulating blood and the bone marrow (where blood cells are generated in a process termed haematopoesis) and do not usually form static tumors. There are many types of lymphomas, and in turn, lymphomas are a part of the broad group of diseases called hematological neoplasms.

Lymphomatoid granulomatosis

It is a lymphoproliferative disorder (lymphomatoid means lymphoma-like). The word granulomatosis denotes one of its microscopic character, polymorphic lymphoid infiltrates and focal necrosis within it.

Lymphoproliferative disorder

Lymphoproliferative disorders (LPDs) refer to several conditions in which lymphocytes are produced in excessive quantities. They typically occur in patients who have compromised immune systems. They are sometimes equated with "immunoproliferative disorders", but technically Lymphoproliferative disorders are a subset of immunoproliferative disorders, along with hypergammaglobulinemia and paraproteinemias.

Lymphoscintigraphy

The sentinel lymph node is the hypothetical first lymph node or group of nodes reached by metastasizing cancer cells from a primary tumor.

Lynch syndrome

Lynch syndrome (HNPCC or Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer ) is an autosomal dominant genetic condition which has a high risk of colon cancer as well as other cancers including endometrium, ovary, stomach, small intestine, hepatobiliary tract, upper urinary tract, brain, and skin. The increased risk for these cancers is due to inherited mutations that impair DNA mismatch repair.

Lysis

Lysis (Greek λύσις, lýsis from lýein "to separate") refers to the breaking down of a cell, often by viral, enzymic, or osmotic mechanisms that compromise its integrity. A fluid containing the contents of lysed cells is called a "lysate".

Lysosome

Lysosomes are cellular organelles that contain acid hydrolase enzymes to break up waste materials and cellular debris. They are found in animal cells, while in yeast and plants the same roles are performed by lytic vacuoles. Lysosomes digest excess or worn-out organelles, food particles, and engulfed viruses or bacteria. The membrane around a lysosome allows the digestive enzymes to work at the 4.5 pH they require. Lysosomes fuse with vacuoles and dispense their enzymes into the vacuoles, digesting their contents. They are created by the addition of hydrolytic enzymes to early endosomes from the Golgi apparatus. The name lysosome derives from the Greek words lysis, to separate, and soma, body. They are frequently nicknamed "suicide-bags" or "suicide-sacs" by cell biologists due to their role in autolysis. Lysosomes were discovered by the Belgian cytologist Christian de Duve in the 1950s.

Lytic

The lytic cycle is one of the two cycles of viral reproduction, the other being the lysogenic cycle. The lytic cycle is typically considered the main method of viral replication, since it results in the destruction of the infected cell.

0-9 | A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z








See all medical glossaries:





Published - April 2011







Find free glossaries at TranslationDirectory.com

Find free dictionaries at TranslationDirectory.com

Subscribe to free TranslationDirectory.com newsletter

Need more translation jobs from translation agencies? Click here!

Translation agencies are welcome to register here - Free!

Freelance translators are welcome to register here - Free!

Submit your glossary or dictionary for publishing at TranslationDirectory.com

 








Please see some ads as well as other content from TranslationDirectory.com:


Free Newsletter

Subscribe to our free newsletter to receive news from us:

 
Menu
Use More Glossaries
Use Free Dictionaries
Use Free Translators
Submit Your Glossary
Read Translation Articles
Register Translation Agency
Submit Your Resume
Obtain Translation Jobs
Subscribe to Free Newsletter
Buy Database of Translators
Obtain Blacklisted Agencies
Vote in Polls for Translators
Read News for Translators
Advertise Here
Read our FAQ
Read Testimonials
Use Site Map
Advertisements
translation directory

christianity portal
translation jobs


 

 
Copyright © 2003-2019 by TranslationDirectory.com
Legal Disclaimer
Site Map