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Oncology-related Terms Glossary
(Starting with "R")

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_oncology-related_terms






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R-flurbiprofen

Tarenflurbil, or R-flurbiprofen, is the single enantiomer of the racemate NSAID flurbiprofen. For several years, research and trials for the drug were conducted by Myriad Genetics, to investigate its potential as a treatment for Alzheimer's disease; that investigation concluded in June 2008 when the company announced it would discontinue development of the compound.

R-tPA

Tissue plasminogen activator (abbreviated TPA or PLAT) is a protein involved in the breakdown of blood clots. It is a serine protease (EC 3.4.21.68) found on endothelial cells, the cells that line the blood vessels. As an enzyme, it catalyzes the conversion of plasminogen to plasmin, the major enzyme responsible for clot breakdown. Because it works on the clotting system, tPA is used in clinical medicine to treat only embolic or thrombotic stroke. Use is contraindicated in hemorrhagic stroke and head trauma.

R115777

Tipifarnib (Zarnestra) is a farnesyltransferase inhibitor that is being investigated in patients 65 years of age and older with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia (AML). It is also being tested in clinical trials in patients in certain stages of breast cancer.

Radiation oncologist

A radiation oncologist is a doctor who specializes in the treatment of cancer patients, using radiation therapy as the main modality of treatment. Radiation can be given as a curative modality, either alone or in combination with surgery and/or chemotherapy. It may also be used palliatively, to relieve symptoms in patients with incurable cancers. In some countries (not the United States), radiotherapy and chemotherapy are controlled by a single oncologist who is a "clinical oncologist". Radiation oncologists work closely with other physicians such as surgical oncologists, other surgeons, internal medicine subspecialists and medical oncologists, as part of the multi-disciplinary cancer team.

Radiation therapist

The Radiation Therapist (or Therapeutic Radiographer (esp. UK), or Radiotherapist) is an allied health professional who works in the field of radiation oncology. Radiation therapists plan and administer radiation treatments to cancer patients in most Western countries including the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, most European countries, and Canada where the minimum education requirement is often a baccalaureate degree or postgraduate degrees in Radiation Therapy. Radiation therapists (with Master's and Doctoral degrees) can also prescribe medications and radiation, interpret tests results, perform follow ups, reviews, and provide consultations to cancer patients in the United Kingdom and Ontario, Canada (possibly in Australia in the future as well). In the United States, radiation therapists have a lower educational requirement (minimum an associate degree of arts even though many graduate with bachelor's degrees) and often require postgraduate education and certification (CMD, Certified Medical Dosimetrist) in order to plan treatments.

Radiation therapy

Radiation therapy (in the USA), radiation oncology, or radiotherapy (in the UK, Canada and Australia), sometimes abbreviated to XRT, is the medical use of ionizing radiation as part of cancer treatment to control malignant cells (not to be confused with radiology, the use of radiation in medical imaging and diagnosis). Radiotherapy may be used for curative or adjuvant treatment. It is used as palliative treatment (where cure is not possible and the aim is for local disease control or symptomatic relief) or as therapeutic treatment (where the therapy has survival benefit and it can be curative). Total body irradiation (TBI) is a radiotherapy technique used to prepare the body to receive a bone marrow transplant. Radiotherapy has several applications in non-malignant conditions, such as the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia, severe thyroid eye disease, pterygium, pigmented villonodular synovitis, prevention of keloid scar growth, and prevention of heterotopic ossification. The use of radiotherapy in non-malignant conditions is limited partly by worries about the risk of radiation-induced cancers.

Radical lymph node dissection

Radical lymph node dissection is a surgical procedure to remove most or all of the lymph nodes that drain lymph from the area around a tumor. The lymph nodes are then examined under a microscope to see if cancer cells have spread to them.

Radical mastectomy

Radical mastectomy is a surgical procedure in which the breast, underlying chest muscle (including pectoralis major and pectoralis minor), and lymph nodes of the axilla are removed as a treatment for breast cancer.

Radical perineal prostatectomy

Radical perineal prostatectomy is a surgical procedure wherein the prostate gland is removed through an incision in the area between the anus and the scrotum (perineum). It is typically performed to remove early prostate cancer. Radical perineal prostatectomy is less commonly used than another surgery such as the open radical retropubic prostatectomy or the robot assisted laparoscopic radical retropubic prostatectomy. Lymph nodes can be sampled through the same incision, although this procedure is not common place in the U.S. at this time. When the cancer is small and confined to the prostate, radical perineal prostatectomy achieves the same rate of cure as the retropubic approach but less blood is lost and recovery is faster. One downside to the perineal approach is an increased risk of fecal incontinence.

Radical prostatectomy

A prostatectomy is the surgical removal of all or part of the prostate gland. Abnormalities of the prostate, such as a tumour, or if the gland itself becomes enlarged for any reason, can restrict the normal flow of urine along the urethra.

Radical retropubic prostatectomy

Radical retropubic prostatectomy is a surgical procedure in which the prostate gland is removed through an incision in the abdomen. It is most often used to treat individuals who have early prostate cancer. Radical retropubic prostatectomy can be performed under general, spinal, or epidural anesthesia and requires blood transfusion less than one-fifth of the time. Radical retropubic prostatectomy is associated with complications such as urinary incontinence and impotence, but these outcomes are related to a combination of individual patient anatomy, surgical technique, and the experience and skill of the surgeon.

Radioactive drug

Radiopharmacology is the study and preparation of radiopharmaceuticals, which are radioactive pharmaceuticals. Radiopharmaceuticals are used in the field of nuclear medicine as tracers in the diagnosis and treatment of many diseases. Many radiopharmaceuticals use technetium-99m (Tc-99m) which has many useful properties as a gamma-emitting tracer nuclide. In the book Technetium a total of 31 different radiopharmaceuticals based on Tc-99m are listed for imaging and functional studies of the brain, myocardium, thyroid, lungs, liver, gallbladder, kidneys, skeleton, blood and tumors.

Radioactive iodine

Iodine-131 (131I), also called radioiodine (though many other radioactive isotopes of this element are known), is an important radioisotope of iodine. It has a radioactive decay half life of about eight days. Its uses are mostly medical and pharmaceutical. It also plays a role as a major radioactive hazard present in nuclear fission products, and was a significant contributor to the health effects from open-air atomic bomb testing in the 1950s, and from the Chernobyl disaster. This is because I-131 is a major uranium, plutonium and indirectly thorium fission product, comprising nearly 3% of the total products of fission.

Radiofrequency ablation

Radio frequency ablation (RFA) is a medical procedure where part of the electrical conduction system of the heart, tumor or other dysfunctional tissue is ablated using high frequency alternating current to treat a medical disorder. An important advantage of RF current (over previously used low frequency AC or pulses of DC) is that it does not directly stimulate nerves or heart muscle and can therefore often be used without the need for general anaesthetic. RFA has become increasingly accepted in the last 15 years with promising results . RFA procedures are performed under image guidance (such as X-ray screening, CT scan or ultrasound) by an interventional radiologist or a cardiac electrophysiologist, a subspecialty of cardiologists.

Radiographer

A radiologic technologist, also known as medical radiation technologist and as radiographer, performs imaging of the human body for diagnosis or treating medical problems. Radiologic technologists work in hospitals, clinics, medical laboratories and private practice. High occupational risks of cancer and infectious diseases are very common in this profession.

Radioimmunoguided surgery

Radioimmunoguided surgery is a procedure that uses radioactive substances to locate tumors so that they can be removed by surgery.

Radioimmunotherapy

Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) uses an antibody labeled with a radionuclide to deliver cytotoxic radiation to a target cell. In cancer therapy, an antibody with specificity for a tumor-associated antigen is used to deliver a lethal dose of radiation to the tumor cells. The ability for the antibody to specifically bind to a tumor-associated antigen increases the dose delivered to the tumor cells while decreasing the dose to normal tissues. By its nature, RIT requires a tumor cell to express an antigen that is unique to the neoplasm or is not accessible in normal cells.

Radioisotope

A radionuclide is an atom with an unstable nucleus, which is a nucleus characterized by excess energy which is available to be imparted either to a newly-created radiation particle within the nucleus, or else to an atomic electron. The radionuclide, in this process, undergoes radioactive decay, and emits a gamma ray(s) and/or subatomic particles. These particles constitute ionizing radiation. Radionuclides may occur naturally, but can also be artificially produced.

Radiolabeled

Isotopic labeling is a technique for tracking the passage of a sample of substance through a system. The substance is 'labeled' by including unusual isotopes in its chemical composition. If these unusual isotopes are later detected in a certain part of the system, they must have come from the labeled substance.

Radiopharmaceutical

Radiopharmacology is the study and preparation of radiopharmaceuticals, which are radioactive pharmaceuticals. Radiopharmaceuticals are used in the field of nuclear medicine as tracers in the diagnosis and treatment of many diseases. Many radiopharmaceuticals use technetium-99m (Tc-99m) which has many useful properties as a gamma-emitting tracer nuclide. In the book Technetium a total of 31 different radiopharmaceuticals based on Tc-99m are listed for imaging and functional studies of the brain, myocardium, thyroid, lungs, liver, gallbladder, kidneys, skeleton, blood and tumors.

Radiosensitizer

A radiosensitizer is a drug that makes tumor cells more sensitive to radiation therapy.

Radiosurgery

Radiosurgery is a medical procedure that allows non-invasive treatment of benign and malignant tumors. It is also known as stereotactic radiotherapy, (SRT) when used to target lesions in the brain, and stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) when used to target lesions in the body. In addition to cancer, it has also been shown to be beneficial for the treatment of some non-cancerous conditions, including functional disorders such as arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) and trigeminal neuralgia.

Raloxifene

Raloxifene (marketed as Evista by Eli Lilly and Company) is an oral selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) that has estrogenic actions on bone and anti-estrogenic actions on the uterus and breast. It is used in the prevention of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women.

Raltitrexed

Raltitrexed (brand name Tomudex) is an antimetabolite drug used in cancer chemotherapy. It is an inhibitor of thymidylate synthase, and is manufactured by AstraZeneca.

Randomized clinical trial

A randomized controlled trial (RCT) is a type of scientific experiment - a form of clinical trial - most commonly used in testing the safety (or more specifically, information about adverse drug reactions and adverse effects of other treatments) and efficacy or effectiveness of healthcare services (such as medicine or nursing) or health technologies (such as pharmaceuticals, medical devices or surgery). The key distinguishing feature of the usual RCT is that study subjects, after assessment of eligibility and recruitment, but before the intervention to be studied begins, are randomly allocated to receive one or other of the alternative treatments under study. Random allocation in real trials is complex, but conceptually, the process is like tossing a coin. After randomization, the two (or more) groups of subjects are followed up in exactly the same way, and the only differences between the care they receive, for example, in terms of procedures, tests, outpatient visits, follow-up calls etc. should be those intrinsic to the treatments being compared. The most important advantage of proper randomization is that it minimises allocation bias, balancing both known and unknown prognostic factors, in the assignment of treatments."

Ranpirnase

Ranpirnase is a ribonuclease enzyme found in Northern Leopard Frog (Rana pipiens) oocytes. It is being studied in the treatment of cancer, specifically mesothelioma. It is manufactured by Tamir Biotechnology, Inc. (formerly Alfacell Corporation) of Monmouth Junction, NJ and known by the ONCONASE trademark. ONCONASE is currently in a Phase II trial .

Rapamycin

Sirolimus (INN/USAN), also known as rapamycin, is an immunosuppressant drug used to prevent rejection in organ transplantation; it is especially useful in kidney transplants. A macrolide, sirolimus was first discovered as a product of the bacterium Streptomyces hygroscopicus in a soil sample from Easter Island — an island also known as "Rapa Nui", hence the name. It is marketed under the trade name Rapamune by Wyeth.

Rapid hormone cycling

Rapid hormone cycling is a procedure in which drugs that block the production of male hormones are alternated with male hormones and/or drugs that promote the production of male hormones. This procedure is being studied in the treatment of prostate cancer.

Ras gene

The Ras subfamily (an abbreviation of RAt Sarcoma) is a protein subfamily of small GTPases that are involved in cellular signal transduction, and is also used to designate gene subfamily of the genes encoding those proteins. Activation of Ras signalling causes cell growth, differentiation and survival. Ras is the prototypical member of the Ras superfamily of proteins which are all related in structure and regulate diverse cell behaviours.

Rasburicase

Rasburicase (brand names: Elitek in the US, and Fasturtec in Europe ) is a recombinant version of a urate oxidase enzyme that occurs in many mammals but not in humans.

Rattlesnake root

Prenanthes is a genus of plants in the family Asteraceae, often referred to as Rattlesnake root. It consists of about 25 to 30 species, native to North America, Asia, and Africa. Most species have flowers that nod (bend over and point downwards) and lobed leaves. The genus, as defined this way, may be polyphyletic.

Ravuconazole

Ravuconazole (BMS-207147 and ER-30346) is a potent triazole antifungal, being developed by Bristol-Myers Squibb, that is currently in phase I/II clinical trials. . The drug has a shown to have a similar spectrum of activity to voriconazle, with an increased half-life. However, ravuconazole has limited activity against species of fusarium, scedosporium and zygomycetes.

Rebeccamycin

Rebeccamycin is a weak topoisomerase I inhibitor isolated from Streptomyces sp. structurally similar to staurosporine. Does not show any inhibitory activity against protein kinases. Shows significant antitumor properties in vitro (IC50=480nM against mouse B16 melanoma cells and IC50=500nM against P388 leukemia cells).

Recombinant tissue plasminogen activator

Tissue plasminogen activator (abbreviated TPA or PLAT) is a protein involved in the breakdown of blood clots. It is a serine protease (EC 3.4.21.68) found on endothelial cells, the cells that line the blood vessels. As an enzyme, it catalyzes the conversion of plasminogen to plasmin, the major enzyme responsible for clot breakdown. Because it works on the clotting system, tPA is used in clinical medicine to treat only embolic or thrombotic stroke. Use is contraindicated in hemorrhagic stroke and head trauma.

Reconstructive surgeon/surgery

Reconstructive surgery is, in its broadest sense, the use of surgery to restore the form and function of the body, although Plastic Surgeons and Otolaryngologists do reconstructive surgery on faces after trauma and to reconstruct the head and neck after cancer.

Red blood cell

Red blood cells (also referred to as erythrocytes) are the most common type of blood cell and the vertebrate organism's principal means of delivering oxygen (O2) to the body tissues via the blood flow through the circulatory system. They take up oxygen in the lungs or gills and release it while squeezing through the body's capillaries.

Reed-Sternberg cell

Reed-Sternberg cells (also known as lacunar histiocytes for certain types) are different giant cells found with light microscopy in biopsies from individuals with Hodgkin's lymphoma (aka Hodgkin's disease; a type of lymphoma) primarily due to EBV, and certain other disorders. They are usually derived from B lymphocytes.

Reflux

Reflux is a technique involving the condensation of vapors and the return of this condensate to the system from which it originated. It is used in industrial and laboratory distillations. It is also used in chemistry to supply energy to reactions over a long period of time.

Regional enteritis

Crohn's disease, also known as regional enteritis, is an inflammatory disease of the intestines that may affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract from mouth to anus, causing a wide variety of symptoms. It primarily causes abdominal pain, diarrhea (which may be bloody if inflammation is at its worst), vomiting, or weight loss, but may also cause complications outside the gastrointestinal tract such as skin rashes, arthritis, inflammation of the eye, tiredness, and lack of concentration.

Relative survival rate

In epidemiology, the relative survival rate (RSR) is defined as the ratio of observed survival in a population to the expected survival rate.

Relaxation technique

A relaxation technique (also known as relaxation training) is any method, process, procedure, or activity that helps a person to relax; to attain a state of increased calmness; or otherwise reduce levels of anxiety, stress or anger. Relaxation techniques are often employed as one element of a wider stress management program and can decrease muscle tension, lower the blood pressure and slow heart and breath rates, among other health benefits.

Renal cell cancer

Renal cell carcinoma (RCC, also known as hypernephroma) is a kidney cancer that originates in the lining of the proximal convoluted tubule, the very small tubes in the kidney that filter the blood and remove waste products. RCC is the most common type of kidney cancer in adults, responsible for approximately 80% of cases. It is also known to be the most lethal of all the genitourinary tumors. Initial treatment is most commonly a radical or partial nephrectomy and remains the mainstay of curative treatment. Where the tumour is confined to the renal parenchyma, the 5-year survival rate is 60-70%, but this is lowered considerably where metastases have spread. It is resistant to radiation therapy and chemotherapy, although some cases respond to immunotherapy. Targeted cancer therapies such as sunitinib, temsirolimus, bevacizumab, interferon-alpha, and possibly sorafenib have improved the outlook for RCC (progression-free survival), although they have not yet demonstrated improved survival.

Renal collecting tubule

In the kidney, the collecting tubule (CNT, or junctional tubule, or arcuate renal tubule) is a tubular segment of the renal collecting duct system that connects the distal convoluted tubule to the cortical collecting duct.

Renal glomerulus

A glomerulus is a capillary tuft that performs the first step in filtering blood to form urine.

Renal tubular acidosis

Renal tubular acidosis (RTA) is a medical condition that involves an accumulation of acid in the body due to a failure of the kidneys to appropriately acidify the urine. When blood is filtered by the kidney, the filtrate passes through the tubules of the nephron, allowing for exchange of salts, acid equivalents, and other solutes before it drains into the bladder as urine. The metabolic acidosis that results from RTA may be caused either by failure to recover sufficient (alkaline) bicarbonate ions from the filtrate in the early portion of the nephron (proximal tubule) or by insufficient secretion of (acid) hydrogen ions into the latter portions of the nephron (distal tubule). Although a metabolic acidosis also occurs in those with renal insufficiency, the term RTA is reserved for individuals with poor urinary acidification in otherwise well-functioning kidneys. Several different types of RTA exist, which all have different syndromes and different causes.

Retinoblastoma

Retinoblastoma (Rb) is a rapidly developing cancer that develops in the cells of retina, the light detecting tissue of the eye. In the developed world, Rb has one of the best cure rates of all childhood cancers (95-98%), with more than nine out of every ten sufferers surviving into adulthood.

Retinoid

The retinoids are a class of chemical compounds that are related chemically to vitamin A. Retinoids are used in medicine, primarily due to the way they regulate epithelial cell growth.

Retinol

Retinol is one of the animal forms of vitamin A. It is a diterpenoid and an alcohol. It is convertible to other forms of vitamin A, and the retinyl ester derivative of the alcohol serves as the storage form of the vitamin in animals.

Retinyl palmitate

Retinyl palmitate, or vitamin A palmitate, is the ester of retinol (vitamin A) and palmitic acid, with formula C36H60O2.

Retroperitoneal

The retroperitoneal space (retroperitoneum) is the anatomical space in the abdominal cavity behind (retro) the peritoneum. It has no specific delineating anatomical structures. Organs are retroperitoneal if they only have peritoneum on their anterior side.

Retrospective cohort study

A retrospective cohort study, also called a historic cohort study, is a medical research study in which the medical records of groups of individuals who are alike in many ways but differ by a certain characteristic (for example, female nurses who smoke and those who do not smoke) are compared for a particular outcome (such as lung cancer). In retrospective cohort studies, the odds ratio gives an assessment of relative risk.

Retrovirus

A retrovirus is an RNA virus that is replicated in a host cell via the enzyme reverse transcriptase to produce DNA from its RNA genome. The DNA is then incorporated into the host's genome by an integrase enzyme. The virus thereafter replicates as part of the host cell's DNA. Retroviruses are enveloped viruses that belong to the viral family Retroviridae.

Rhabdoid tumor

Malignant rhabdoid tumour (MRT) is a very aggressive form of tumour originally described as a variant of Wilms' tumour, which is primarily a kidney tumour that occurs mainly in children.

Rhabdomyosarcoma

A rhabdomyosarcoma is a type of cancer, specifically a sarcoma (cancer of connective tissues), in which the cancer cells are thought to arise from skeletal muscle progenitors. It can also be found attached to muscle tissue, wrapped around intestines, or in any anatomic location. Most occur in areas naturally lacking in skeletal muscle, such as the head, neck, and genitourinary tract.

Rhizoxin

Rhizoxin is an antimitotic agent with anti-tumor activity. It is isolated from a pathogenic plant fungus (Rhizopus microsporus) which causes rice seedling blight.

Ribavirin

Ribavirin (brand names: Copegus, Rebetol, Ribasphere, Vilona and Virazole) is an anti-viral drug indicated for severe RSV infection (individually), hepatitis C infection (used in conjunction with peginterferon alfa-2b or peginterferon alfa-2a) and other viral infections. Ribavirin is a prodrug, which when metabolised resembles purine RNA nucleotides. In this form it interferes with RNA metabolism required for viral replication. How it exactly affects viral replication is unknown; many mechanisms have been proposed for this (see Mechanisms of Action, below) but none of these has been proven to date. Multiple mechanisms may be responsible for its actions.

Ribonucleotide reductase inhibitor

Ribonucleotide reductase inhibitors are a family of anti-cancer drugs that interfere with the growth of tumor cells by blocking the formation of deoxyribonucleotides (building blocks of DNA).

Rifampin

Rifampicin (INN) or rifampin (USAN) is a bactericidal antibiotic drug of the rifamycin group. It is a semisynthetic compound derived from Amycolatopsis rifamycinica (formerly known as Amycolatopsis mediterranei and Streptomyces mediterranei). Rifampicin may be abbreviated R, RMP, RA, RF, or RIF (US).

Risedronate

Risedronic acid (INN) or risedronate sodium (USAN, trade name Actonel) is a bisphosphonate used to strengthen bone, treat or prevent osteoporosis, and treat Paget's disease of bone. It is produced and marketed by Warner Chilcott and Sanofi-Aventis.

Ritonavir

Ritonavir, with trade name Norvir (Abbott Laboratories), is an antiretroviral drug from the protease inhibitor class used to treat HIV infection and AIDS.

Rituximab

Rituximab, sold under the trade names Rituxan and MabThera, is a chimeric monoclonal antibody against the protein CD20, which is primarily found on the surface of B cells. Rituximab is used in the treatment of many lymphomas, leukemias, transplant rejection and some autoimmune disorders.

RNA

Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is one of the three major macromolecules (along with DNA and proteins) that are essential for all known forms of life.

Rofecoxib

Rofecoxib is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that has now been withdrawn over safety concerns. It was marketed by Merck & Co. to treat osteoarthritis, acute pain conditions, and dysmenorrhoea. Rofecoxib was approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on May 20, 1999, and was marketed under the brand names Vioxx, Ceoxx, and Ceeoxx.

Rosiglitazone

Rosiglitazone is an antidiabetic drug in the thiazolidinedione class of drugs. It works as an insulin sensitizer, by binding to the PPAR receptors in fat cells and making the cells more responsive to insulin. It is marketed by the pharmaceutical company GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) as a stand-alone drug (Avandia) and in combination with metformin (Avandamet) or with glimepiride (Avandaryl). Annual sales peaked at approx $2.5bn in 2006, but declined after reports of adverse effects. The drug's patent expires in 2012.

RPI.4610

Angiozyme is a substance that is being studied in the treatment of kidney cancer. It may prevent the growth of blood vessels from surrounding tissue to the tumor. It belongs to the families of drugs called VEGF receptor and angiogenesis inhibitors. Also called RPI.4610.

RSV

Rous sarcoma virus is a retrovirus and is the first oncovirus to have been described: it causes sarcoma in chickens.

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Published - April 2011







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