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Oncology-related Terms Glossary
(Starting with "C")

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_oncology-related_terms






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C cell

Parafollicular cells (also called C cells) are cells in the thyroid that produce and secrete calcitonin. They are located adjacent to the thyroid follicles and reside in the connective tissue. These cells are large and have a pale stain compared with the follicular cells or colloid. In teleost and avian species these cells occupy a structure outside of the thyroid gland named the ultimobranchial body.

C-erbB-2

HER2/neu (also known as ErbB-2) stands for "Human Epidermal growth factor Receptor 2" and is a protein giving higher aggressiveness in breast cancers. It is a member of the ErbB protein family, more commonly known as the epidermal growth factor receptor family. HER2/neu has also been designated as CD340 (cluster of differentiation 340) and p185. It is encoded by the ERBB2 gene.

C-kit

Mast/stem cell growth factor receptor (SCFR) also known as proto-oncogene c-Kit or tyrosine-protein kinase Kit or CD117 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the KIT gene. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.

CA-125/CA-125 test

CA-125 (cancer antigen 125 or carbohydrate antigen 125) also known as mucin 16 or MUC16 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MUC16 gene. MUC16 is a member of the mucin family glycoproteins. CA-125 has found application as a tumor marker or biomarker that may be elevated in the blood of some patients with specific types of cancers, or other benign conditions.

Cachexia

Cachexia (from Greek kakos and hexia: bad condition) or wasting syndrome is loss of weight, muscle atrophy, fatigue, weakness, and significant loss of appetite in someone who is not actively trying to lose weight. The formal definition of cachexia is the loss of body mass that cannot be reversed nutritionally: even if the affected patient eats more calories, lean body mass will be lost, indicating there is a fundamental pathology in place. Cachexia is seen in patients with cancer, AIDS, chronic obstructive lung disease, congestive heart failure, tuberculosis, familial amyloid polyneuropathy, mercury poisoning (acrodynia) and hormonal deficiency.

Calcitonin

Calcitonin is a 32-amino acid linear polypeptide hormone that is produced in humans primarily by the parafollicular cells (also known as C-cells) of the thyroid, and in many other animals in the ultimobranchial body. It acts to reduce blood calcium (Ca2+), opposing the effects of parathyroid hormone (PTH). It has been found in fish, reptiles, birds, and mammals. Its importance in humans has not been as well established as its importance in other animals, as its function is usually not significant in the regulation of normal calcium homeostasis.

Calcitriol

Calcitriol , also called 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol or 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, is the hormonally active form of vitamin D with three hydroxyl groups (abbreviated 1,25-(OH)2D3 or simply 1,25(OH)2D). It increases the level of calcium (Ca2+) in the blood by (1) increasing the uptake of calcium from the gut into the blood, (2) decreasing the transfer of calcium from blood to the urine by the kidney, and (3) increasing the release of calcium into the blood from bone.

CAM

Cell Adhesion Molecules (CAMs) are proteins located on the cell surface involved with the binding with other cells or with the extracellular matrix (ECM) in the process called cell adhesion.

These proteins are typically transmembrane receptors and are composed of three domains: an intracellular domain that interacts with the cytoskeleton, a transmembrane domain, and an extracellular domain that interacts either with other CAMs of the same kind (homophilic binding) or with other CAMs or the extracellular matrix (heterophilic binding).

Campath-1H

Alemtuzumab (marketed as Campath, MabCampath or Campath-1H) is a monoclonal antibody used in the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) and T-cell lymphoma. It is also used in some conditioning regimens for bone marrow transplantation and kidney transplantation.

Camptothecin

Camptothecin (CPT) is a cytotoxic quinoline alkaloid which inhibits the DNA enzyme topoisomerase I (topo I). It was discovered in 1966 by M. E. Wall and M. C. Wani in systematic screening of natural products for anticancer drugs. It was isolated from the bark and stem of Camptotheca acuminata (Camptotheca, Happy tree), a tree native in China. CPT showed remarkable anticancer activity in preliminary clinical trials but also low solubility and (high) adverse drug reaction. Because of these disadvantages synthetic and medicinal chemists have developed numerous syntheses of Camptothecin and various derivatives to increase the benefits of the chemical, with good results. Two CPT analogues have been approved and are used in cancer chemotherapy today, topotecan and irinotecan.

Cancer

Cancer (medical term: malignant neoplasm) is a class of diseases in which a group of cells display uncontrolled growth, invasion that intrudes upon and destroys adjacent tissues, and sometimes metastasis, or spreading to other locations in the body via lymph or blood. These three malignant properties of cancers differentiate them from benign tumors, which do not invade or metastasize.

Cancer induction

Carcinogenesis or oncogenesis is literally the creation of cancer. It is a process by which normal cells are transformed into cancer cells. It is characterized by a progression of changes on cellular and genetic level that ultimately reprogram a cell to undergo uncontrolled cell division, thus forming a malignant mass.

Cancer Information Service

The Cancer Information Service is a program of the National Institutes of Health (through the National Cancer Institute) that is provided to the United States of America public to provide personalized, confidential responses to specific questions about cancer. The CIS also provides help to those who wish to quit smoking.

Cancer of unknown primary origin

Cancer of unknown primary origin (CUP) is the diagnosis when metastatic cancer is found but the place where the cancer began (the primary site) cannot be determined. About two to four percent of all cancer patients have a cancer whose primary site is never identified. Treatment for CUP depends on many factors, including where the metastatic cancer is found, what the cancer cells look like under a microscope, and the patient's age and general health. Recent advances in diagnostic techniques have improved doctors' abilities to find the primary sites, even when the original diagnoses are "CUP."

Cancer stem cell

Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are cancer cells (found within tumors or hematological cancers) that possess characteristics associated with normal stem cells, specifically the ability to give rise to all cell types found in a particular cancer sample. CSCs are therefore tumorigenic (tumor-forming), perhaps in contrast to other non-tumorigenic cancer cells. CSCs may generate tumors through the stem cell processes of self-renewal and differentiation into multiple cell types. Such cells are proposed to persist in tumors as a distinct population and cause relapse and metastasis by giving rise to new tumors. Therefore, development of specific therapies targeted at CSCs holds hope for improvement of survival and quality of life of cancer patients, especially for sufferers of metastatic disease.

Cancer vaccine

The term cancer vaccine refers to a vaccine that either prevents infections with cancer-causing viruses, treats existing cancer or prevents the development of cancer in certain high risk individuals.

Candidiasis/Candidosis

Candidiasis or thrush is a fungal infection (mycosis) of any of the Candida species (all yeasts), of which Candida albicans is the most common. Also commonly referred to as a yeast infection, candidiasis is also technically known as candidosis, moniliasis, and oidiomycosis.

CAP-1

The CAP-1 Planalto was a military trainer aircraft built in Brazil during World War II. It was a low-wing cantilever monoplane with fixed tailwheel undercarriage that accommodated the pilot and instructor in tandem open cockpits. The project had been initiated by Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnológicas (IPT) under the designation IPT-4 and although the design work had been contracted to CAP, IPT insisted on a wing profile of its own choosing that led to serious stability problems in the final product.

Capecitabine

Capecitabine (Xeloda, Roche) is an orally-administered chemotherapeutic agent used in the treatment of metastatic breast and colorectal cancers. Capecitabine is a prodrug, that is enzymatically converted to 5-fluorouracil in the tumor, where it inhibits DNA synthesis and slows growth of tumor tissue. The activation of capecitabine follows a pathway with three enzymatic steps and two intermediary metabolites, 5'-deoxy-5-fluorocytidine (5'-DFCR) and 5'-deoxy-5-fluorouridine (5'-DFUR), to form 5-fluorouracil.

Capsaicin

Capsaicin (8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide, (CH3)2CHCH=CH(CH2)4CONHCH2C6H3-4-(OH)-3-(OCH3) is the active component of chili peppers, which are plants belonging to the genus Capsicum. It is an irritant for mammals, including humans, and produces a sensation of burning in any tissue with which it comes into contact. Capsaicin and several related compounds are called capsaicinoids and are produced as a secondary metabolite by chili peppers, probably as deterrents against certain herbivores and fungi. Pure capsaicin is a hydrophobic, colorless, odorless, crystalline to waxy compound.

Captopril

Captopril (rINN) is an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACE inhibitor) used for the treatment of hypertension and some types of congestive heart failure. Captopril was the first ACE inhibitor developed and was considered a breakthrough both because of its novel mechanism of action and also because of the revolutionary development process. Captopril is commonly marketed by Bristol-Myers Squibb under the trade name Capoten.

Carbendazim

Carbendazim is a widely used broad-spectrum benzimidazole fungicide. A 4.7% solution of carbendazim hydrochloride is sold as Eertavas, an effective treatment for Dutch elm disease.

Carbogen

Carbogen, also called Meduna's Mixture after its inventor Ladislas Meduna, is a mixture of carbon dioxide and oxygen gas. Meduna's original formula was 30% CO2 and 70% oxygen, but the term carbogen can refer to any mixture of these two gases, from 1.5% to 50% CO2.

Carboplatin

Carboplatin, or cis-Diammine(1,1-cyclobutanedicarboxylato)platinum(II) (trade names Paraplatin and Paraplatin-AQ) is a chemotherapy drug used against some forms of cancer (mainly ovarian carcinoma, lung, head and neck cancers). It was introduced in the late 1980s and has since gained popularity in clinical treatment due to its vastly reduced side-effects compared to its parent compound cisplatin. Cisplatin and carboplatin, as well as oxaliplatin, interact with DNA, akin to the mechanism of alkylating agents.

Carboxyamidotriazole

Carboxyamidotriazole is a calcium channel blocker.

Carcinoembryonic antigen

Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is a glycoprotein involved in cell adhesion. It is normally produced during fetal development, but the production of CEA stops before birth. Therefore, it is not usually present in the blood of healthy adults, although levels are raised in heavy smokers. CEA is a glycosyl phosphatidyl inositol (GPI)-cell surface anchored glycoprotein whose specialized sialofucosylated glycoforms serve as functional colon carcinoma L-selectin and E-selectin ligands, which may be critical to the metastatic dissemination of colon carcinoma cells.

Carcinoembryonic antigen peptide-1

Carcinoembryonic antigen peptide-1 is a nine amino acid peptide fragment of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), a protein that is overexpressed in several cancer cell types, including gastrointestinal, breast, and non-small cell lung.

Carcinogen

A carcinogen is any substance, radionuclide, or radiation that is an agent directly involved in causing cancer. This may be due to the ability to damage the genome or to the disruption of cellular metabolic processes. Several radioactive substances are considered carcinogens, but their carcinogenic activity is attributed to the radiation, for example gamma rays and alpha particles, which they emit. Common examples of carcinogens are inhaled asbestos, certain dioxins, and tobacco smoke. Cancer is a disease in which damaged cells do not undergo programmed cell death. Carcinogens may increase the risk of cancer by altering cellular metabolism or damaging DNA directly in cells, which interferes with biological processes, and induces the uncontrolled, malignant division, ultimately leading to the formation of tumors. Usually DNA damage, if too severe to repair, leads to programmed cell death, but if the programmed cell death pathway is damaged, then the cell cannot prevent itself from becoming a cancer cell.

Carcinogenesis

Carcinogenesis or oncogenesis is literally the creation of cancer. It is a process by which normal cells are transformed into cancer cells. It is characterized by a progression of changes on cellular and genetic level that ultimately reprogram a cell to undergo uncontrolled cell division, thus forming a malignant mass.

Carcinoid

Carcinoid (also carcinoid tumor) is a slow-growing type of neuroendocrine tumor, originating in the cells of the neuroendocrine system.

Carcinoid syndrome

Carcinoid syndrome refers to the array of symptoms that occur secondary to carcinoid tumors. The syndrome includes flushing and diarrhea, and, less frequently, heart failure and bronchoconstriction. It is caused by endogenous secretion of mainly serotonin and kallikrein.

Carcinoma

Carcinoma (from Gk. karkinos, crab and -oma, growth) is the medical condition of an invasive malignant tumor consisting of transformed epithelial cells. Alternatively, it refers to a malignant tumor composed of transformed cells of unknown histogenesis, but which possess specific molecular or histological characteristics that are associated with epithelial cells, such as the production of cytokeratins or intercellular bridges.

Carcinoma in situ

Carcinoma in situ (CIS) is an early form of carcinoma defined by the absence of invasion of surrounding tissues. In other words, the neoplastic cells proliferate in their normal habitat, hence the name "in situ" (Latin for "in its place"). For example, carcinoma in situ of the skin, also called Bowen's disease, is the accumulation of neoplastic epidermal cells within the epidermis only.

Carcinomatosis/Carcinosis

Carcinosis, or carcinomatosis, is a condition in which cancer has spread widely throughout the body, or, in some cases, to a relatively large region of the body.

Carcinosarcoma

Carcinosarcoma is a malignant tumor that is a mixture of carcinoma (cancer of epithelial tissue, which is skin and tissue that lines or covers the internal organs) and sarcoma (cancer of connective tissue, such as bone, cartilage, and fat).

Cardin

Cardin Do Nguyen (born November 11, Saigon, Vietnam), simply known as Cardin, is an American singer and composer and former member of group Asia 4. He is now a solo singer for both English and Vietnamese songs.

Carmustine

Carmustine or BCNU ("bis-chloronitrosourea") is a mustard gas-related α-chloro-nitrosourea compound used as an alkylating agent in chemotherapy.

Carmustine for injection is marketed under the name BiCNU by Bristol-Myers Squibb.

Carnitine

Carnitine is a quaternary ammonium compound biosynthesized from the amino acids lysine and methionine. In living cells, it is required for the transport of fatty acids from the cytosol into the mitochondria during the breakdown of lipids (fats) for the generation of metabolic energy. It is often sold as a nutritional supplement. Carnitine was originally found as a growth factor for mealworms and labeled vitamin Bt. Carnitine exists in two stereoisomers: Its biologically active form is L-carnitine, whereas its enantiomer, D-carnitine, is biologically inactive.

Carotenoid

Carotenoids are tetraterpenoid organic pigments that are naturally occurring in the chloroplasts and chromoplasts of plants and some other photosynthetic organisms like algae, some types of fungus some bacteria and at least one species of aphid. Carotenoids are generally not manufactured by species in the animal kingdom, although one species of aphid is known to have acquired the genes for synthesis of the carotenoid torulene from fungi, by the known phenomenon of horizontal gene transfer.

Case report

In medicine, a case report is a detailed report of the symptoms, signs, diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of an individual patient. Case reports may contain a demographic profile of the patient, but usually describe an unusual or novel occurrence.

Case series

A case series (also known as a clinical series) is a medical research observational study that tracks patients with a known exposure given similar treatment or examines their medical records for exposure and outcome. It can be retrospective or prospective and usually involves a smaller number of patients than more powerful case-control studies or randomized controlled trials. Case series may be consecutive or non-consecutive, depending on whether all cases presenting to the reporting authors over a period of time were included, or only a selection.

Case-control study

Case-control is a type of epidemiological, clinical study design. It is typically used for retrospective studies, but can also be applied to prospective studies as well. In a case-control study, people with a disease (often, a specific diagnosis, perhaps lung cancer) are matched with people who do not have the disease (the 'controls'). Further data are then collected on those individuals and the groups are compared to find out if other characteristics (perhaps a history of smoking) are also different between the two groups.

Caspofungin acetate

Caspofungin (brand name Cancidas worldwide) is an antifungal drug, the first of a new class termed the echinocandins from Merck & Co., Inc. It shows activity against infections with Aspergillus and Candida, and works by inhibiting the enzyme β(1,3)-D-Glucan synthase and thereby disturbing the integrity of the fungal cell wall. Caspofungin is administered intravenously.

Castleman's disease

Castleman's disease is a very rare disorder characterized by non-cancerous growths (tumors) that may develop in the lymph node tissue at a single site or throughout the body. It involves hyperproliferation of certain B cells that often produce cytokines. While not officially considered a cancer, the overgrowth of lymphocytes with this disease is similar to lymphoma.

CAT scan

X-ray computed tomography (CT) is a medical imaging method employing tomography created by computer processing. Digital geometry processing is used to generate a three-dimensional image of the inside of an object from a large series of two-dimensional X-ray images taken around a single axis of rotation.

Catechol

Catechol, also known as pyrocatechol or 1,2-dihydroxybenzene, is an organic compound with the molecular formula C6H4(OH)2. It is the ortho isomer of the three isomeric benzenediols. This colourless compound occurs naturally in trace amounts. About 20 million kg are produced annually, mainly as a precursor to pesticides, flavors, and fragrances.

Cauterization/Cauterize

The medical practice or technique of cauterization is the burning of part of a body to remove or close off a part of it in a process called cautery, which destroys some tissue, in an attempt to mitigate damage, remove an undesired growth, or minimize other potential medical harmful possibilities such as infections, when antibiotics are not available. The practice was once widespread for treatment of wounds.

CC-5013

Lenalidomide, initially known as CC-5013 and marketed as Revlimid by Celgene, is a derivative of thalidomide introduced in 2004. It was initially intended as a treatment for multiple myeloma, for which thalidomide is an accepted therapeutic treatment. Lenalidomide has also shown efficacy in the class of hematological disorders known as myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Lenalidomide and bortezomib are considered therapeutic breakthroughs in the treatment of myeloma, which generally carries a poor prognosis.

CCI-779

Temsirolimus (CCI-779) is an intravenous drug for the treatment of renal cell carcinoma (RCC), developed by Wyeth Pharmaceuticals and approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in late May 2007, and was also approved by the European Medicines Agency (EMEA) on November 2007. It is a derivative of sirolimus and is sold as Torisel.

CD40-ligand

CD154, also called CD40 ligand or CD40L, is a protein that is primarily expressed on activated T cells and is a member of the TNF superfamily of molecules. It binds to CD40 on antigen-presenting cells (APC), which leads to many effects depending on the target cell type. In general, CD40L plays the role of a costimulatory molecule and induces activation in APC in association with T cell receptor stimulation by MHC molecules on the APC. In total CD40L has three binding partners: CD40, α5β1 integrin and αIIbβ3.

CEA

Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is a glycoprotein involved in cell adhesion. It is normally produced during fetal development, but the production of CEA stops before birth. Therefore, it is not usually present in the blood of healthy adults, although levels are raised in heavy smokers. CEA is a glycosyl phosphatidyl inositol (GPI)-cell surface anchored glycoprotein whose specialized sialofucosylated glycoforms serve as functional colon carcinoma L-selectin and E-selectin ligands, which may be critical to the metastatic dissemination of colon carcinoma cells.

Cecum

The cecum or caecum (from the Latin caecus meaning blind) is a pouch, connecting the ileum with the ascending colon of the large intestine. It is separated from the ileum by the ileocecal valve (ICV) or Bauhin's valve, and is considered to be the beginning of the large intestine. It is also separated from the colon by the cecocolic junction. The appendix is connected to the cecum.

Cefalexin

Cefalexin or more commonly cephalexin is a first-generation cephalosporin antibiotic introduced in 1967 by Eli Lilly and Company. It is an orally administered agent with a similar antimicrobial spectrum to the intravenous agents cefalotin and cefazolin. It was first marketed as Keflex (Lilly), and is now sold under several other trade names as well.

Cefepime

Cefepime is a fourth-generation cephalosporin antibiotic developed in 1994. Cefepime has an extended spectrum of activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, with greater activity against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive organisms than third-generation agents.

Cefixime

Cefixime is an oral third generation cephalosporin antibiotic. It is used to treat gonorrhea, tonsilitis, and pharyngitis. The usual dose is 400 mg in two divided doses for up to 5-7 days.

Ceftriaxone

Ceftriaxone is a third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic. Like other third-generation cephalosporins, it has broad spectrum activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. In most cases, it is considered to be equivalent to cefotaxime in terms of safety and efficacy. Ceftriaxone sodium is marketed by Hoffman-La Roche under the trade name Rocephin.

Celecoxib

Celecoxib is a sulfa non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) used in the treatment of osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, acute pain, painful menstruation and menstrual symptoms, and to reduce numbers of colon and rectum polyps in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis. It is marketed by Pfizer. It is known under the brand name Celebrex or Celebra for arthritis and Onsenal for polyps. Celecoxib is available by prescription in capsule form.

Celiac disease

Coeliac disease is an autoimmune disorder of the small intestine that occurs in genetically predisposed people of all ages from middle infancy onward. Symptoms include chronic diarrhoea, failure to thrive (in children), and fatigue, but these may be absent, and symptoms in other organ systems have been described. A growing portion of diagnoses are being made in asymptomatic persons as a result of increased screening; the condition is thought to affect between 1 in 1,750 and 1 in 105 people in the United States. Coeliac disease is caused by a reaction to gliadin, a prolamin (gluten protein) found in wheat, and similar proteins found in the crops of the tribe Triticeae (which includes other common grains such as barley and rye). Upon exposure to gliadin, and specifically to three peptides found in prolamins, the enzyme tissue transglutaminase modifies the protein, and the immune system cross-reacts with the small-bowel tissue, causing an inflammatory reaction. That leads to a truncating of the villi lining the small intestine (called villous atrophy). This interferes with the absorption of nutrients, because the intestinal villi are responsible for absorption. The only known effective treatment is a lifelong gluten-free diet. While the disease is caused by a reaction to wheat proteins, it is not the same as wheat allergy.

Cell

The cell is the functional basic unit of life. It was discovered by Robert Hooke and is the functional unit of all known living organisms. It is the smallest unit of life that is classified as a living thing, and is often called the building block of life. Some organisms, such as most bacteria, are unicellular (consist of a single cell). Other organisms, such as humans, are multicellular. Humans have about 100 trillion or 1014 cells; a typical cell size is 10 µm and a typical cell mass is 1 nanogram. The largest cells are about 135 µm in the anterior horn in the spinal cord while granule cells in the cerebellum, the smallest, can be some 4 µm and the longest cell can reach from the toe to the lower brain stem (Pseudounipolar cells). The largest known cells are unfertilised ostrich egg cells which weigh 3.3 pounds.

Cell differentiation

In developmental biology, cellular differentiation is the process by which a less specialized cell becomes a more specialized cell type. Differentiation occurs numerous times during the development of a multicellular organism as the organism changes from a simple zygote to a complex system of tissues and cell types. Differentiation is a common process in adults as well: adult stem cells divide and create fully-differentiated daughter cells during tissue repair and during normal cell turnover. Differentiation dramatically changes a cell's size, shape, membrane potential, metabolic activity, and responsiveness to signals. These changes are largely due to highly-controlled modifications in gene expression. With a few exceptions, cellular differentiation almost never involves a change in the DNA sequence itself. Thus, different cells can have very different physical characteristics despite having the same genome.

Cell motility

Motility is a biological term which refers to the ability to move spontaneously and actively, consuming energy in the process. Most animals are motile but the term applies to single-celled and simple multicellular organisms, as well as to some mechanisms of fluid flow in multicellular organs, in addition to animal locomotion. Motile marine animals are commonly called free-swimming.

Cell proliferation

The term cell growth is used in the contexts of cell development and cell division (reproduction) When used in the context of cell division, it refers to growth of cell populations, where one cell (the "mother cell") grows and divides to produce two "daughter cells".

Cell respiration

Cellular respiration is the set of the metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and then release waste products. The reactions involved in respiration are catabolic reactions that involve the redox reaction (oxidation of one molecule and the reduction of another). Respiration is one of the key ways a cell gains useful energy to fuel cellular reformations.

Cell adhesion

Cellular adhesion is the binding of a cell to a surface, extracellular matrix or another cell using cell adhesion molecules such as selectins, integrins, and cadherins. Correct cellular adhesion is essential in maintaining multicellular structure. Cellular adhesion can link the cytoplasm of cells and can be involved in signal transduction.

Cellular metabolism

Metabolism (from Greek μεταβολισμός (metabolismós), "outthrow") is the set of chemical reactions that happen in living organisms to maintain life. These processes allow organisms to grow and reproduce, maintain their structures, and respond to their environments. Metabolism is usually divided into two categories. Catabolism breaks down organic matter, for example to harvest energy in cellular respiration. Anabolism uses energy to construct components of cells such as proteins and nucleic acids.

Cellulitis

Cellulitis is a diffuse inflammation of connective tissue with severe inflammation of dermal and subcutaneous layers of the skin. Cellulitis can be caused by normal skin flora or by exogenous bacteria, and often occurs where the skin has previously been broken: cracks in the skin, cuts, blisters, burns, insect bites, surgical wounds, or sites of intravenous catheter insertion. Skin on the face or lower legs is most commonly affected by this infection, though cellulitis can occur on any part of the body. The mainstay of therapy remains treatment with appropriate antibiotics, and recovery periods last from 48 hours to six months.

Central venous access catheter

In medicine, a central venous catheter ("central line", "CVC", "central venous line" or "central venous access catheter") is a catheter placed into a large vein in the neck (internal jugular vein or external jugular vein), chest (subclavian vein) or groin (femoral vein). It is used to administer medication or fluids, obtain blood tests (specifically the "mixed venous oxygen saturation"), and directly obtain cardiovascular measurements such as the central venous pressure.

CEP-701

Cephalosporin

Lestaurtinib (rINN, codenamed CEP-701) is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor structurally related to staurosporine, and is being developed by Cephalon. It is an inhibitor of FLT3, JAK2, TrkA, TrkB and TrkC.

Cephalosporin

The cephalosporins are a class of β-lactam antibiotics originally derived from Acremonium, which was previously known as "Cephalosporium". Together with cephamycins they constitute a subgroup of β-lactam antibiotics called cephems.

Ceramide

Ceramides (pronounced ser-A-mid) are a family of lipid molecules. A ceramide is composed of sphingosine and a fatty acid. Ceramides are found in high concentrations within the cell membrane of cells. They are one of the component lipids that make up sphingomyelin, one of the major lipids in the lipid bilayer. For years, it was assumed that ceramides and other sphingolipids found in the bilayer cell membrane were purely structural elements. This is now known to be not completely true. Ceramide can actually act as a signaling molecule. The most well-known functions of ceramides as cellular signals include regulating the differentiation, proliferation, programmed cell death (PCD), and apoptosis (Type I PCD) of cells.

Cerebellar hemangioblastoma

Hemangioblastomas (also known as capilliary hemangioblastomas) are tumors of the central nervous system that originate from the vascular system usually during middle-age. Sometimes these tumors occur in other sites such as the spinal cord and retina. They may be associated with other diseases such as polycythemia (increased blood cell count), pancreatic cysts and Von Hippel-Lindau syndrome (VHL syndrome). Hemangioblastomas are most commonly composed of stromal cells in small blood vessels and usually occur in the cerebellum, brain stem or spinal cord. They are classed as grade one tumors under the World Health Organisation's classification system.

Cerebellopontine

The cerebellum (Latin for little brain) is a region of the brain that plays an important role in motor control. It is also involved in some cognitive functions such as attention and language, and probably in some emotional functions such as regulating fear and pleasure responses. Its movement-related functions are the most clearly understood, however. The cerebellum does not initiate movement, but it contributes to coordination, precision, and accurate timing. It receives input from sensory systems and from other parts of the brain and spinal cord, and integrates these inputs to fine tune motor activity. Because of this fine-tuning function, damage to the cerebellum does not cause paralysis, but instead produces disorders in fine movement, equilibrium, posture, and motor learning.

Cerebral hemisphere

A cerebral hemisphere (hemispherium cerebrale) is one of the two regions of the eutherian brain that are delineated by the median plane, (medial longitudinal fissure). The brain can thus be described as being divided into left and right cerebral hemispheres. Each of these hemispheres has an outer layer of grey matter called the cerebral cortex that is supported by an inner layer of white matter. The hemispheres are linked by the corpus callosum, a very large bundle of nerve fibers, and also by other smaller commissures, including the anterior commissure, posterior commissure, and hippocampal commissure. These commissures transfer information between the two hemispheres to coordinate localized functions. The architecture, types of cells, types of neurotransmitters and receptor subtypes are all distributed among the two hemispheres in a markedly asymmetric fashion. However, while some of these hemispheric distribution differences are consistent across human beings, or even across some species, many observable distribution differences vary from individual to individual within a given species.

Cerebrospinal fluid

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), Liquor cerebrospinalis, is a clear, colorless bodily fluid, that occupies the subarachnoid space and the ventricular system around and inside the brain and spinal cord. In essence, the brain "floats" in it. The CSF occupies the space between the arachnoid mater (the middle layer of the brain cover, meninges), and the pia mater (the layer of the meninges closest to the brain). It constitutes the content of all intra-cerebral (inside the brain, cerebrum) ventricles, cisterns, and sulci (singular sulcus), as well as the central canal of the spinal cord.

Cerebrospinal fluid diversion

Cerebrospinal fluid diversion is a procedure that is used to drain fluid from the brain and spinal cord. A shunt is placed in a ventricle of the brain and threaded under the skin to another part of the body, usually the abdomen. It is used to treat hydrocephalus and idiopathic intracranial hypertension.

Cervical/Cervix

The cervix (or neck of the uterus) is the lower, narrow portion of the uterus where it joins with the top end of the vagina. It is cylindrical or conical in shape and protrudes through the upper anterior vaginal wall. Approximately half its length is visible with appropriate medical equipment; the remainder lies above the vagina beyond view. It is occasionally called "cervix uteri". Cervix means neck in Latin.

Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), also known as cervical dysplasia and cervical interstitial neoplasia, is the potentially premalignant transformation and abnormal growth (dysplasia) of squamous cells on the surface of the cervix. CIN is not cancer, and is usually curable. Most cases of CIN remain stable, or are eliminated by the host's immune system without intervention. However a small percentage of cases progress to become cervical cancer, usually cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), if left untreated. The major cause of CIN is chronic infection of the cervix with the sexually transmitted human papillomavirus (HPV), especially the high-risk HPV types 16 or 18. Over 100 types of HPV have been identified. About a dozen of these types appear to cause cervical dysplasia and may lead to the development of cervical cancer. Other types cause warts.

Cetuximab

Cetuximab (IMC-C225—marketed under the name Erbitux) is a chimeric (mouse/human) monoclonal antibody, an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor, given by intravenous infusion for treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer and head and neck cancer.

Cevimeline

Cevimeline (Evoxac) is a parasympathomimetic and muscarinic agonist, with particular effect on M3 receptors. It is used in the treatment of dry mouth associated with Sjögren's syndrome.

Chamberlain procedure

Mediastinoscopy is a procedure that enables visualization of the contents of the mediastinum, usually for the purpose of obtaining a biopsy. Mediastinoscopy is often used for staging of lymph nodes of lung cancer or for diagnosing other conditions affecting structures in the mediastinum such as sarcoidosis or lymphoma.

Chemoembolization

Chemoembolization is a procedure in which the blood supply to the tumor is blocked surgically or mechanically and anticancer drugs are administered directly into the tumor. This permits a higher concentration of drug to be in contact with the tumor for a longer period of time.

Chemoimmunotherapy

Chemoimmunotherapy is chemotherapy combined with immunotherapy. Chemotherapy uses different drugs to kill or slow the growth of cancer cells; immunotherapy uses treatments to stimulate or restore the ability of the immune system to fight cancer. A common chemoimmunotherapy regimen is CHOP combined with rituximab (CHOP-R) for B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas.

Chemoprevention

Chemoprophylaxis refers to the administration of a medication for the purpose of preventing disease or infection. Antibiotics, for example, may be administered to patients with disorders of immune system function to prevent bacterial infections (particularly opportunistic infection). Antibiotics may also be administered to healthy individuals to limit the spread of an epidemic, or to patients who have repeated infections (such as urinary tract infections) to prevent recurrence.

Chemoprotective

In the treatment of cancer, chemoprotective agents are drugs which protect healthy tissue from the toxic effects of anticancer drugs.

Chemoradiotherapy

Chemoradiotherapy is the combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy to treat cancer. Chemoradiotherapy in the Neoadjuvant therapy has been shown to be effective in rectal cancer.

Chemosensitivity

Chemosensitivity is the susceptibility of tumor cells to the cell-killing effects of anticancer drugs.

Chemosensitivity assay

A chemosensitivity assay is a laboratory test that measures the number of tumor cells that are killed by a Cancer Drug. The test is done after the tumor cells are removed from the body. A chemosensitivity assay may help in choosing the best drug or drugs for the cancer being treated.

Chemosensitizer/Chemotherapy

A chemosensitizer is a drug that makes tumor cells more sensitive to the effects of chemotherapy.

Chemotherapeutic agent

Chemotherapy, in the most simple sense, is the treatment of an ailment by chemicals especially by killing micro-organisms or cancerous cells. In popular usage, it refers to antineoplastic drugs used to treat cancer or the combination of these drugs into a cytotoxic standardized treatment regimen. In its non-oncological use, the term may also refer to antibiotics (antibacterial chemotherapy). In that sense, the first modern chemotherapeutic agent was arsphenamine, an arsenic compound discovered in 1909 and used to treat syphilis. This was later followed by sulfonamides (sulfa drugs) and penicillin.

Chest x-ray

In medicine, a chest radiograph, commonly called a chest x-ray (CXR), is a projection radiograph of the chest used to diagnose conditions affecting the chest, its contents, and nearby structures. Chest radiographs are among the most common films taken, being diagnostic of many conditions.

Chiasma

A chiasma (plural: chiasmata), in genetics, is thought to be the point where two homologous non-sister chromatids exchange genetic material during chromosomal crossover during meiosis (sister chromatids also form chiasmata between each other, but because their genetic material is identical, it does not cause any change in the resulting daughter cells). The chiasmata become visible during the diplotene stage of prophase I of meiosis, but the actual "crossing-over" of genetic material is thought to occur during the previous pachytene stage. When each bivalent (tetrad), which is composed of two pairs of sister chromatids, begins to split, the only points of contact are at the chiasmata.

Chitin

Chitin (C8H13O5N)n is a long-chain polymer of a N-acetylglucosamine, a derivative of glucose, and is found in many places throughout the natural world. It is the main component of the cell walls of fungi, the exoskeletons of arthropods such as crustaceans (e.g., crabs, lobsters and shrimps) and insects, the radulas of mollusks, and the beaks of cephalopods, including squid and octopuses. In terms of structure, chitin may be compared to the polysaccharide cellulose and, in terms of function, to the protein keratin. Chitin has also proven useful for several medical and industrial purposes.

Chlorambucil

Chlorambucil (marketed as Leukeran by GlaxoSmithKline) is a chemotherapy drug that has been mainly used in the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. It is a nitrogen mustard alkylating agent and can be given orally.

Chlorine

Chlorine is the chemical element with atomic number 17 and symbol Cl. It is a halogen, found in the periodic table in group 17. As the chloride ion, which is part of common salt and other compounds, it is abundant in nature and necessary to most forms of life, including humans. In its elemental form (Cl2 or "dichlorine") under standard conditions, chlorine is a powerful oxidant and is used in bleaching and disinfectants, as well as an essential reagent in the chemical industry. As a common disinfectant, chlorine compounds are used in swimming pools to keep them clean and sanitary. In the upper atmosphere, chlorine-containing molecules such as chlorofluorocarbons have been implicated in ozone depletion.

Chloroma

A myeloid sarcoma (chloroma, granulocytic sarcoma, extramedullary myeloid tumor), is a solid tumor composed of immature white blood cells called myeloblasts. A chloroma is an extramedullary manifestation of acute myeloid leukemia; in other words, it is a solid collection of leukemic cells occurring outside of the bone marrow.

Cholangiocarcinoma

Cholangiocarcinoma is a cancer of the bile ducts which drain bile from the liver into the small intestine. Other biliary tract cancers include pancreatic cancer, gall bladder cancer, and cancer of the ampulla of Vater. Cholangiocarcinoma is a relatively rare adenocarcinoma (glandular cancer), with an annual incidence of 1–2 cases per 100,000 in the Western world, but rates of cholangiocarcinoma have been rising worldwide over the past several decades.

Cholangiosarcoma

Cholangiosarcoma is a tumor of the connective tissues of the bile ducts.

Cholelith

A gallstone is a crystalline concretion formed within the gallbladder by accretion of bile components. These calculi are formed in the gallbladder, but may pass distally into other parts of the biliary tract such as the cystic duct, common bile duct, pancreatic duct, or the ampulla of Vater.

Cholestasis

In medicine, cholestasis is a condition where bile cannot flow from the liver to the duodenum. The two basic distinctions are an obstructive type of cholestasis where there is a mechanical blockage in the duct system such as can occur from a gallstone or malignancy and metabolic types of cholestasis which are disturbances in bile formation that can occur because of genetic defects or acquired as a side effect of many medications.

Chondrocyte

Chondrocytes (from Greek chondros cartilage + kytos cell) are the only cells found in cartilage. They produce and maintain the cartilaginous matrix, which consists mainly of collagen and proteoglycans. Although chondroblast is still commonly used to describe an immature chondrocyte, use of the term is discouraged, for it is technically inaccurate since the progenitor of chondrocytes (which are mesenchymal stem cells) can also differentiate into osteoblasts. The organization of chondrocytes within cartilage differs depending upon the type of cartilage and where in the tissue they are found.

Chondroitin sulfate

Chondroitin sulfate is a sulfated glycosaminoglycan (GAG) composed of a chain of alternating sugars (N-acetylgalactosamine and glucuronic acid). It is usually found attached to proteins as part of a proteoglycan. A chondroitin chain can have over 100 individual sugars, each of which can be sulfated in variable positions and quantities. Chondroitin sulfate is an important structural component of cartilage and provides much of its resistance to compression. Along with glucosamine, chondroitin sulfate has become a widely used dietary supplement for treatment of osteoarthritis.

Chondrosarcoma

A chondrosarcoma is a type of cancer of the cartilage. Chondrosarcoma is a cartilage-based tumor and is in a category of cancers called sarcomas. About 25% of primary bone cancers (meaning those which start in the bone) are chondrosarcomas. This disease can affect people or animals of any age, although it is more common among older people than among children.[

Chordoma

Chordoma is a rare slow-growing malignant neoplasm thought to arise from cellular remnants of the notochord. The evidence for this is the location of the tumors (along the neuraxis), the similar immunohistochemical staining patterns, and the demonstration that notochordal cells are preferentially left behind in the clivus and sacrococcygeal regions when the remainder of the notochord regresses during fetal life.

Chorioallantoic membrane

The chorioallantoic membrane — also called the chorioallantois or abbreviated to CAM — is a vascular membrane found in eggs of some amniotes, such as birds and reptiles. It is formed by the fusion of the mesodermal layers of two developmental structures: the allantois and the chorion. In mammals, this structure forms the placenta.

Choriocarcinoma

Choriocarcinoma is a malignant, trophoblastic and aggressive cancer, usually of the placenta. It is characterized by early hematogenous spread to the lungs. It belongs to the far end of the spectrum of gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD), a subset of germ cell tumors.

Choroid plexus tumor

Choroid plexus tumor is a rare type of cancer that occurs in the choroid plexus of the brain.

Chronic granulocytic leukemia

Chronic myelogenous (or myeloid) leukemia (CML), also known as chronic granulocytic leukemia (CGL), is a cancer of the white blood cells. It is a form of leukemia characterized by the increased and unregulated growth of predominantly myeloid cells in the bone marrow and the accumulation of these cells in the blood. CML is a clonal bone marrow stem cell disorder in which proliferation of mature granulocytes (neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils) and their precursors is the main finding. It is a type of myeloproliferative disease associated with a characteristic chromosomal translocation called the Philadelphia chromosome. It is now treated with one of several targeted therapies including imatinib, dasatinib, and nilotinib, which have dramatically improved survival to nearly 90% due to the advent of these targeted therapies.

Chronic idiopathic myelofibrosis

Myelofibrosis, also known as myeloid metaplasia, chronic idiopathic myelofibrosis, osteomyelofibrosis and primary myelofibrosis is a disorder of the bone marrow. It is currently classified as a myeloproliferative disease in which the proliferation of an abnormal type of bone marrow stem cell results in fibrosis, or the replacement of the marrow with collagenous connective tissue fibers.

Chronic leukemia

Hairy cell leukemia is an uncommon hematological malignancy characterized by an accumulation of abnormal B lymphocytes. It is usually classified as a sub-type of chronic lymphoid leukemia. Hairy cell leukemia makes up approximately 2% of all leukemias, with fewer than 2,000 new cases diagnosed annually in North America and Western Europe combined.

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia

B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL), also known as chronic lymphoid leukemia (CLL), is the most common type of leukemia. Leukemias are cancers of the white blood cells (leukocytes). CLL affects B cell lymphocytes. B cells originate in the bone marrow, develop in the lymph nodes, and normally fight infection by producing antibodies. In CLL, the DNA of a B cell is damaged, so that it cannot produce antibodies. Additionally, B cells grow out of control and accumulate in the bone marrow and blood, where they crowd out healthy blood cells. CLL is a stage of small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL), a type of B-cell lymphoma, which presents primarily in the lymph nodes. CLL and SLL are considered the same underlying disease, just with different appearances.

Chronic myelogenous leukemia

Chronic myelogenous (or myeloid) leukemia (CML), also known as chronic granulocytic leukemia (CGL), is a cancer of the white blood cells. It is a form of leukemia characterized by the increased and unregulated growth of predominantly myeloid cells in the bone marrow and the accumulation of these cells in the blood. CML is a clonal bone marrow stem cell disorder in which proliferation of mature granulocytes (neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils) and their precursors is the main finding. It is a type of myeloproliferative disease associated with a characteristic chromosomal translocation called the Philadelphia chromosome. It is now treated with one of several targeted therapies including imatinib, dasatinib, and nilotinib, which have dramatically improved survival to nearly 90% due to the advent of these targeted therapies.

Chronic myeloid leukemia

Chronic myelogenous (or myeloid) leukemia (CML), also known as chronic granulocytic leukemia (CGL), is a cancer of the white blood cells. It is a form of leukemia characterized by the increased and unregulated growth of predominantly myeloid cells in the bone marrow and the accumulation of these cells in the blood. CML is a clonal bone marrow stem cell disorder in which proliferation of mature granulocytes (neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils) and their precursors is the main finding. It is a type of myeloproliferative disease associated with a characteristic chromosomal translocation called the Philadelphia chromosome. It is now treated with one of several targeted therapies including imatinib, dasatinib, and nilotinib, which have dramatically improved survival to nearly 90% due to the advent of these targeted therapies.

Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia

Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) is a form of leukemia featuring monocytosis. The categorization of this disease has been controversial. Patients with CMML can present with various different clinical features, mimicking either myelodysplastic syndroms or myeloproliferative neoplasms depending upon a patient's specific presentation. Due to this controversy it was classified by the World Health Organization in a "myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative" category of medical conditions in the early 2000s.

Chronic phase chronic myelogenous leukemia

Chronic phase chronic myelogenous leukemia is a phase of chronic myelogenous leukemia in which 5% or fewer of the cells in the blood and bone marrow are blast cells (immature blood cells). This phase may last from several months to several years, and there may be no symptoms of leukemia.

Ciclosporin

Ciclosporin, cyclosporine (USAN), cyclosporin (former BAN) or cyclosporin A, is an immunosuppressant drug widely used in post-allogeneic organ transplant to reduce the activity of the patient's immune system, and therefore the risk of organ rejection. Initially isolated from the fungus Tolypocladium inflatum isolated from a soil sample obtained by Sandoz scientists at Hardangervidda, Norway in 1969, ciclosporin is a cyclic nonribosomal peptide of 11 amino acids and contains a single D-amino acid, which are rarely encountered in nature.

Cidofovir

Cidofovir is an injectable antiviral medication for the treatment of cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis in patients with AIDS. It suppresses CMV replication by selective inhibition of viral DNA polymerase and therefore prevention of viral replication and transcription. It is an acyclic nucleoside phosphonate, and is therefore independent of phosphorylation by viral enzymes, in contrast to, for instance, acyclovir.

Cilengitide

Cilengitide is a molecule designed and synthesized at the Technical University Munich in collaboration with Merck KGaA in Darmstadt. It is based on the cyclic peptide cyclo(-RGDfV-), which is selective for αv integrins, which are important in angiogenesis (forming new blood vessels). Hence, it is under investigation for the treatment of glioblastoma by inhibiting angiogenesis.

Cimetidine

Cimetidine is a histamine H2-receptor antagonist that inhibits the production of acid in the stomach. It is largely used in the treatment of heartburn and peptic ulcers. It is marketed by GlaxoSmithKline under the trade name Tagamet (sometimes Tagamet HB or Tagamet HB200). Cimetidine was approved in the UK in 1976 and was approved in the US by the Food and Drug Administration for prescriptions starting January 1, 1979.

Cipro

Ciprofloxacin is a synthetic chemotherapeutic antibiotic of the fluoroquinolone drug class. It is a second-generation fluoroquinolone antibacterial. It kills bacteria by interfering with the enzymes that cause DNA to rewind after being copied, which stops synthesis of DNA and of protein.

Ciprofloxacin

Ciprofloxacin is a synthetic chemotherapeutic antibiotic of the fluoroquinolone drug class. It is a second-generation fluoroquinolone antibacterial. It kills bacteria by interfering with the enzymes that cause DNA to rewind after being copied, which stops synthesis of DNA and of protein.

Circulatory system

The circulatory system is an organ system that passes nutrients (such as amino acids, electrolytes and lymph), gases, hormones, blood cells, etc. to and from cells in the body to help fight diseases and help stabilize body temperature and pH to maintain homeostasis.

Cirrhosis

Cirrhosis is a consequence of chronic liver disease characterized by replacement of liver tissue by fibrosis, scar tissue and regenerative nodules (lumps that occur as a result of a process in which damaged tissue is regenerated), leading to loss of liver function. Cirrhosis is most commonly caused by alcoholism, hepatitis B and C, and fatty liver disease, but has many other possible causes. Some cases are idiopathic, i.e., of unknown cause.

CIS

The Cancer Information Service is a program of the National Institutes of Health (through the National Cancer Institute) that is provided to the United States of America public to provide personalized, confidential responses to specific questions about cancer. The CIS also provides help to those who wish to quit smoking. The Cancer Information Service may be called directly through their 1-800 number, available from their website. CIS Information Specialists are also available through instant messaging, provided at the CIS homepage.

Cisplatin

Cisplatin, cisplatinum, or cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) (CDDP) (trade names Platinol and Platinol-AQ) is a chemotherapy drug. It is used to treat various types of cancers, including sarcomas, some carcinomas (e.g. small cell lung cancer, and ovarian cancer), lymphomas, and germ cell tumors. It was the first member of a class of platinum-containing anti-cancer drugs, which now also includes carboplatin and oxaliplatin. These platinum complexes react in vivo, binding to and causing crosslinking of DNA, which ultimately triggers apoptosis (programmed cell death).

Citric acid/potassium-sodium citrate

Citric acid/potassium-sodium citrate is a drug used in the treatment of metabolic acidosis (a disorder in which the blood is too acidic).

Cladribine

Cladribine (trade name Litak) is a drug used to treat hairy cell leukemia (HCL, leukemic reticuloendotheliosis) and multiple sclerosis. Its chemical name is 2-chlorodeoxyadenosine (2CDA).

Clarithromycin

Clarithromycin is a macrolide antibiotic used to treat pharyngitis, tonsillitis, acute maxillary sinusitis, acute bacterial exacerbation of chronic bronchitis, pneumonia (especially atypical pneumonias associated with Chlamydia pneumoniae or TWAR), skin and skin structure infections. In addition, it is sometimes used to treat Legionellosis, Helicobacter pylori, and lyme disease.

Clear cell adenocarcinoma

Clear cell adenocarcinoma is a type of adenocarcinoma.

Clear-cell sarcoma

Clear-cell sarcoma (also known as "Soft-tissue melanoma," and "Melanoma of the soft parts":696. However, these older names are misnomers, as clear cell sarcoma is biologically distinct from melanoma.) is a rare form of cancer. It is a type of sarcoma.

Clear cell sarcoma of the kidney

Clear cell sarcoma of the kidney is a rare type of kidney cancer. Clear cell sarcoma can spread from the kidney to other organs, most commonly the bone, but also including the lungs, brain, and soft tissues of the body.

Clinical series

A case series (also known as a clinical series) is a medical research observational study that tracks patients with a known exposure given similar treatment or examines their medical records for exposure and outcome. It can be retrospective or prospective and usually involves a smaller number of patients than more powerful case-control studies or randomized controlled trials. Case series may be consecutive or non-consecutive, depending on whether all cases presenting to the reporting authors over a period of time were included, or only a selection.

Clinical trial/Clinical study

Clinical trials are a step in medical research conducted to allow safety (or more specifically, information about adverse drug reactions and adverse effects of other treatments) and efficacy data to be collected for health interventions (e.g., drugs, diagnostics, devices, therapy protocols). These trials can take place only after satisfactory information has been gathered on the quality of the non-clinical safety, and Health Authority/Ethics Committee approval is granted in the country where the trial is taking place.

CLL

B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL), also known as chronic lymphoid leukemia (CLL), is the most common type of leukemia. Leukemias are cancers of the white blood cells (leukocytes). CLL affects B cell lymphocytes. B cells originate in the bone marrow, develop in the lymph nodes, and normally fight infection by producing antibodies. In CLL, the DNA of a B cell is damaged, so that it cannot produce antibodies.[citation needed] Additionally, B cells grow out of control and accumulate in the bone marrow and blood, where they crowd out healthy blood cells. CLL is a stage of small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL), a type of B-cell lymphoma, which presents primarily in the lymph nodes. CLL and SLL are considered the same underlying disease, just with different appearances.

Clodronate

Clodronic acid or clodronate disodium (USAN) is a bisphosphonate. It is used in experimental medicine to selectively deplete for macrophages. It is also approved for human use in Canada, the United Kingdom and Italy, where it is marketed as Bonefos, Loron and Clodron and prescribed as a bone resorption inhibitor and antihypercalcemic agent.

Clofarabine

Clofarabine is a purine nucleoside antimetabolite marketed in the U.S. and Canada as Clolar. In Europe and Australia/New Zealand the product is marketed under the name Evoltra. It is FDA-approved for treating a type of leukaemia called relapsed or refractory acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) in children, after at least two other types of treatment have failed. It is not known if it extends life expectancy. Some investigations of effectiveness in cases of acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) and juvenile myelomonocytic leukaemia (JMML) have been carried out. Ongoing trials are assessing its efficacy, if any, for managing other cancers.

CML

Chronic myelogenous (or myeloid) leukemia (CML), also known as chronic granulocytic leukemia (CGL), is a cancer of the white blood cells. It is a form of leukemia characterized by the increased and unregulated growth of predominantly myeloid cells in the bone marrow and the accumulation of these cells in the blood. CML is a clonal bone marrow stem cell disorder in which proliferation of mature granulocytes (neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils) and their precursors is the main finding. It is a type of myeloproliferative disease associated with a characteristic chromosomal translocation called the Philadelphia chromosome. It is now treated with one of several targeted therapies including imatinib, dasatinib, and nilotinib, which have dramatically improved survival to nearly 90% due to the advent of these targeted therapies.

CMML

Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) is a form of leukemia featuring monocytosis.

The categorization of this disease has been controversial. Patients with CMML can present with various different clinical features, mimicking either myelodysplastic syndroms or myeloproliferative neoplasms depending upon a patient's specific presentation. Due to this controversy it was classified by the World Health Organization in a "myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative" category of medical conditions in the early 2000s.

CMV

Cytomegalovirus (from the Greek cyto-, "cell", and -megalo-, "large") is a viral genus of the viral group known as Herpesviridae or herpesviruses. It is typically abbreviated as CMV: The species that infects humans it is commonly known as human CMV (HCMV) or human herpesvirus-5 (HHV-5), and is the best studied of all cytomegoloviruses. Within Herpesviridae, CMV belongs to the Betaherpesvirinae subfamily, which also includes the genera Muromegalovirus and Roseolovirus. It is related to other herpesviruses within the subfamilies of Alphaherpesvirinae that includes herpes simplex viruses (HSV)-1 and -2 and varicella-zoster virus (VZV), and the Gammaherpesvirinae subfamily that includes Epstein-Barr virus. All herpesviruses share a characteristic ability to remain latent within the body over long periods. Although they may be found throughout the body, CMV infections are frequently associated with the salivary glands in humans and other mammals. Other CMV viruses are found in several mammal species, but species isolated from animals differ from HCMV in terms of genomic structure, and have not been reported to cause human disease.

Cnicin

Cnicin is a sesquiterpene lactone, esterified with a substituted acrylic acid, and belonging to the germacranolide class of natural products. It is mainly found in Cnicus (Cnicus benedictus L. (Asteraceae)), and is present in spotted knapweed plants, where highest and lowest concentrations are found in the leaves (0.86-3.86% cnicin) and stems respectively. Cnicin is used as a bitter tonic and the bitterness value is approximately 1,500.

CNS

The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system that integrates the information that it receives from, and coordinates the activity of, all parts of the bodies of bilaterian animals—that is, all multicellular animals except sponges and radially symmetric animals such as jellyfish. It contains the majority of the nervous system and consists of the brain and the spinal cord. Some classifications also include the retina and the cranial nerves in the CNS. Together with the peripheral nervous system, it has a fundamental role in the control of behavior. The CNS is contained within the dorsal cavity, with the brain in the cranial cavity and the spinal cord in the spinal cavity. In vertebrates, the brain is protected by the skull, while the spinal cord is protected by the vertebrae, and both are enclosed in the meninges.

Co-trimoxazole

Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole or Co-trimoxazole (abbreviated SXT, TMP-SMX, TMP-SMZ or TMP-sulfa) is a sulfonamide antibiotic combination of trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole, in the ratio of 1 to 5, used in the treatment of a variety of bacterial infections. The name co-trimoxazole is the British Approved Name, and has been marketed worldwide under many trade names including Septra (GSK), Bactrim (Roche), and various generic preparations. Sources differ as to whether co-trimoxazole usually is bactericidal or bacteriostatic.

Cobalt 60

Cobalt-60, 60/27Co, is a synthetic radioactive isotope of cobalt. Due to its short half life of 5.27 years, 60/27Co is not found in nature. It is produced artificially by neutron activation of 59/27Co. 60/27Co decays by beta decay to the stable isotope nickel-60 (60/28Ni). The activated nickel nucleus emits two gamma rays with energies of 1.17 and 1.33 MeV, hence the overall nuclear equation of the reaction is 59/27Co + n → 60/27Co → 60/28Ni + e− + gamma rays.

Cockayne syndrome

Cockayne syndrome (also called Weber-Cockayne syndrome, or Neill-Dingwall Syndrome) is a rare autosomal recessive congenital disorder characterized by growth failure, impaired development of the nervous system, abnormal sensitivity to sunlight (photosensitivity), and premature aging.:575 Hearing loss and eye abnormalities (pigmentary retinopathy) are other common features, but problems with any or all of the internal organs are possible. It is associated with a group of disorders called leukodystrophies. The underlying disorder is a defect in a DNA repair mechanism.

Coenzyme Q10

Coenzyme Q10, also known as ubiquinone, ubidecarenone, coenzyme Q, and abbreviated at times to CoQ10 /ˌkoʊ ˌkjuː ˈtɛn/, CoQ, Q10, or Q, is a 1,4-benzoquinone, where Q refers to the quinone chemical group, and 10 refers to the number of isoprenyl chemical subunits in its tail.

Cohort study

A cohort study or panel study is a form of longitudinal study (a type of observational study) used in medicine, social science, actuarial science and ecology. It is an analysis of risk factors and follows a group of people who do not have the disease, and uses correlations to determine the absolute risk of subject contraction. It is one type of clinical study design and should be compared with a cross-sectional study. Cohort studies are largely about the life histories of segments of populations, and the individual people who constitute these segments.

Collagen disease

Collagen disease is a term previously used to describe systemic autoimmune diseases (e.g., rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and systemic sclerosis), but now is thought to be more appropriate for diseases associated with defects in collagen, which is a component of the connective tissue.

Collagenase

Collagenases are enzymes that break the peptide bonds in collagen. They assist in destroying extracellular structures in pathogenesis of bacteria such as Clostridium. They are an exotoxin (a virulence factor) and help to facilitate the spread of gas gangrene. They normally target the connective tissue in muscle cells and other body organs.

Collecting duct

The collecting duct system of the kidney consists of a series of tubules and ducts that connect the nephrons to the ureter. It participates in electrolyte and fluid balance through reabsorption and excretion, processes regulated by the hormones aldosterone and antidiuretic hormone. There are several components of the collecting duct system, including the connecting tubules, cortical collecting ducts, and medullary collecting ducts.

Coloanal anastomosis/pull-through

Coloanal anastomosis is a surgical procedure in which the colon is attached to the anus after the rectum has been removed. Also called coloanal pull-through.

Colorectal cancer (colon cancer)

Colorectal cancer, also called colon cancer or large bowel cancer or "CRC", includes cancerous growths in the colon, rectum and appendix. With 655,000 deaths worldwide per year, it is the fourth most common form of cancer in the United States and the third leading cause of cancer-related death in the Western world. Colorectal cancers arise from adenomatous polyps in the colon. These mushroom-shaped growths are usually benign, but some develop into cancer over time. Localized colon cancer is usually diagnosed through colonoscopy.

Colon polyp

A colorectal polyp is a polyp (fleshy growth) occurring on the lining of the colon or rectum. Untreated colorectal polyps can develop into colorectal cancer.

Colonoscope/Colonoscopy

Colonoscopy is the endoscopic examination of the colon and the distal part of the small bowel with a CCD camera or a fiber optic camera on a flexible tube passed through the anus. It may provide a visual diagnosis (e.g. ulceration, polyps) and grants the opportunity for biopsy or removal of suspected lesions.

Colony-stimulating factor

Colony-stimulating factors (CSFs) are secreted glycoproteins which bind to receptor proteins on the surfaces of hemopoietic stem cells and thereby activate intracellular signaling pathways which can cause the cells to proliferate and differentiate into a specific kind of blood cell (usually white blood cells; for red blood cell formation see erythropoietin).

Colorectal

The colon is the last part of the digestive system in most vertebrates; it extracts water and salt from solid wastes before they are eliminated from the body, and is the site in which flora-aided (largely bacteria) fermentation of unabsorbed material occurs. Unlike the small intestine, the colon does not play a major role in absorption of foods and nutrients. However, the colon does absorb water, potassium and some fat soluble vitamins.

Colposcope/Colposcopy

Colposcopy is a medical diagnostic procedure to examine an illuminated, magnified view of the cervix and the tissues of the vagina and vulva. Many premalignant lesions and malignant lesions in these areas have discernible characteristics which can be detected through the examination. It is done using a colposcope, which provides an enlarged view of the areas, allowing the colposcopist to visually distinguish normal from abnormal appearing tissue and take directed biopsies for further pathological examination. The main goal of colposcopy is to prevent cervical cancer by detecting precancerous lesions early and treating them. The procedure was developed in 1925 by the German physician Hans Hinselmann, with help from SS Dr. Eduard Wirths.

Combretastatin A4 phosphate

Combretastatin A-4 phosphate (and its disodium salt) is a microtubule destabilizing drug, a type of vascular-targeting agent, a drug designed to damage the vasculature (blood vessels) of cancer tumors causing central necrosis.

Comedo carcinoma

Comedocarcinoma is one kind of very early-stage breast cancer which demonstrates central necrosis. It is a type of ductal carcinoma in situ. Comedo carcinomas are non-infiltrating and intraductal tumors. The duct will have characteristic necrotic tissue with calcification that feels cord-like. Squeezing the duct will yield inspissated material that is cheesy-like and similar in consistency to toothpaste.

Common bile duct

The common bile duct (ductus choledochus) is a tube-like anatomic structure in the human gastrointestinal tract. It is formed by the union of the common hepatic duct and the cystic duct (from the gall bladder). It is later joined by the pancreatic duct to form the ampulla of Vater. There, the two ducts are surrounded by the muscular sphincter of Oddi.

Comorbidity

In medicine, comorbidity is either the presence of one or more disorders (or diseases) in addition to a primary disease or disorder, or the affect of such additional disorders or diseases.

Compassionate use trial

Expanded access refers to the use of an investigational drug outside of a clinical trial by patients with serious or life-threatening conditions who do not meet the enrollment criteria for the clinical trial in progress. This type of access may be available, in accordance with United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations, when it is clear that patients may benefit from the treatment, the therapy can be given safely outside the clinical trial setting, no other alternative therapy is available, and the drug developer agrees to provide access to the drug. The FDA refers to such a program as an expanded access program (EAP). EAPs can be leveraged in a wide range of therapeutic areas including HIV/AIDS and other infectious diseases, cancer, rare diseases, and cardiovascular diseases, to name a few.

Complementary and alternative medicine

In Western culture, alternative medicine is any healing practice "that does not fall within the realm of conventional medicine", or "that which has not been shown consistently to be effective." In some instances, it is based on historical or cultural traditions, rather than a scientific (e.g. evidence-based) basis. Critics assert that the terms "complementary" and "alternative medicine" are deceptive euphemisms meant to give an impression of medical authority. Richard Dawkins has stated that "there is no alternative medicine. There is only medicine that works and medicine that doesn't work."

Complete blood count (CBC)

A complete blood count (CBC), also known as full blood count (FBC) or full blood exam (FBE) or blood panel, is a test panel requested by a doctor or other medical professional that gives information about the cells in a patient's blood. A scientist or lab technician performs the requested testing and provides the requesting medical professional with the results of the CBC.

Complete hysterectomy

A hysterectomy (from Greek ὑστέρα hystera "womb" and εκτομία ektomia "a cutting out of") is the surgical removal of the uterus, usually performed by a gynecologist. Hysterectomy may be total (removing the body, fundus, and cervix of the uterus; often called "complete") or partial (removal of the uterine body while leaving the cervix intact; also called "supracervical"). It is the most commonly performed gynecological surgical procedure. In 2003, over 600,000 hysterectomies were performed in the United States alone, of which over 90% were performed for benign conditions. Such rates being highest in the industrialized world has led to the major controversy that hysterectomies are being largely performed for unwarranted and unnecessary reasons.

Compound nevus

A compound nevus is a type of mole formed by groups of nevus cells found in the epidermis and dermis (the two main layers of tissue that make up the skin).

Compression bandage

The term 'compression bandage' describes a wide variety of bandages with many different applications. Short stretch compression bandages are applied to a limb (usually for treatment of lymphedema or venous ulcers). Long stretch compression bandages have long stretch properties, meaning their high compressive power can be easily adjusted.

Computed tomographic colonography

Virtual colonoscopy (VC, also called CT Colonography) is a medical imaging procedure which uses x-rays and computers to produce two- and three-dimensional images of the colon (large intestine) from the lowest part, the rectum, all the way to the lower end of the small intestine and display them on a screen. The procedure is used to diagnose colon and bowel disease, including polyps, diverticulosis and cancer. VC is performed via computed tomography (CT), sometimes called a CAT scan, or with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

Computed (axial) tomography

X-ray computed tomography (CT) is a medical imaging method employing tomography created by computer processing. Digital geometry processing is used to generate a three-dimensional image of the inside of an object from a large series of two-dimensional X-ray images taken around a single axis of rotation.

Condylomata acuminata

Genital warts (or Condylomata acuminata, venereal warts, anal warts and anogenital warts) is a highly contagious sexually transmitted disease caused by some sub-types of human papillomavirus (HPV). It is spread through direct skin-to-skin contact during oral, genital, or anal sex with an infected partner. Warts are the most easily recognized symptom of genital HPV infection, where types 6 and 11 are responsible for 90% of genital warts cases. Whilst of those infected with genital HPV it is estimated that only a "small percentage" (between 1% and 5%) develop genital warts, those infected can still transmit the virus. Other types of HPV also cause cervical cancer and probably most anal cancers, however it is important to underline that the types of HPV that cause genital warts are not the same as those that cause genital or anal cancer. HPV prevalence at any one time has been observed in some studies at 27% over all sexually active people, rising to 45% between the ages of 14 and 19.

Cone biopsy/Conization

Cervical conization (CPT codes 57520(Cold Knife) and 57522(Loop Excision)) refers to a biopsy of the cervix in which a cone-shaped sample of tissue is removed from the mucous membrane. Conization may be used either for diagnostic purposes, or for therapeutic purposes to remove pre-cancerous cells.

Congestive heart failure

Heart failure (HF) is generally defined as inability of the heart to supply sufficient blood flow to meet the body's needs. It has various diagnostic criteria, and the term heart failure is often incorrectly used to describe other cardiac-related illnesses, such as myocardial infarction (heart attack) or cardiac arrest.

Consecutive case series

A consecutive case series is a clinical study that includes all eligible patients identified by the researchers during the study registration period. The patients are treated in the order in which they are identified. This type of study usually does not have a control group.

Contingency management

Contingency management is a type of treatment used in the mental health or substance abuse fields. Patients are rewarded (or, less often, punished) for their behavior; generally, adherence to or failure to adhere to program rules and regulations or their treatment plan. For children with conduct disorder, token systems are highly successful but do not help the children achieve normal functioning unless combined with a cost response program reinforcing negative punishment. As an approach to treatment, contingency management emerged from the behavior therapy and applied behavior analysis traditions in mental health. By most evaluations, contingency management procedures produce one of the largest effect sizes out of all mental health and educational interventions.

Continuous hyperthermic peritoneal perfusion

Continuous hyperthermic peritoneal perfusion (CHPP) is a procedure in which the abdominal cavity is bathed in warm fluid that contains anticancer drugs. It is a kind of hyperthermia therapy.

Contralateral

Standard anatomical terms of location are employed in science which deal with the anatomy of animals to avoid ambiguities which might otherwise arise. They are not language-specific, and thus require no translation. They are universal terms that may be readily understood by zoologists who speak any language. Unfortunately, while these terms are standardized within specific fields of biology, they can differ dramatically from one discipline to another. Differences in terminology remain a problem that, to some extent, still separates the fields of zoological anatomy (sometimes called zootomy) and human (medical) anatomy (sometimes called androtomy).

Control group/Controlled study

When performing an experiment creating a unchanged and normal specimen. This includes variables i.e. environmental changes, temperature changes, and biological variation. Scientific controls ensure that data are valid, and are a vital part of the scientific method.

Controlled clinical trial

Clinical trials are a step in medical research conducted to allow safety (or more specifically, information about adverse drug reactions and adverse effects of other treatments) and efficacy data to be collected for health interventions (e.g., drugs, diagnostics, devices, therapy protocols). These trials can take place only after satisfactory information has been gathered on the quality of the non-clinical safety, and Health Authority/Ethics Committee approval is granted in the country where the trial is taking place.

CoQ10

Coenzyme Q10, also known as ubiquinone, ubidecarenone, coenzyme Q, and abbreviated at times to CoQ10, CoQ, Q10, or Q, is a 1,4-benzoquinone, where Q refers to the quinone chemical group, and 10 refers to the number of isoprenyl chemical subunits in its tail.

Cordectomy

Cordectomy is the surgical removal of a cord. It usually refers to removal of the vocal cord, often for the purpose of treating Laryngeal Cancer. The word is derived from the Greek, combining "Chorde" and "ektome" meaning excision. It can be carried out by traditional surgical techniques or, increasingly, by Carbon Dioxide Laser. CO2 laser cordectomy has allowed the treatment of glottic carcinoma as a day case procedure. The procedure has also been carried out by vets to prevent incessant barking by dogs.

Cordycepin

Cordycepin, or 3'-deoxyadenosine, is a derivative of the nucleoside adenosine, differing from the latter by the absence of oxygen in the 3' position of its ribose part. It was initially extracted from fungi of genus Cordyceps, but is now produced synthetically.

Core biopsy

A biopsy is a medical test involving the removal of cells or tissues for examination. It is the medical removal of tissue from a living subject to determine the presence or extent of a disease. The tissue is generally examined under a microscope by a pathologist, and can also be analyzed chemically. When an entire lump or suspicious area is removed, the procedure is called an excisional biopsy. When only a sample of tissue is removed with preservation of the histological architecture of the tissue's cells, the procedure is called an incisional biopsy or core biopsy. When a sample of tissue or fluid is removed with a needle in such a way that cells are removed without preserving the histological architecture of the tissue cells, the procedure is called a needle aspiration biopsy.

Corticosteroid

Corticosteroids are a class of steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex. Corticosteroids are involved in a wide range of physiologic systems such as stress response, immune response and regulation of inflammation, carbohydrate metabolism, protein catabolism, blood electrolyte levels, and behavior.

Corynebacterium granulosum

Corynebacterium granulosum is a bacterium that may stimulate the immune system to fight cancer.

Coumestan

Coumestan is an organic compound that is a derivative of coumarin. Coumestan forms the central core of a variety of natural compounds known collectively as coumestans. Coumestans, including coumestrol, a phytoestrogen, are found in a variety of plants. Food sources high in coumestans include split peas, pinto beans, lima beans, and especially alfalfa and clover sprouts.

Coumestrol

Coumestrol is a natural organic compound in the class of phytochemicals known as coumestans. It has garnered research interest because of its estrogenic activity and its prevalence in some foods, such as soybeans and herbs such as Pueraria mirifica.

CP-358,774

Erlotinib hydrochloride (trade name Tarceva) is a drug used to treat non-small cell lung cancer, pancreatic cancer and several other types of cancer. It is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, which acts on the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). It is marketed in the United States by Genentech and OSI Pharmaceuticals and elsewhere by Roche.

CPT 11

Irinotecan (Camptosar, Pfizer; Campto, Yakult Honsha) is a drug used for the treatment of cancer. Irinotecan is a topoisomerase 1 inhibitor, which prevents DNA from unwinding. In chemical terms, it is a semisynthetic analogue of the natural alkaloid camptothecin.

Craniopharyngioma

Craniopharyngioma is a type of brain tumor derived from pituitary gland embryonic tissue, that occurs most commonly in children but also in men and women in their 50s and 60s. It arises from nests of odontogenic (tooth-forming) epithelium within the suprasellar/diencephalic region and, therefore, contains deposits of calcium, which are evident on an x-ray. Histologically, craniopharyngiomas resemble adamantinomas (the most common tumors of the tooth). Patients may present with bitemporal inferior quadrantanopia leading to bitemporal hemianopia, as the tumor may compress the optic chiasm.

Craniotomy

A craniotomy is a surgical operation in which a bone flap is (temporarily) removed from the skull, to access the brain. Craniotomies are often a critical operation performed on patients suffering from brain lesions or traumatic brain injury (TBI), and can also allow doctors to surgically implant deep brain stimulators for the treatment of Parkinson's disease, epilepsy and cerebellar tremor. The procedure is also widely used in neuroscience for extracellular recording, brain imaging, and for neurological manipulations such as electrical stimulation and chemical titration.

Creatine

Creatine is a nitrogenous organic acid that occurs naturally in vertebrates and helps to supply energy to all cells in the body, primarily muscle, by increasing the formation of Adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Creatine was identified in 1832 when Michel Eugène Chevreul discovered it as a component of skeletal muscle, which he later named creatine after the Greek word for meat, κκρέας (kreas). In solution, creatine is in equilibrium with creatinine.

Creatinine

Creatinine (from the Greek κρέας, flesh) is a break-down product of creatine phosphate in muscle, and is usually produced at a fairly constant rate by the body (depending on muscle mass). In chemical terms, creatinine is a spontaneously formed cyclic derivative of creatine. Creatinine is chiefly filtered out of the blood by the kidneys (glomerular filtration and proximal tubular secretion). There is little-to-no tubular reabsorption of creatinine.

Cribriform

The portion of fascia covering the fossa ovalis in the thigh is perforated by the great saphenous vein and by numerous blood and lymphatic vessels, hence it has been termed the fascia cribrosa (Hesselbach's or cribriform fascia), the openings for these vessels having been likened to the holes in a sieve.

Crohn's disease

Crohn's disease, also known as regional enteritis, is an inflammatory disease of the intestines that may affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract from mouth to anus, causing a wide variety of symptoms. It primarily causes abdominal pain, diarrhea (which may be bloody if inflammation is at its worst), vomiting, or weight loss, but may also cause complications outside the gastrointestinal tract such as skin rashes, arthritis, inflammation of the eye, tiredness, and lack of concentration.

Cryopreservation

Cryopreservation is a process where cells or whole tissues are preserved by cooling to low sub-zero temperatures, such as (typically) 77 K or −196 °C (the boiling point of liquid nitrogen). At these low temperatures, any biological activity, including the biochemical reactions that would lead to cell death, is effectively stopped. However, when cryoprotectant solutions are not used, the cells being preserved are often damaged due to freezing during the approach to low temperatures or warming to room temperature.

Cryosurgery

Cryosurgery (cryotherapy) is the application of extreme cold to destroy abnormal or diseased tissue. The term comes from the Greek words cryo (κρύο) ("icy cold") and surgery (cheirourgiki - χειρουργική) meaning "hand work" or "handiwork". Cryosurgery has been historically used to treat a number of diseases and disorders, especially a variety of benign and malignant skin conditions.

Cryotherapy

Cryotherapy is the local or general use of low temperatures in medical therapy or the removal of heat from a body part. The term "cryotherapy" comes from the Greek cryo (κρυο) meaning cold and the word therapy (θεραπεια) meaning cure. It has been around since the 1880-1890s.

Cryptorchidism

Cryptorchidism is the absence of one or both testes from the scrotum. It is the most common birth defect regarding male genitalia. In unique cases, cryptorchidism can develop later in life, often as late as young adulthood. About 3% of full-term and 30% of premature infant boys are born with at least one undescended testis. However, about 80% of cryptorchid testes descend by the first year of life (the majority within three months), making the true incidence of cryptorchidism around 1% overall.

CSF

Colony-stimulating factors (CSFs) are secreted glycoproteins which bind to receptor proteins on the surfaces of hemopoietic stem cells and thereby activate intracellular signaling pathways which can cause the cells to proliferate and differentiate into a specific kind of blood cell (usually white blood cells; for red blood cell formation see erythropoietin).

CT scan

CT produces a volume of data which can be manipulated, through a process known as "windowing", in order to demonstrate various bodily structures based on their ability to block the X-ray beam. Although historically the images generated were in the axial or transverse plane, orthogonal to the long axis of the body, modern scanners allow this volume of data to be reformatted in various planes or even as volumetric (3D) representations of structures. Although most common in medicine, CT is also used in other fields, such as nondestructive materials testing. Another example is archaeological uses such as imaging the contents of sarcophagi or the DigiMorph project at the University of Texas at Austin which uses a CT scanner to study biological and paleontological specimens.

CT-2103

Paclitaxel is a mitotic inhibitor used in cancer chemotherapy. It was discovered in a U.S. National Cancer Institute program at the Research Triangle Institute in 1967 when Monroe E. Wall and Mansukh C. Wani isolated it from the bark of the Pacific yew tree, Taxus brevifolia and named it taxol. When it was developed commercially by Bristol-Myers Squibb (BMS) the generic name was changed to paclitaxel and the BMS compound is sold under the trademark TAXOL. In this formulation, paclitaxel is dissolved in Cremophor EL and ethanol, as a delivery agent. A newer formulation, in which paclitaxel is bound to albumin, is sold under the trademark Abraxane.

CT-2106

Camptothecin (CPT) is a cytotoxic quinoline alkaloid which inhibits the DNA enzyme topoisomerase I (topo I). It was discovered in 1966 by M. E. Wall and M. C. Wani in systematic screening of natural products for anticancer drugs. It was isolated from the bark and stem of Camptotheca acuminata (Camptotheca, Happy tree), a tree native in China. CPT showed remarkable anticancer activity in preliminary clinical trials but also low solubility and (high) adverse drug reaction. Because of these disadvantages synthetic and medicinal chemists have developed numerous syntheses of Camptothecin and various derivatives to increase the benefits of the chemical, with good results. Two CPT analogues have been approved and are used in cancer chemotherapy today, topotecan and irinotecan.

CTC

Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are cells that have detached from a primary tumor and circulate in the bloodstream. CTCs may constitute seeds for subsequent growth of additional tumors (metastasis) in different tissues.

Cultured cell/Cultured cell line

Cell culture is the complex process by which cells are grown under controlled conditions. In practice, the term "cell culture" has come to refer to the culturing of cells derived from multicellular eukaryotes, especially animal cells. However, there are also cultures of plants, fungi and microbes, including viruses, bacteria and protists. The historical development and methods of cell culture are closely interrelated to those of tissue culture and organ culture.

Cumulative dose

Cumulative dose is the total dose resulting from repeated exposures of ionizing radiation to an occupationally exposed worker to the same portion of the body, or to the whole body, over a period of time.

Curcumin

Curcumin is the principal curcuminoid of the popular Indian spice turmeric, which is a member of the ginger family (Zingiberaceae). The other two curcuminoids are desmethoxycurcumin and bis-desmethoxycurcumin. The curcuminoids are natural phenols and are responsible for the yellow color of turmeric. Curcumin can exist in at least two tautomeric forms, keto and enol. The enol form is more energetically stable in the solid phase and in solution.

Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma

Cutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL) is a class of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, which is a type of cancer of the immune system. Unlike most non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (which are generally B-cell related), CTCL is caused by a mutation of T cells. The malignant T cells in the body initially migrate to the skin, causing various lesions to appear. These lesions change shape as the disease progresses, typically beginning as what appears to be a rash which can be very itchy and eventually forming plaques and tumors before metastasizing to other parts of the body.

Cyanogenic glucoside

In this case, the aglycone contains a cyanide group. In many plants, these glycosides are stored in the vacuole but if the plant is attacked they are released and become activated by enzymes in the cytoplasm. These remove the sugar part of the molecule and release toxic hydrogen cyanide. Storing them in inactive forms in the cytoplasm prevents them from damaging the plant under normal conditions.

Cyclooxygenase-2 selective inhibitor

COX-2 selective inhibitor is a form of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that directly targets COX-2, an enzyme responsible for inflammation and pain. Selectivity for COX-2 reduces the risk of peptic ulceration, and is the main feature of celecoxib, rofecoxib and other members of this drug class. COX-2 selectivity does not seem to reduce other adverse effects of NSAIDs (most notably an increased risk of renal failure), and some results have shown an increase in the risk for heart attack, thrombosis and stroke by a relative increase in thromboxane. Rofecoxib (commonly known as Vioxx) was taken off the market in 2004 because of these concerns.

Cyclophosphamide

Cyclophosphamide (INN, trade names Endoxan, Cytoxan, Neosar, Procytox, Revimmune), also known as cytophosphane, is a nitrogen mustard alkylating agent, from the oxazophorines group. An alkylating agent adds an alkyl group (CnH2n+1) to DNA. It attaches the alkyl group to the guanine base of DNA, at the number 7 nitrogen atom of the imidazole ring. It is used to treat various types of cancer and some autoimmune disorders. It is a "prodrug"; it is converted in the liver to active forms that have chemotherapeutic activity.

Cyclosporine

Cyproheptadine (trade name Periactin) usually as cyproheptadine hydrochloride is an antihistaminic/anticholinergic and antiserotonergic agent. It also acts as a 5-HT2 receptor antagonist as well as blocking calcium channels.

Cyproheptadine/Cyproterone acetate

Cyproterone acetate (Androcur, Cyprostat,Cyproteron, Procur, Cyprone, Cyprohexal, Ciproterona, Cyproteronum, Neoproxil, Siterone) is an antiandrogen, i.e. it suppresses the actions of testosterone (and its metabolite dihydrotestosterone) on tissues. It acts by blocking androgen receptors which prevents androgens from binding to them and suppresses luteinizing hormone (which in turn reduces testosterone levels). Its main indications are prostate cancer, benign prostatic hyperplasia, priapism, hypersexuality and other conditions in which androgen action maintains the disease process. Due to its anti-androgen effect, it can also be used to treat hirsutism, and is a common component in hormone therapy for male-to-female transsexual people.

Cyst

A cyst is a closed sac, having a distinct membrane and division on the nearby tissue. It may contain air, fluids, or semi-solid material. A collection of pus is called an abscess, not a cyst. Once formed, a cyst could go away on its own or may have to be removed through surgery.

Cystectomy

Cystectomy is a medical term for surgical removal of all or part of the urinary bladder. It may also be rarely used to refer to the removal of a cyst, or the gallbladder. The most common condition warranting removal of the urinary bladder is bladder cancer. After the bladder has been removed, an Ileal conduit urinary diversion is necessary. An alternative to this method is to construct a pouch from a section of ileum or colon, which can act as a form of replacement bladder, storing urine until the patient desires to release it, which can be achieved by either abdominal straining or self catheterisation. Future treatment for this condition may involve a full replacement with an artificial bladder.

Cystosarcoma phyllodes

Phyllodes tumors (from Greek: phullon leaf), also cystosarcoma phyllodes, cystosarcoma phylloides and phylloides tumor, are typically large, fast growing masses that form from the periductal stromal cells of the breast. They account for less than 1% of all breast neoplasms.

Cystoscope/Cystoscopy

Cystoscopy is endoscopy of the urinary bladder via the urethra. It is carried out with a cystoscope. Diagnostic cystoscopy is usually carried out with local anaesthesia. General anaesthesia is sometimes used for operative cystoscopic procedures.

Cytarabine

Cytarabine, or cytosine arabinoside, is. a chemotherapy agent used mainly in the treatment of hematological malignancies such as acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. It is also known as Ara-C (Arabinofuranosyl Cytidine).

Cytogenetics

Cytogenetics is a branch of genetics that is concerned with the study of the structure and function of the cell, especially the chromosomes. It includes routine analysis of G-Banded chromosomes, other cytogenetic banding techniques, as well as molecular cytogenetics such as fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and comparative genomic hybridization (CGH).

Cytokine

Cytokines (Greek cyto-, cell; and -kinos, movement) are small cell-signaling protein molecules that are secreted by the glial cells of the nervous system and by numerous cells of the immune system and are a category of signaling molecules used extensively in intercellular communication. Cytokines can be classified as proteins, peptides, or glycoproteins; the term "cytokine" encompasses a large and diverse family of regulators produced throughout the body by cells of diverse embryological origin.

Cytology

Cytopathology (from Greek κύτος, kytos, "a hollow"; πάθος, pathos, "fate, harm"; and -λογία, -logia) is a branch of pathology that studies and diagnoses diseases on the cellular level. The discipline was founded by Rudolf Virchow in 1858. A common application of cytopathology is the Pap smear, used as a screening tool, to detect precancerous cervical lesions and prevent cervical cancer. Cytopathogy is also commonly used to investigate thyroid lessions, diseases involving sterile body cavities (peritoneal, pleural, and cerebrospinal), and a wide range of other body sites. It is usually used to aid in the diagnosis of cancer, but also helps in the diagnosis of certain infectious diseases and other inflammatory conditions. Cytopathology is generally used on samples of free cells or tissue fragments, in contrast to histopathology, which studies whole tissues.

Cytomegalovirus

Cytomegalovirus (from the Greek cyto-, "cell", and -megalo-, "large") is a viral genus of the viral group known as Herpesviridae or herpesviruses. It is typically abbreviated as CMV: The species that infects humans it is commonly known as human CMV (HCMV) or human herpesvirus-5 (HHV-5), and is the best studied of all cytomegoloviruses. Within Herpesviridae, CMV belongs to the Betaherpesvirinae subfamily, which also includes the genera Muromegalovirus and Roseolovirus. It is related to other herpesviruses within the subfamilies of Alphaherpesvirinae that includes herpes simplex viruses (HSV)-1 and -2 and varicella-zoster virus (VZV), and the Gammaherpesvirinae subfamily that includes Epstein-Barr virus. All herpesviruses share a characteristic ability to remain latent within the body over long periods. Although they may be found throughout the body, CMV infections are frequently associated with the salivary glands in humans and other mammals. Other CMV viruses are found in several mammal species, but species isolated from animals differ from HCMV in terms of genomic structure, and have not been reported to cause human disease.

Cytopenia

Cytopenia is a reduction in the number of blood cells. It takes a number of forms:

  • Low red blood cell count: resulting in anemia.
  • Low white blood cell count: leukopenia or neutropenia (because neutrophils make up at least half of all white cells, they are almost always low in leukopenia).
  • Low platelet count: thrombocytopenia.
  • Low granulocyte count: granulocytopenia
  • Low red blood cell, white blood cell, and platelet counts: pancytopenia.

Cytoplasm

The cytoplasm is a thick liquid residing between the cell membrane holding organelles, except for the nucleus. All the contents of the cells of prokaryote organisms (which lack a cell nucleus) are contained within the cytoplasm. Within the cells of eukaryote organisms the contents of the cell nucleus are separated from the cytoplasm, and are then called the nucleoplasm.

Cytotoxic

Cytotoxicity is the quality of being toxic to cells. Examples of toxic agents are a chemical substance, an immune cell or some types of venom (e.g. from the puff adder or brown recluse spider).

Cytotoxic T cell

A cytotoxic T cell (also known as TC, CTL, T-Killer cell, cytolytic T cell, CD8+ T-cells or killer T cell) belongs to a sub-group of T lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell) that are capable of inducing the death of infected somatic or tumor cells; they kill cells that are infected with viruses (or other pathogens), or are otherwise damaged or dysfunctional. Most cytotoxic T cells express T-cell receptors (TCRs) that can recognize a specific antigenic peptide bound to Class I MHC molecules, present on all nucleated cells, and a glycoprotein called CD8, which is attracted to non-variable portions of the Class I MHC molecule. The affinity between CD8 and the MHC molecule keeps the TC cell and the target cell bound closely together during antigen-specific activation. CD8+ T cells are recognized as TC cells once they become activated and are generally classified as having a pre-defined cytotoxic role within the immune system.

 

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Published - April 2011







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