Oncology-related Terms Glossary Free glossaries at TanslationDirectory.com translation jobs
Home Free Glossaries Free Dictionaries Post Your Translation Job! Free Articles Jobs for Translators

Oncology-related Terms Glossary
(Starting with "K")

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_oncology-related_terms






Become a member of TranslationDirectory.com at just $8 per month (paid per year)




Advertisements:



Use the search bar to look for terms in all glossaries, dictionaries, articles and other resources simultaneously




0-9 | A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z

Kaposi's sarcoma

Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is a tumor caused by Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8), also known as Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV). It was originally described by Moritz Kaposi (KA-po-she), a Hungarian dermatologist practicing at the University of Vienna in 1872. It became more widely known as one of the AIDS defining illnesses in the 1980s. The viral cause for this cancer was discovered in 1994. Although KS is now well-established to be caused by a virus infection, there is widespread lack of awareness of this even among persons at risk for KSHV/HHV-8 infection.

Karnofsky Performance Status

In medicine (oncology and other fields), performance status is an attempt to quantify cancer patients' general well-being. This measure is used to determine whether they can receive chemotherapy, whether dose adjustment is necessary, and as a measure for the required intensity of palliative care. It is also used in oncological randomized controlled trials as a measure of quality of life.

Keloid

A keloid (also known as a "keloidal scar") is a type of scar, which depending on its maturity, is composed of mainly either type III (early) or type I (late) collagen. It is a result of an overgrowth of granulation tissue (collagen type 3) at the site of a healed skin injury which is then slowly replaced by collagen type 1. Keloids are firm, rubbery lesions or shiny, fibrous nodules, and can vary from pink to flesh-coloured or red to dark brown in colour. A keloid scar is benign, non-contagious, and sometimes accompanied by severe itchiness and pain, and changes in texture. In severe cases, it can affect movement of skin.

Keloids should not be confused with hypertrophic scars, which are raised scars that do not grow beyond the boundaries of the original wound.

Keratan sulfate

Keratan sulfate (KS), also called keratosulfate, is any of several sulfated glycosaminoglycans (structural carbohydrates) that have been found especially in the cornea, cartilage, and bone. It is also synthesized in the central nervous system where it participates both in development and in the glial scar formation following an injury. Keratan sulfates are large, highly hydrated molecules which in joints can act as a cushion to absorb mechanical shock.

Keratinocyte growth factor

The Keratinocyte Growth Factor (KGF), also known as FGF7, is a growth factor present in the epithelialization-phase of wound healing. In this phase, keratinocytes are covering the wound, forming the epithelium.

KGF is a small signaling molecule that binds to fibroblast growth factor receptor 2b (FGFR2b). For signalling to occur, a dimer is required between two FGF:FGFR complexes that is linked together by a molecule of heparin.

There are 23 known FGFs, and 4 FGF receptors. FGF:FGFR binding is complex and regulated by a variety of mechanisms in a tissue specific manner.

FGF10 is also known as "Keratinocyte growth factor 2".

Keratoacanthoma

Keratoacanthoma is a relatively common low-grade malignancy that originates in the pilosebaceous glands and closely resembles squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). In fact, strong arguments support classifying KA as a variant of invasive SCC. The pathologist often labels KA as "well- differentiated squamous cell carcinoma, keratoacanthoma variant". KA is characterized by rapid growth over a few weeks to months, followed by spontaneous resolution over 4–6 months in most cases. KA reportedly progresses, although rarely, to invasive or metastatic carcinoma; therefore, aggressive surgical treatment often is advocated. Whether these cases were SCC or KA, the reports highlight the difficulty of distinctly classifying individual cases.

Ketoconazole

Ketoconazole is a synthetic antifungal drug used to prevent and treat skin and fungal infections, especially in immunocompromised patients such as those with AIDS or those on chemotherapy. Ketoconazole is sold commercially as an anti-dandruff shampoo, topical cream, and oral tablet, under the trademark name Nizoral by Johnson & Johnson in the USA, and as Sebizole by Douglas Pharmaceuticals in Australia & New Zealand. In Spain products with ketoconazole as main agent include Ketoisdin gel 2% (gel) and Fungarest (topical 30g cream).

Ketoconazole is very lipophilic, which leads to accumulation in fatty tissues. The less toxic and more effective triazole compounds fluconazole and itraconazole have largely replaced ketoconazole for internal use. Ketoconazole is best absorbed at highly acidic levels, so antacids or other causes of decreased stomach acid levels will lower the drug's absorption when taken orally. Absorption can be increased by taking it with an acidic beverage, such as cola soda.

Ketorolac

Ketorolac or ketorolac tromethamine (marketed under the trademarks Toradol and Acular in the US, where generics have also been approved, and various other brand names around the world) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) in the family of heterocyclic acetic acid derivative, often used as an analgesic, antipyretic (fever reducer), and anti-inflammatory. Ketorolac acts by inhibiting the bodily synthesis of prostaglandins. Ketorolac in its oral (tablet or capsule) and intramuscular (injected) preparations is a racemic mixture of both (S)-(−)-ketorolac, the active isomer, and (R)-(+)-ketorolac. An ophthalmic (i.e., eye-drop) solution of ketorolac is available and is used to treat eye pain and to relieve the itchiness and burning of seasonal allergies.The FDA has approved an intranasal formulation of ketorolac tromethamine (Sprix Nasal Spray) for short-term management of moderate to moderately severe pain requiring analgesia at the opioid level.

Keyhole limpet hemocyanin

Keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) is a large, multisubunit, oxygen-carrying, metalloprotein found in the hemolymph of the giant keyhole limpet, Megathura crenulata, that lives off the coast of California from Monterey Bay to Isla Asuncion off Baja California.

KGF

The Keratinocyte Growth Factor (KGF), also known as FGF7, is a growth factor present in the epithelialization-phase of wound healing. In this phase, keratinocytes are covering the wound, forming the epithelium.

KGF is a small signaling molecule that binds to fibroblast growth factor receptor 2b (FGFR2b). For signalling to occur, a dimer is required between two FGF:FGFR complexes that is linked together by a molecule of heparin.

There are 23 known FGFs, and 4 FGF receptors. FGF:FGFR binding is complex and regulated by a variety of mechanisms in a tissue specific manner.

FGF10 is also known as "Keratinocyte growth factor 2".

Killer cell

Natural killer cells (or NK cells) are a type of cytotoxic lymphocyte that constitute a major component of the innate immune system. NK cells play a major role in the rejection of tumors and cells infected by viruses. They kill cells by releasing small cytoplasmic granules of proteins called perforin and granzyme that cause the target cell to die by apoptosis (programmed cell death).

NK cells are defined as large granular lymphocytes (LGL) and constitute the third kind of cells differentiated from the common lymphoid progenitor generating B and T lymphocytes. They do not express T-cell antigen receptors (TCR) or Pan T marker CD3 or surface immunoglobulins (Ig) B cell receptors but they usually express the surface markers CD16 (FcγRIII) and CD56 in humans, NK1.1 or NK1.2 in C57BL/6 mice. Up to 80% of human NK cells also express CD8.

They were named "natural killers" because of the initial notion that they do not require activation in order to kill cells that are missing "self" markers of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I.

They are distinct from Natural Killer T cells.

Klatskin tumor

A Klatskin tumor (or hilar cholangiocarcinoma) is a cholangiocarcinoma (cancer of the biliary tree) occurring at the confluence of the right and left hepatic bile ducts. It is named after Dr Gerald Klatskin, an American physician working at Yale.

Klebsiella

Klebsiella is a genus of non-motile, Gram-negative, oxidase-negative, rod shaped bacteria with a prominent polysaccharide-based capsule. It is named after the German microbiologist Edwin Klebs (1834–1913). Frequent human pathogens, Klebsiella organisms can lead to a wide range of disease states, notably pneumonia, urinary tract infections, septicemia, ankylosing spondylitis, and soft tissue infections.

Klebsiella species are ubiquitous in nature.

Klinefelter's syndrome

Klinefelter syndrome, 47, XXY, or XXY syndrome is a condition in which human males have an extra X chromosome. While females have an XX chromosomal makeup, and males an XY, affected individuals have at least two X chromosomes and at least one Y chromosome. Because of the extra chromosome, individuals with the condition are usually referred to as "XXY Males", or "47, XXY Males".

In humans, Klinefelter syndrome is the most common sex chromosome disorder in males and the second most common condition caused by the presence of extra chromosomes. The condition exists in roughly 1 out of every 1,000 males. One in every 500 males has an extra X chromosome but does not have the syndrome. Other mammals also have the XXY syndrome, including mice.

The principal effects are development of small testicles and reduced fertility. A variety of other physical and behavioral differences and problems are common, though severity varies and many boys and men with the condition have few detectable symptoms.

The syndrome was named after Dr. Harry Klinefelter, who in 1942 worked with Fuller Albright at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston, Massachusetts and first described it in the same year.

KPS

Potassium persulfate (K2S2O8) (also potassium peroxydisulfate or KPS) is a compound.

It is a food additive and it is used in organic chemistry as an oxidizing agent for instance in the Elbs persulfate oxidation, and in hair dye substances as whitening agent with hydrogen peroxide. It takes also an important role as initiator for emulsion polymerization.

For a review of its uses in organic chemistry, see Encyclopedia of Reagents for Organic Synthesis, vol. 1, pp 193-197(1995).

Kretek

Kretek are cigarettes made with a blend of tobacco, cloves and other flavors. The word "kretek" itself is an onomatopoetic term for the crackling sound of burning cloves. Haji Jamahri, a resident of Kudus, Java, created kreteks in the early 1880s as a means to deliver the eugenol of cloves to the lungs, as it was thought to help asthma. Jamahri believed the eugenol cured his chest pains and he started to market his invention to the village, but he died before he could mass market it. M. Nitisemito took his place and began to commercialize the new cigarettes. Today, kretek manufacturers directly employ over 180,000 people in Indonesia and an additional 10 million indirectly.

Partly due to favorable taxation compared to "white" cigarettes, kreteks are by far the most widely-smoked form of cigarettes in Indonesia, where about 90% of smokers usually smoke kreteks. In Indonesia, there are hundreds of kretek manufacturers, including small local makers and major brands. Most of the widely-known international brands, including Bentoel, Djarum, Gudang Garam, Jakarta, Sampoerna, and Wismilak, originate from Indonesia. Nat Sherman of the United States produces cigarettes branded as "A Touch of Clove" but they are not true kreteks since they contain clove flavoring in the filter rather than actual clove spice mixed with the tobacco.

Krukenberg tumor

A Krukenberg tumor, also Krukenberg tumour, classically refers to a metastatic ovarian malignancy whose primary site arose in the gastrointestinal tract or breast. Diffuse gastric carcinoma (linitis plastica) used to be the most common, but lately there have been an increase in breast origin. Krukenberg tumors are often found in both ovaries. Microscopically, they are characterized by appearance of mucin-secreting signet-ring cells in the tissue of the ovary; when the primary tumor is discovered, the same signet-ring cells are typically found.

0-9 | A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z








See all medical glossaries:





Published - April 2011







Find free glossaries at TranslationDirectory.com

Find free dictionaries at TranslationDirectory.com

Subscribe to free TranslationDirectory.com newsletter

Need more translation jobs from translation agencies? Click here!

Translation agencies are welcome to register here - Free!

Freelance translators are welcome to register here - Free!

Submit your glossary or dictionary for publishing at TranslationDirectory.com





Free Newsletter

Subscribe to our free newsletter to receive news from us:

 
Menu
Use More Glossaries
Use Free Dictionaries
Use Free Translators
Submit Your Glossary
Read Translation Articles
Register Translation Agency
Submit Your Resume
Obtain Translation Jobs
Subscribe to Free Newsletter
Buy Database of Translators
Obtain Blacklisted Agencies
Vote in Polls for Translators
Read News for Translators
Advertise Here
Read our FAQ
Read Testimonials
Use Site Map
Advertisements
translation directory

christianity portal
translation jobs


 

 
Copyright © 2003-2020 by TranslationDirectory.com
Legal Disclaimer
Site Map