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Oncology-related Terms Glossary
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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_oncology-related_terms






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10-propargyl-10-deazaaminopterin

Pralatrexate (brand name Folotyn) is an anti-cancer therapy. It is the first drug approved as a treatment for patients with relapsed or refractory peripheral T-cell lymphoma, or PTCL— a biologically diverse group of aggressive blood cancers that have a poor prognosis.

12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate

12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), also commonly known as tetradecanoylphorbol acetate, tetradecanoyl phorbol acetate, and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), is diester of phorbol and a potent tumor promoter often employed in biomedical research to activate the signal transduction enzyme protein kinase C (PKC). The effects of TPA on PKC result from its similarity to one of the natural activators of classic PKC isoforms, diacylglycerol. TPA is a small molecule drug.

TPA is also being studied as a drug in the treatment of hematologic cancer.

TPA has a specific use in cancer diagnostics as a B-cell specific mitogen in cytogenetic testing. To view the chromosomes, a cytogenetic test requires dividing cells. TPA is used to stimulate division of B-cells during cytogenetic diagnosis of B-cell cancers such as chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

TPA was first found in the croton plant, a shrub found in Southeast Asia, exposure to which provokes a poison ivy-like rash. It is currently undergoing phase 1 clinical trials.

13-cis retinoic acid

Retinoic acid is a metabolite of vitamin A (retinol) that mediates the functions of vitamin A required for growth and development. Retinoic acid is required in chordate animals which includes all higher animals from fishes to humans. During early embryonic development, retinoic acid generated in a specific region of the embryo helps determine position along the embryonic anterior/posterior axis by serving as an intercellular signaling molecule that guides development of the posterior portion of the embryo. It acts through Hox genes, which ultimately control anterior/posterior patterning in early developmental stages.

The key role of retinoic acid in embryonic development mediates the high teratogenicity of retinoid pharmaceuticals, such as isotretinoin used for treatment of cancer and acne. Oral megadoses of pre-formed vitamin A (retinyl pamitate), and retinoic acid itself, also have teratogenic potential by this same mechanism.

17-N-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin

17-N-Allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin is a derivative of the antibiotic geldanamycin that is being studied in the treatment of cancer, specific young patients with certain types of leukemia or solid tumors, especially kidney tumors. It works by targeting Hsp90, which is expressed in those tumors. As of June 2005, 17-N-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin is undergoing Phase 1 and Phase 2 clinical trials. It belongs to the family of drugs called antitumor antibiotics.

1H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI), or magnetic resonance tomography (MRT) is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to visualize detailed internal structures. MRI makes use of the property of Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to image nuclei of atoms inside the body.

An MRI machine uses a powerful magnetic field to align the magnetization of some atoms in the body, and radio frequency fields to systematically alter the alignment of this magnetization. This causes the nuclei to produce a rotating magnetic field detectable by the scanner—and this information is recorded to construct an image of the scanned area of the body. Strong magnetic field gradients cause nuclei at different locations to rotate at different speeds. 3-D spatial information can be obtained by providing gradients in each direction.

MRI provides good contrast between the different soft tissues of the body, which make it especially useful in imaging the brain, muscles, the heart, and cancers compared with other medical imaging techniques such as computed tomography (CT) or X-rays. Unlike CT scans or traditional X-rays, MRI uses no ionizing radiation.

2-methoxyestradiol

2-Methoxyestradiol (2ME2) is a drug that prevents the formation of new blood vessels that tumors need in order to grow (angiogenesis). It is derived from estrogen, although it binds poorly to known estrogen receptors, and belongs to the family of drugs called angiogenesis inhibitors. It has undergone Phase 1 clinical trials against breast cancers. Preclinical models also suggest that 2ME2 could also be effective against inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. The CAS name for 2ME2 is (17 beta)-2-methoxyestra-1,3,5(10)-triene-3,17-diol. It also acts as a vasodilator. Several studies have been conducted showing 2ME2 is a microtubule-inhibitor and effective against prostate cancer in rodents.

2IT-BAD monoclonal antibody 170

Monoclonal antibodies (mAb or moAb) are monospecific antibodies that are the same because they are made by identical immune cells that are all clones of a unique parent cell.

Given almost any substance, it is possible to create monoclonal antibodies that specifically bind to that substance; they can then serve to detect or purify that substance. This has become an important tool in biochemistry, molecular biology and medicine. When used as medications, the non-proprietary drug name ends in -mab (see "Nomenclature of monoclonal antibodies").

3-aminopyridine-2-carboxaldehyde thiosemicarbazone

3-aminopyridine-2-carboxaldehyde thiosemicarbazone (3-AP, also called Triapine) is a substance that is being studied in the treatment of cancer.

It belongs to the family of drugs called ribonucleotide reductase inhibitors.

3AP is a potent inhibitor of ribonucleotide reductase, the rate determining enzyme in the supply of deoxynucleotides (DNA building blocks) for DNA synthesis. DNA synthesis is required for cellular proliferation and DNA repair. It is therefore not surprising that it has broad spectrum antitumor activity and synergizes with antitumor drugs that target DNA. It is a very strong iron chelator and in the body it is likely that the iron chelate is the active species that quenches the active site tyrosyl radical required by ribonucleotide reductase for its enzymatic activity. The 3AP iron chelate is redox active and there have been several reports in the literature ascribing this property to some of the biological activities of 3AP. 3AP is a product of the laboratory of Dr Alan C. Sartorelli, a renowned cancer researcher in the Yale University School of Medicine Pharmacology Department. Dr. Sartorelli has a long standing interest in ribonucleotide reductase inhibitors as anticancer agents, and in collaboration with the late Dr. Tai-Shun Lin, and Dr. Mao-Chin Liu, a large number of thiosemicarbazone based ribonucleotide reductase inhibitors were synthesized over several decades. 3AP was chosen, based on the results of studying and the screening these products, as the candidate inhibitor most likely to express activity in the setting of human neoplastic disease. As of 2006, 3AP is being developed by Vion Pharmaceuticals. It has undergone Phase 1 and Phase 2 clinical trials. Vion Pharmaceuticals has also filed several use patents concerning the antiviral and antifungal activity of 3AP.

3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy

3-aminopyridine-2-carboxaldehyde thiosemicarbazone (3-AP, also called Triapine) is a substance that is being studied in the treatment of cancer.

It belongs to the family of drugs called ribonucleotide reductase inhibitors.

3AP is a potent inhibitor of ribonucleotide reductase, the rate determining enzyme in the supply of deoxynucleotides (DNA building blocks) for DNA synthesis. DNA synthesis is required for cellular proliferation and DNA repair. It is therefore not surprising that it has broad spectrum antitumor activity and synergizes with antitumor drugs that target DNA. It is a very strong iron chelator and in the body it is likely that the iron chelate is the active species that quenches the active site tyrosyl radical required by ribonucleotide reductase for its enzymatic activity. The 3AP iron chelate is redox active and there have been several reports in the literature ascribing this property to some of the biological activities of 3AP. 3AP is a product of the laboratory of Dr Alan C. Sartorelli, a renowned cancer researcher in the Yale University School of Medicine Pharmacology Department. Dr. Sartorelli has a long standing interest in ribonucleotide reductase inhibitors as anticancer agents, and in collaboration with the late Dr. Tai-Shun Lin, and Dr. Mao-Chin Liu, a large number of thiosemicarbazone based ribonucleotide reductase inhibitors were synthesized over several decades. 3AP was chosen, based on the results of studying and the screening these products, as the candidate inhibitor most likely to express activity in the setting of human neoplastic disease. As of 2006, 3AP is being developed by Vion Pharmaceuticals. It has undergone Phase 1 and Phase 2 clinical trials. Vion Pharmaceuticals has also filed several use patents concerning the antiviral and antifungal activity of 3AP.

3-dimensional radiation therapy

Radiation therapy (in the USA), radiation oncology, or radiotherapy (in the UK, Canada and Australia), sometimes abbreviated to XRT, is the medical use of ionizing radiation as part of cancer treatment to control malignant cells (not to be confused with radiology, the use of radiation in medical imaging and diagnosis). Radiotherapy may be used for curative or adjuvant treatment. It is used as palliative treatment (where cure is not possible and the aim is for local disease control or symptomatic relief) or as therapeutic treatment (where the therapy has survival benefit and it can be curative). Total body irradiation (TBI) is a radiotherapy technique used to prepare the body to receive a bone marrow transplant. Radiotherapy has several applications in non-malignant conditions, such as the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia, severe thyroid eye disease, pterygium, pigmented villonodular synovitis, prevention of keloid scar growth, and prevention of heterotopic ossification. The use of radiotherapy in non-malignant conditions is limited partly by worries about the risk of radiation-induced cancers.

Radiotherapy is used for the treatment of malignant cancer, and may be used as a primary or adjuvant modality. It is also common to combine radiotherapy with surgery, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, Immunotherapy or some mixture of the four. Most common cancer types can be treated with radiotherapy in some way. The precise treatment intent (curative, adjuvant, neoadjuvant, therapeutic, or palliative) will depend on the tumor type, location, and stage, as well as the general health of the patient.

Radiation therapy is commonly applied to the cancerous tumor. The radiation fields may also include the draining lymph nodes if they are clinically or radiologically involved with tumor, or if there is thought to be a risk of subclinical malignant spread. It is necessary to include a margin of normal tissue around the tumor to allow for uncertainties in daily set-up and internal tumor motion. These uncertainties can be caused by internal movement (for example, respiration and bladder filling) and movement of external skin marks relative to the tumor position.

To spare normal tissues (such as skin or organs which radiation must pass through in order to treat the tumor), shaped radiation beams are aimed from several angles of exposure to intersect at the tumor, providing a much larger absorbed dose there than in the surrounding, healthy tissue.

Brachytherapy, in which a radiation source is placed inside or next to the area requiring treatment, is another form of radiation therapy that minimizes exposure to healthy tissue during procedures to treat cancers of the breast, prostate and other organs.

4-demethoxydaunorubicin

Idarubicin or 4-demethoxydaunorubicin is an anthracycline antileukemic drug. It inserts itself into DNA and prevents DNA from unwinding by interfering with the enzyme topoisomerase II. It is an analog of daunorubicin, but the absence of a methoxy group increases its fat solubility and cellular uptake.

It belongs to the family of drugs called antitumor antibiotics.

It is currently combined with cytosine arabinoside as a first line treatment of acute myeloid leukemia.

It is distributed under the trade names Zavedos (UK) and Idamycin (USA).

4-hydroxytamoxifen

Afimoxifene is a selective estrogen receptor modulator whose active ingredient is 4-hydroxytamoxifen which is identical to the active metabolite of tamoxifen. Afimoxifene is a transdermal gel formulation and is being developed by Ascend Therapeutics, Inc. under the trademark TamoGel. Afimoxifene has completed a phase II clinical trial for the treatment of cyclical mastalgia.

4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide

4-Nitroquinoline 1-oxide (also known as 4-NQO, 4NQO, 4Nqo, NQO and NQNO) is a quinoline derivative and a tumorigenic compound used in the assessment of the efficacy of diets, drugs, and procedures in the prevention and treatment of cancer in animal models. It induces DNA lesions usually corrected by nucleotide excision repair.

5-FU

Fluorouracil (5-FU or f5U) (sold under the brand names Adrucil, Carac, Efudex and Fluoroplex) is a drug that is a pyrimidine analog which is used in the treatment of cancer. It works through noncompetitive inhibition of thymidylate synthase. Due to its noncompetitive nature and effects on thymidine synthesis, 5-FU is frequently referred to as the "suicide inactivator". It belongs to the family of drugs called antimetabolites. It is typically administered with leucovorin.

5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid

5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) is the main metabolite of serotonin in the human body. In chemical analysis of urine samples, 5-HIAA is used to determine the body's levels of serotonin.

5-hydroxytryptamine

Serotonin or 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter. Biochemically derived from tryptophan, serotonin is primarily found in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, platelets, and in the central nervous system (CNS) of animals including humans. It is a well-known contributor to feelings of well-being; therefore it is also known as a "happiness hormone" despite not being a hormone.

Approximately 80 percent of the human body's total serotonin is located in the enterochromaffin cells in the gut, where it is used to regulate intestinal movements. The remainder is synthesized in serotonergic neurons in the CNS where it has various functions. These include the regulation of mood, appetite, sleep, as well as muscle contraction. Serotonin also has some cognitive functions, including in memory and learning. Modulation of serotonin at synapses is thought to be a major action of several classes of pharmacological antidepressants.

Serotonin secreted from the enterochromaffin cells eventually finds its way out of tissues into the blood. There, it is actively taken up by blood platelets, which store it. When the platelets bind to a clot, they disgorge serotonin, where it serves as a vasoconstrictor and helps to regulate hemostasis and blood clotting. Serotonin also is a growth factor for some types of cells, which may give it a role in wound healing.

Serotonin is mainly metabolized to 5-HIAA, chiefly by the liver. Metabolism involves first oxidation by monoamine oxidase ( MAO ) to the corresponding aldehyde. This is followed by oxidation by aldehyde dehydrogenase to 5-HIAA, the indole acetic acid derivative. The latter is then excreted by the kidneys. One type of tumor, called carcinoid, sometimes secretes large amounts of serotonin into the blood, which causes various forms of the carcinoid syndrome of flushing, diarrhea, and heart problems. Because of serotonin's growth promoting effect on cardiac myocytes, persons with serotonin-secreting carcinoid may suffer a right heart (tricuspid) valve disease syndrome, caused by proliferation of myocytes onto the valve.

In addition to animals, serotonin is also found in fungi and plants. Serotonin's presence in insect venoms and plant spines serves to cause pain, which is a side effect of serotonin injection. Serotonin is produced by pathogenic amoebas, and its effect on the gut causes diarrhea. Its widespread presence in many seeds and fruits may serve to stimulate the digestive tract into expelling the seeds.

506U78

Nelarabine is a chemotherapy drug used in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. It was previously known as 506U78.

Nelarabine is a purine nucleoside analog converted to its corresponding arabinosylguanine nucleotide triphosphate (araGTP), resulting in inhibition of DNA synthesis and cytotoxicity. Pre-clinical studies suggest that T-cells are particularly sensitive to nelarabine. In October 2005, it was approved by the FDA for T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia and T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma that has not responded to or has relapsed following treatment with at least two chemotherapy regimens. It was later approved in the European Union on August 22, 2007. Complete responses have been achieved with this medication.

It is marketed in the US as Arranon and as Atriance in the EU by GlaxoSmithKline.

5Q- syndrome

Chromosome 5q deletion syndrome (chromosome 5q monosomy, 5q- syndrome) is a rare disorder caused by loss of part of the long arm (q arm, band 5q31.1) of human chromosome 5.

It should not be confused with "partial trisomy 5q", though both conditions have been observed in the same family.

This should not be confused with cri du chat syndrome which is a deletion of the short arm of the 5th chromosome.

6-hydroxymethylacylfulvene

Irofulven or 6-hydroxymethylacylfulvene (also known as HMAF of MGI-114) is an antitumor agent. It belongs to the family of drugs called alkylating agents.

It inhibits the replication of DNA.

Irofulven is an analogue of illudin S, a sesquiterpene toxin found in mushrooms of the genus Omphalotus. The compound was oringally synthesized by Dr. Trevor McMorris (UCSD) and found to have anticancer properties by Dr. Michael J Kelner (UCSD).

9-cis retinoic acid

Retinoic acid is a metabolite of vitamin A (retinol) that mediates the functions of vitamin A required for growth and development. Retinoic acid is required in chordate animals which includes all higher animals from fishes to humans. During early embryonic development, retinoic acid generated in a specific region of the embryo helps determine position along the embryonic anterior/posterior axis by serving as an intercellular signaling molecule that guides development of the posterior portion of the embryo. It acts through Hox genes, which ultimately control anterior/posterior patterning in early developmental stages.

The key role of retinoic acid in embryonic development mediates the high teratogenicity of retinoid pharmaceuticals, such as isotretinoin used for treatment of cancer and acne. Oral megadoses of pre-formed vitamin A (retinyl pamitate), and retinoic acid itself, also have teratogenic potential by this same mechanism.

90Y-DOTA-biotin

90Y-DOTA-biotin is a radioactive substance (yttrium-90) joined by a chemical link (DOTA) to biotin, a vitamin. It is often[citation needed] used in pretargeted radioimmunotherapy, especially in cancer research.

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Published - April 2011







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