Oncology-related Terms Glossary
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Coenzyme Q10, also known as ubiquinone, ubidecarenone, coenzyme Q, and abbreviated at times to CoQ10, CoQ, Q10, or Q, is a 1,4-benzoquinone, where Q refers to the quinone chemical group, and 10 refers to the number of isoprenyl chemical subunits in its tail.
This oil-soluble, vitamin-like substance is present in most eukaryotic cells, primarily in the mitochondria. It is a component of the electron transport chain and participates in aerobic cellular respiration, generating energy in the form of ATP. Ninety-five percent of the human body's energy is generated this way. Therefore, those organs with the highest energy requirements—such as the heart, liver and kidney —have the highest CoQ10 concentrations. There are three redox states of Coenzyme Q10: fully oxidized (ubiquinone), semiquinone (ubisemiquinone), and fully reduced (ubiquinol).The capacity of this molecule to exist in a completely oxidised form and a completely reduced form enables it to perform its functions in electron transport chain and as an antioxidant respectively.
QS-21 is a purified plant extract that enhances the ability of the immune system to respond to vaccine antigens. It is derived from the Soap bark tree (Quillaja saponaria), which is native to the country of Chile.
The extract contains water soluble triterpene glucoside compounds, which are members of a family of plant-based compounds called saponins.
It is currently being tested as an Immunologic adjuvant in various vaccines in attempts to improve their efficacy. It is believed to enhance both humoral and cell-mediated immunity.
QS-21 is currently under clinical evaluation as an additive for various trial vaccines, including those for HIV, malaria and cancer. As of 2002, it had been tested in more than 3000 patients in 60 clinical trials.
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Published - April 2011
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