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Oncology-related Terms Glossary
(Starting with "S")

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_oncology-related_terms






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Safingol

Safingol is a lyso-sphingolipid protein kinase C inhibitor. It has the molecular formula C18H39NO2 and is a colorless solid.

Salpingo-oophorectomy

Oophorectomy (from the Greek ωὀφόρος oophoros "egg-bearing" + εκτομία ektomia "a cutting out of") is the surgical removal of an ovary or ovaries. The surgery is also called ovariectomy, but this term has been traditionally used in basic science research describing the surgical removal of ovaries in laboratory animals. Removal of the ovaries in women is the biological equivalent of castration in males; however, the term castration is only occasionally used in the medical literature to refer to oophorectomy in humans. In the veterinary sciences, the complete removal of the ovaries, oviducts, uterine horns, and the uterus is called spaying and is a form of sterilization.

Salvage therapy

Salvage therapy is a form of treatment given after an ailment does not respond to standard treatment. The most common diseases that require salvage therapy are HIV and various tumors. The word is not clearly defined; it is used both to mean a second attempt and a final attempt.

Saponin

Saponins are a class of chemical compounds, one of many secondary metabolites found in natural sources, with saponins found in particular abundance in various plant species. Specifically, they are amphipathic glycosides grouped phenomenologically by the soap-like foaming they produce when shaken in aqueous solutions, and structurally by their composition of one or more hydrophilic glycoside moieties combined with a lipophilic triterpene derivative. A ready and therapeutically relevant example is the cardio-active agent digoxin, from common foxglove.

Saquinavir mesylate

Saquinavir is an antiretroviral drug used in HIV therapy. It falls in the protease inhibitor class. Two formulations have been marketed:

  • a hard-gel capsule formulation of the mesylate, with trade name Invirase, which requires combination with ritonavir to increase the saquinavir bioavailability;
  • a soft-gel capsule formulation of saquinavir, with trade name Fortovase.

Both formulations are generally used as a component of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).

Sarcoma

A sarcoma (from the Greek 'sarx' meaning "flesh") is a cancer that arises from transformed connective tissue cells. These cells originate from embryonic mesoderm, or middle layer, which forms the bone, cartilage, and fat tissues.

Sargramostim

Sargramostim (marketed by Bayer under the tradename Leukine) is a recombinant granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) that functions as an immunostimulator.

Satraplatin

Satraplatin (INN, codenamed JM216) is a platinum compound that is currently under investigation as one treatment of patients with advanced prostate cancer who have failed previous chemotherapy. It has not yet received approval from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. First mentioned in the medical literature in 1993, satraplatin is the first orally active platinum-based chemotherapeutic drug; other available platinum analogues—cisplatin, carboplatin, and oxaliplatin—must be given intravenously.

Schiller test

Schiller's test or Schiller's Iodine test is a medical test in which iodine solution is applied to the cervix in order to diagnose cervical cancer.

Schwann cell

Schwann cells or neurolemmocytes are the principal glia of the peripheral nervous system (PNS). Glial cells function to support neurons and in the PNS, also include satellite cells, olfactory ensheathing cells, enteric glia and glia that reside at sensory nerve endings, such as the Pacinian corpuscle. Myelinating Schwann cells wrap around axons of motor and sensory neurons to form the myelin sheath.

Schwannoma

A schwannoma (also known as an "acoustic neuroma," "neurilemmoma," "neurinoma," "neurolemmoma," and "Schwann cell tumor") is a benign nerve sheath tumor composed of Schwann cells, which normally produce the insulating myelin sheath covering peripheral nerves.

Scintimammography

Scintimammography is a type of breast imaging test that is used to detect cancer cells in the breasts of some women who have had abnormal mammograms, or who have dense breast tissue, but is not used for screening or in place of a mammogram. In this test, a woman receives an injection of a small amount of a radioactive substance called technetium 99, which is taken up by cancer cells, and a gamma camera is used to take pictures of the breasts. Also called a Miraluma test and sestamibi breast imaging.

Scleroderma

Scleroderma is a chronic systemic autoimmune disease (primarily of the skin) characterized by fibrosis (or hardening), vascular alterations, and autoantibodies. There are two major forms:

Screening mammogram

Mammography is a common screening method, since it is relatively fast and widely available in developed countries. Mammography is a type of X-ray radiography used on the breasts. Mammography is used for two purposes: to aid in the diagnosis of a woman who is experiencing symptoms (called diagnostic mammography), and for medical screening of apparently healthy women (called screening mammography). Breast cancers detected by screening mammography are usually smaller and less aggressive than those detected by patients or doctors as a breast lump.

Scutellaria barbata

Scutellaria barbata is a plant used in traditional Chinese medicine. Other names include ban zhi lian (Chinese: 半枝莲; pinyin: bànzhīlián), scullcap or skullcap, barbat skullcap, skute barbata, or herba scutellariae barbatae.

SDX-102

Alanosine (also called SDX-102) is a substance that is being studied for the treatment of pancreatic cancer. It is an antimetabolite. It is used as one of a few experimental treatments for patients with deadly pancreatic cancer when the main chemotherapeutic treatment regimen of gemcitabine is no longer useful.

SDX-105

Bendamustine (INN, trade names Ribomustin and Treanda; also known as SDX-105) is a nitrogen mustard used in the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemias (CLL) and lymphomas. It belongs to the family of drugs called alkylating agents. It is also being studied for the treatment of sarcoma.

Second-line therapy

Therapy (in Greek: θεραπεία), or treatment, is the attempted remediation of a health problem, usually following a diagnosis. In the medical field, it is synonymous with the word "treatment". Among psychologists, the term may refer specifically to psychotherapy or "talk therapy".

Secondary cancer

A secondary neoplasm refers to any of a class of cancerous tumors that are either metastatic offshoots of a primary tumor, or apparently unrelated tumors that increase in frequency following certain cancer treatments, including chemotherapy or radiotherapy.

Selective estrogen receptor modulator

Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators (SERMs) are a class of compounds that act on the estrogen receptor. A characteristic that distinguishes these substances from pure receptor agonists and antagonists is that their action is different in various tissues, thereby granting the possibility to selectively inhibit or stimulate estrogen-like action in various tissues. Phytoserms are SERMs from a botanical source.

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or serotonin-specific reuptake inhibitor (SSRIs) are a class of compounds typically used as antidepressants in the treatment of depression, anxiety disorders, and some personality disorders. They are also typically effective and used in treating some cases of insomnia.

Sella turcica

The sella turcica (literally Turkey Chair - indirectly translating to Turkish Chair) is a saddle-shaped depression in the sphenoid bone of the human skull.

Semaxanib

Semaxanib (proposed INN, also semaxinib or SU5416) is a drug intended for use in the treatment of cancer. It is still at an experimental stage and as such has not yet received a licence for use on human patients (except in the setting of a clinical trial). Semaxanib is a potent and selective synthetic inhibitor of the Flk-1/KDR vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor tyrosine kinase. It targets the VEGF pathway, and both in vivo and in vitro studies have demonstrated antiangiogenic potential.

Seminoma

Seminoma (also known as pure seminoma or classical seminoma) is a germ cell tumor (cancer) of the testis. It is one of the most treatable and curable cancers, with survival >95% in the early stages. Treatment usually requires removal of one testis, but this does not affect fertility or other sexual functioning.

Semustine

Semustine is a drug used in chemotherapy. Structurally similar to Lomustine.

Senile keratosis

Actinic keratosis (also called "solar keratosis" and "senile keratosis") is a premalignant condition of thick, scaly, or crusty patches of skin. It is more common in fair-skinned people. It is associated with those who are frequently exposed to the sun, as it is usually accompanied by solar damage. Since some of these pre-cancers progress to squamous cell carcinoma, they should be treated. Untreated lesions have up to twenty percent risk of progression to squamous cell carcinoma.

Sentinel lymph node (biopsy)

The sentinel lymph node is the hypothetical first lymph node or group of nodes reached by metastasizing cancer cells from a primary tumor.

Serotonin

Serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter. Biochemically derived from tryptophan, serotonin is primarily found in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, platelets, and in the central nervous system (CNS) of animals including humans. It is a well-known contributor to feelings of well-being; therefore it is also known as a "happiness hormone" despite not being a hormone.

Sertraline

Sertraline hydrochloride (trade names Zoloft and Lustral) is an antidepressant of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class. It was introduced to the market by Pfizer in 1991. Sertraline is primarily used to treat major depression in adult outpatients as well as obsessive–compulsive, panic, and social anxiety disorders in both adults and children. In 2007, it was the most prescribed antidepressant on the U.S. retail market, with 29,652,000 prescriptions.

Serum albumin

Serum albumin, often referred to simply as albumin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ALB gene.

Serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase

Alanine transaminase or ALT is a transaminase enzyme (EC 2.6.1.2). It is also called serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) or alanine aminotransferase (ALAT).

Serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase

Aspartate transaminase (AST) also called serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) or aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT/AAT/AspAT) (EC 2.6.1.1) is similar to alanine transaminase (ALT) in that it is another enzyme associated with liver parenchymal cells. The difference being; ALT is found predominately in the liver, with clinically negligible quantities found in the kidneys, heart, and skeletal muscle. AST is found in the liver, heart, skeletal muscle, kidneys, brain and red blood cells. As a result ALT is a more specific indicator of liver inflammation than the AST, as AST may also be elevated in diseases affecting other organs, such as the heart or muscles in myocardial infarction, also in acute pancreatitis, acute hemolytic anemia, severe burns, acute renal disease, musculoskeletal diseases, and trauma.

Sesquiterpene lactone

Sesquiterpene lactones are a class of chemical found in many plants that can cause allergic reactions and toxicity if overdosed, particularly in grazing livestock. In moderate amounts, the chemical can work with vernolic acid and other compounds in plants to reduce inflammation and improve the cellular structure of smooth muscle of blood vessels, which can help prevent and cure atherosclerosis.

Sézary syndrome

Sézary's disease (often called Sézary syndrome) is a type of cutaneous lymphoma that was first described by Albert Sézary. The affected cells are T-cells that have pathological quantities of mucopolysaccharides. Sézary's disease is sometimes considered a late stage of mycosis fungoides with lymphadenopathy. There are currently no known causes of Sézary's disease.

Sham therapy

A placebo is a sham or simulated medical intervention. Sometimes patients given a placebo treatment will have a perceived or actual improvement in a medical condition, a phenomenon commonly called the placebo effect.

Shave biopsy

Shave biopsy is a biopsy procedure in which a skin abnormality and a thin layer of surrounding skin are removed with a small blade for examination under a microscope. Surgical sutures are not needed with this procedure.

Sho-saiko-to

Sho-Saiko-To (Japanese: 小柴胡湯), also known as Minor Bupleurum Formula and Xiao Chai Hu Tang in Chinese, is an herbal supplement, believed to enhance liver health. Sho-Saiko-To is a widely used prescription drug in Japan and is a listed formula in Japanese Kampo. There are currently ongoing clinical trials for Sho-Saiko-To at University of California, San Diego and Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center.

Sialic acid

Sialic acid is a generic term for the N- or O-substituted derivatives of neuraminic acid, a monosaccharide with a nine-carbon backbone. It is also the name for the most common member of this group, N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac or NANA). Sialic acids are found widely distributed in animal tissues and to a lesser extent in other species ranging from plants and fungi to yeasts and bacteria, mostly in glycoproteins and gangliosides. The amino group generally bears either an acetyl or glycolyl group but other modifications have been described. The hydroxyl substituents may vary considerably: acetyl, lactyl, methyl, sulfate, and phosphate groups have been found. The term "sialic acid" (from the Greek for saliva, σίαλον/sialon) was first introduced by Swedish biochemist Gunnar Blix in 1952.

Side-to-end coloanal anastomosis

Side-to-end coloanal anastomosis is a surgical procedure in which the side of the colon is attached to the anus after the rectum has been removed. A section of the colon about 2 inches long is formed into a mini-pouch in order to replace the function of the rectum and store stool until it can be eliminated. This procedure is similar to the J-pouch coloanal anastomosis but a much smaller pouch is formed.

Sideropenic dysphagia

Plummer-Vinson syndrome (PVS), also called Paterson-Brown-Kelly syndrome or sideropenic dysphagia presents as a triad of dysphagia (due to esophageal webs), glossitis, and iron deficiency anemia. It most usually occurs in postmenopausal women.

Sigmoidoscope/Sigmoidoscopy

Sigmoidoscopy From Greek doscopy, to look inside, is the minimally invasive medical examination of the large intestine from the rectum through the last part of the colon. There are two types of sigmoidoscopy, flexible sigmoidoscopy, which uses a flexible endoscope, and rigid sigmoidoscopy, which uses a rigid device. Flexible sigmoidoscopy is generally the preferred procedure. A sigmoidoscopy is similar to, but not the same as, a colonoscopy. A sigmoidoscopy only examines up to the sigmoid, the most distal part of the colon, while colonoscopy examines the whole large bowel.

Signal transduction inhibitor

Signal transduction inhibitors are drugs that may prevent the ability of cancer cells to multiply quickly and invade other tissues.

Signet ring cell carcinoma

Signet ring cell carcinoma is an epithelial malignancy characterized by the histologic appearance of signet ring cells.

SIL

A squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL) is a term that refers to abnormal growth of epithelial cells on the surface of the cervix, commonly called squamous cells. This condition can lead to cervical cancer, but can be diagnosed using a Pap smear or a colposcopy. It can be treated by using methods that remove the abnormal cells, allowing normal cells to grow in their place.

Sildenafil

Sildenafil citrate, sold as Viagra, Revatio and under various other trade names, is a drug used to treat erectile dysfunction and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). It was developed and is being marketed by the pharmaceutical company Pfizer. It acts by inhibiting cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase type 5, an enzyme that regulates blood flow in the penis. Since becoming available in 1998, sildenafil has been the prime treatment for erectile dysfunction; its primary competitors on the market are tadalafil (Cialis) and vardenafil (Levitra).

Silybum marianum

Silybum marianum,also called milk thistle, is an annual or biannual plant of the Asteraceae family. This fairly typical thistle has red to purple flowers and shiny pale green leaves with white veins. Originally a native of Southern Europe through to Asia, it is now found throughout the world. The medicinal parts of the plant are the ripe seeds.

Silymarin

Silibinin (INN), also known as silybin, is the major active constituent of silymarin, the mixture of flavonolignans extracted from milk thistle (Silybum marianum) consisting of silibinin A and B, isosilibinin A and B, silicristin and silidianin. Both in vitro and animal research suggest that silibinin has hepatoprotective (antihepatotoxic) properties that protect liver cells against toxins. Silibinin has also demonstrated anti-cancer effects against human prostate adenocarcinoma cells, estrogen-dependent and -independent human breast carcinoma cells, human ectocervical carcinoma cells, human colon cancer cells, and both small and nonsmall human lung carcinoma cells.

Single blind study

Single-blind describes experiments where information that could introduce bias or otherwise skew the result is withheld from the participants, but the experimenter will be in full possession of the facts.

Single-photon emission computed tomography

Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT, or less commonly, SPET) is a nuclear medicine tomographic imaging technique using gamma rays. It is very similar to conventional nuclear medicine planar imaging using a gamma camera. However, it is able to provide true 3D information. This information is typically presented as cross-sectional slices through the patient, but can be freely reformatted or manipulated as required.

Siplizumab

Siplizumab (MEDI-507) is a novel monoclonal antibody with a human IgG1, kappa directed to CD2. The agent has shown potent immunomodulatory effects, selectively suppressing the function of T and NK cells, and is currently being tested as a possible treatment for psoriasis and in the prevention of graft-versus-host disease.

Sirolimus

Sirolimus (INN/USAN), also known as rapamycin, is an immunosuppressant drug used to prevent rejection in organ transplantation; it is especially useful in kidney transplants. A macrolide, sirolimus was first discovered as a product of the bacterium Streptomyces hygroscopicus in a soil sample from Easter Island — an island also known as "Rapa Nui", hence the name. It is marketed under the trade name Rapamune by Wyeth.

Small cell lung cancer

Small-cell carcinoma is a type of highly malignant carcinoma usually associated with the lung, though it can be associated with other topographies, such as in cervical cancer or prostate cancer.

Small intestine

In vertebrates, the small intestine is the part of the gastrointestinal tract (git) following the stomach and followed by the large intestine, and is where much of the digestion and absorption of food takes place. In invertebrates such as worms, the terms "gastrointestinal tract" and "large intestine" are often used to describe the entire intestine. This article is primarily about the human gut, though the information about its processes is directly applicable to most placental mammals. The primary function of the small intestine is the absorption of nutrients and minerals found in food. (A major exception to this are cows; for information about digestion in cows and other similar mammals, see ruminants.)

Smoldering leukemia

Refractory anemia with excess of blasts (RAEB) is a type of myelodysplastic syndrome with a marrow blast percentage of 5% to 19%.

SNX 111

Ziconotide (SNX-111; Prialt) is a non-opioid and non-NSAID analgesic agent used for the amelioration of severe and chronic pain. Derived from Conus magus ("Cone Snail"), it is the synthetic form of an ω-conotoxin peptide.

Sodium salicylate

Sodium salicylate is a sodium salt of salicylic acid. It can be prepared from sodium phenolate and carbon dioxide under higher temperature and pressure. Historically, it has been synthesized from methyl salicylate (found in wintergreen plants or the bark of sweet birch tree) by reacting it with an excess of sodium hydroxide and heating it under reflux.

Sodium sulfite

Sodium sulfite (sodium sulphite) is a soluble sodium salt of sulfurous acid. It is a product of sulfur dioxide scrubbing, a part of the flue gas desulfurization process. It is also used as a preservative to prevent dried fruit from discoloring, and for preserving meats, and is used in the same way as sodium thiosulfate to convert elemental halides to their respective acids, in photography and for reducing chlorine levels in pools.

Sodium thiosulfate

Sodium thiosulfate (Na2S2O3), also spelled sodium thiosulphate, is a colorless crystalline compound that is more familiar as the pentahydrate, Na2S2O3•5H2O, an efflorescent, monoclinic crystalline substance also called sodium hyposulfite or "hypo."

Soft tissue sarcoma

A soft-tissue sarcoma is a form of sarcoma that develops in connective tissue, though the term is sometimes applied to elements of the soft tissue that are not currently considered connective tissue.

Solar keratosis

Actinic keratosis (also called "solar keratosis" and "senile keratosis") is a premalignant condition of thick, scaly, or crusty patches of skin. It is more common in fair-skinned people. It is associated with those who are frequently exposed to the sun, as it is usually accompanied by solar damage. Since some of these pre-cancers progress to squamous cell carcinoma, they should be treated. Untreated lesions have up to twenty percent risk of progression to squamous cell carcinoma.

Solid tumor

A tumor or tumour is the name for a neoplasm or a solid lesion formed by an abnormal growth of cells (termed neoplastic) which looks like a swelling. Tumor is not synonymous with cancer. A tumor can be benign, pre-malignant or malignant, whereas cancer is by definition malignant.

Somatic cell

A somatic cell (diploid) is any biological cell forming the body of an organism; that is, in a multicellular organism, any cell other than a gamete, germ cell, gametocyte or undifferentiated stem cell. By contrast, gametes are cells that fuse during sexual reproduction, for organisms that reproduce sexually; Germ cells are cells that give rise to gametes; Stem cells are cells that can divide through mitosis and differentiate into diverse specialized cell types. For example, in mammals, somatic cells make up all the internal organs, skin, bones, blood, and connective tissue. By contrast, mammalian germ cells give rise to spermatozoa and ova which fuse during fertilization to produce a cell called a zygote, which develops into an embryo.

Somatic mutation

In molecular biology and genetics, mutations are changes in a genomic sequence: the DNA sequence of a cell's genome or the DNA or RNA sequence of a virus. They can be defined as sudden and spontaneous changes in the cell. Mutations are caused by radiation, viruses, transposons and mutagenic chemicals, as well as errors that occur during meiosis or DNA replication. They can also be induced by the organism itself, by cellular processes such as hypermutation.

Sonogram

Diagnostic sonography (ultrasonography) is an ultrasound-based diagnostic imaging technique used for visualizing subcutaneous body structures including tendons, muscles, joints, vessels and internal organs for possible pathology or lesions. Obstetric sonography is commonly used during pregnancy and is widely recognized by the public.

Sorivudine

Sorivudine (INN) chemical name (E)-5-(2-Bromovinyl)- 1β-D-arabinofuranosyluracil, is a thymine analogue antiviral drug, marketed under trade names such as Usevir (Nippon Shoji, Eisai) and Brovavir (BMS).

SPECT

Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT, or less commonly, SPET) is a nuclear medicine tomographic imaging technique using gamma rays. It is very similar to conventional nuclear medicine planar imaging using a gamma camera. However, it is able to provide true 3D information. This information is typically presented as cross-sectional slices through the patient, but can be freely reformatted or manipulated as required.

Spiculated mass

In oncology, a spiculated mass is a lump of tissue with spikes or points on the surface. It is suggestive but not diagnostic of malignancy, i.e. cancer.

Spindle cell cancer

Spindle cell cancer is a type of cancer that begins in the skin or in tissues that line or cover internal organs and that contains long spindle-shaped cells. Also called sarcomatoid carcinoma.

Spindle cell sarcoma

Spindle cell sarcoma is a type of connective tissue cancer in which the cells are spindle-shaped when examined under a microscope. The tumors generally begin in layers of connective tissue such as that under the skin, between muscles, and surrounding organs, and will generally start as a small lump with inflammation that grows. At first the lump will be self-contained as the tumor exists in its stage 1 state, and will not necessarily expand beyond its encapsulated form. However, it may develop cancerous processes that can only be detected through microscopic examination. As such, at this level the tumor is usually treated by excision that includes wide margins of healthy-looking tissue, followed by thorough biopsy and additional excision if necessary. The prognosis for a stage 1 tumor excision is usually fairly positive, but if the tumors progress to levels 2 and 3, prognosis is worse because tumor cells have likely spread to other locations. These locations can either be nearby tissues or system-wide locations that include the lungs, kidneys, and liver. In these cases prognosis is grim and chemotherapy and radiation are the only methods of controlling the cancer.

Spiral CT scan

Helical (or spiral) cone beam computed tomography (commonly abbreviated CBCT) is a type of three dimensional computed tomography (CT) in which the source (usually of x-rays) describes a helical trajectory relative to the object while a two dimensional array of detectors measures the transmitted radiation on part of a cone of rays emanating from the source. Willi Kalender, who is credited with the invention prefers the term Spiral scan CT, arguing that spiral is synonymous with helical: for example as used in 'spiral staircase'.

Splenomegaly

Splenomegaly is an enlargement of the spleen. The spleen usually lies in the left upper quadrant (LUQ) of the human abdomen. It is one of the four cardinal signs of hypersplenism, some reduction in the number of circulating blood cells affecting granulocytes, erythrocytes or platelets in any combination; a compensatory proliferative response in the bone marrow; and the potential for correction of these abnormalities by splenectomy.. Splenomegaly is usually associated with increased workload (such as in hemolytic anemias), which suggests that it is a response to hyperfunction. It is therefore not surprising that splenomegaly is associated with any disease process that involves abnormal red blood cells being destroyed in the spleen. Other common causes include congestion due to portal hypertension and infiltration by leukemias and lymphomas. Thus, the finding of an enlarged spleen; along with caput medusa; is an important sign of portal hypertension.

Squalamine lactate

Squalamine is a strong naturally-derived broad-spectrum antibiotic that is predominantly derived from the livers of dogfish and other shark species. Often mistaken for shark liver oil (squalene), it is instead an entirely different substance derived from the livers of these species.

Squamous cell

In anatomy, squamous epithelium (from Latin squama, "scale") is an epithelium characterised by its most superficial layer consisting of flat, scale-like cells called squamous cells. Epithelium may be composed of one layer of these cells, in which case it is referred to as simple squamous epithelium, or it may possess multiple layers, referred to then as stratified squamous epithelium. Both types perform differing functions, ranging from nutrient exchange to protection.

Squamous cell carcinoma

Squamous-cell carcinoma (SCC) is a carcinomatous cancer occurring in multiple organs. These include the skin, lips, mouth, esophagus, urinary bladder, prostate, lungs, vagina, and cervix. It is a malignant tumor of squamous epithelium (epithelium that shows squamous-cell differentiation). Despite the common name, these are unique cancers with large differences in manifestation and prognosis.

Squamous intraepithelial lesion

A squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL) is a term that refers to abnormal growth of epithelial cells on the surface of the cervix, commonly called squamous cells. This condition can lead to cervical cancer, but can be diagnosed using a Pap smear or a colposcopy. It can be treated by using methods that remove the abnormal cells, allowing normal cells to grow in their place.

SSRI

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or serotonin-specific reuptake inhibitor (SSRIs) are a class of compounds typically used as antidepressants in the treatment of depression, anxiety disorders, and some personality disorders. They are also typically effective and used in treating some cases of insomnia.

Staging

The stage of a cancer is a description (usually numbers I to IV with IV having more progression) of the extent the cancer has spread. The stage often takes into account the size of a tumor, how deeply it has penetrated, whether it has invaded adjacent organs, how many lymph nodes it has metastasized to (if any), and whether it has spread to distant organs. Staging of cancer is the most important predictor of survival, and cancer treatment is primarily determined by staging. Thus, staging does not change with progression of the disease as it is used to assess prognosis. Patients' cancer, however, may be restaged after treatment but the staging established at diagnosis is rarely changed.

Staurosporine

Staurosporine (antibiotic AM-2282 or STS) is a natural product originally isolated in 1977 from the bacterium Streptomyces staurosporeus. It was the first of over 50 alkaloids to be isolated with this type of bis-indole chemical structure. The chemical structure of staurosporine was elucidated by X-ray analysis of a single crystal and the absolute stereochemical configuration by the same method in 1994.

Stavudine

Stavudine (2'-3'-didehydro-2'-3'-dideoxythymidine, d4T, brand name Zerit) is a nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NARTI) active against HIV.

Stem cell

Stem cells are biological cells found in all multicellular organisms, that can divide through mitosis and differentiate into diverse specialized cell types and can self renew to produce more stem cells. In mammals, there are two broad types of stem cells: embryonic stem cells that are isolated from the inner cell mass of blastocysts, and adult stem cells that are found in various tissues. In adult organisms, stem cells and progenitor cells act as a repair system for the body, replenished in adult tissues. In a developing embryo, stem cells can differentiate into all the specialized cells, but also maintain the normal turnover of regenerative organs, such as blood, skin, or intestinal tissues.

Stem cell factor

Stem Cell Factor (also known as SCF, kit-ligand, KL, or steel factor) is a cytokine that binds to the c-Kit receptor (CD117). SCF can exist both as a transmembrane protein and a soluble protein. This cytokine plays an important role in hematopoiesis (formation of blood cells), spermatogenesis, and melanogenesis.

Stem cell transplantation

Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the transplantation of multipotent hematopoietic stem cell or blood, often derived from bone marrow, umbilical cord blood or hemopoietic stem cells derived from a placenta. Stem cell transplantation is a medical procedure in the fields of hematology and oncology, most often performed for people with diseases of the blood, bone marrow, or certain cancer.

Stent

In medicine, a stent is an artificial 'tube' inserted into a natural passage/conduit in the body to prevent, or counteract, a disease-induced, localized flow constriction. The term may also refer to a tube used to temporarily hold such a natural conduit open to allow access for surgery.

Stereotactic biopsy

Stereotactic biopsy, also known as stereotactic core biopsy, is a biopsy procedure that uses a computer and imaging performed in at least two planes to localize a target lesion (such as a tumor or microcalcifications in the breast) in three-dimensional space and guide the removal of tissue for examination by a pathologist under a microscope. Stereotactic core biopsy makes use of the underlying principle of parallax to determine the depth or "Z-dimension" of the target lesion.

Stereotactic injection

Stereotactic injection is a procedure in which a computer and a 3-dimensional scanning device are used to inject anticancer drugs directly into a tumor.

Stereotactic radiation therapy

Stereotactic radiation therapy is a type of external radiation therapy that uses special equipment to position the patient and precisely deliver radiation to a tumor. The total dose of radiation is divided into several smaller doses given over several days. Stereotactic radiation therapy is used to treat brain tumors and other brain disorders. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer, such as lung cancer. Also called stereotactic external-beam radiation therapy and stereotaxic radiation therapy.

Stereotactic radiosurgery

Stereotactic surgery or stereotaxy (not to be confused with the virtuality concept of stereotaxy) is a minimally invasive form of surgical intervention which makes use of a three-dimensional coordinates system to locate small targets inside the body and to perform on them some action such as ablation (removal), biopsy, lesion, injection, stimulation, implantation, radiosurgery (SRS) etc. "Stereotactic" in Greek (another accepted spelling is "stereotaxic")

Stereotaxis

Stereotactic surgery or stereotaxy (not to be confused with the virtuality concept of stereotaxy) is a minimally invasive form of surgical intervention which makes use of a three-dimensional coordinates system to locate small targets inside the body and to perform on them some action such as ablation (removal), biopsy, lesion, injection, stimulation, implantation, radiosurgery (SRS) etc. "Stereotactic" in Greek (another accepted spelling is "stereotaxic")

STI571

Imatinib (originally STI571) is a drug used to treat certain types of cancer. It is currently marketed by Novartis as Gleevec (USA) or Glivec (Europe/Australia/Latin America) as its mesylate salt, imatinib mesilate (INN). It is used in treating chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) and some other diseases. By 2011, Gleevec has been FDA approved to treat ten different cancers. In CML, the tyrosine kinase enzyme ABL is stuck in its activated form; imatinib binds to the site of tyrosine kinase activity, and prevents its activity.

Stoma

In botany, a stoma (also stomate; plural stomata) is a pore, found in the leaf and stem epidermis that is used for gas exchange. The pore is bordered by a pair of specialized parenchyma cells known as guard cells which are responsible for regulating the size of the opening. The term stoma is also used collectively to refer to an entire stomatal complex, both the pore itself and its accompanying guard cells. Air containing carbon dioxide and oxygen enters the plant through these openings where it is used in photosynthesis and respiration, respectively. Oxygen produced by photosynthesis in the spongy layer cells (parenchyma cells with pectin) of the leaf interior exits through these same openings. Also, water vapor is released into the atmosphere through these pores in a process called transpiration.

Stomatitis

Stomatitis is an inflammation of the mucous lining of any of the structures in the mouth, which may involve the cheeks, gums, tongue, lips, throat, and roof or floor of the mouth. The inflammation can be caused by conditions in the mouth itself, such as poor oral hygiene, dietary protein deficiency, poorly fitted dentures, or from mouth burns from hot food or drinks, toxic plants, or by conditions that affect the entire body, such as medications, allergic reactions, radiation therapy, or infections.

Streptavidin

Streptavidin is a 52,800 dalton tetrameric protein purified from the bacterium Streptomyces avidinii. It has an extraordinarily high affinity for biotin (also known as vitamin B7); the dissociation constant (Kd) of the biotin-streptavidin complex is on the order of ≈10-14 mol/L, making it one of the strongest non-covalent interactions known in nature. It is used extensively in molecular biology and bionanotechnology as, in addition to the high affinity, biotin-binding is resistant to extremes of pH, temperature, organic solvents, denaturants (e.g. guanidinium chloride), detergents (e.g. SDS, Triton) and proteolytic enzymes.

Streptozocin

Streptozotocin (Streptozocin, STZ, Zanosar) is a naturally occurring chemical that is particularly toxic to the insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas in mammals. It is used in medicine for treating certain cancers of the Islets of Langerhans and used in medical research to produce an animal model for Type 1 diabetes.

Stromal tumor

A stromal tumor is a tumor that arises in the supporting connective tissue of an organ.

Strontium-89

The alkaline earth metal strontium (Sr) has four stable, naturally occurring isotopes: 84Sr (0.56%), 86Sr (9.86%), 87Sr (7.0%) and 88Sr (82.58%). It has a standard atomic mass of 87.62(1) u.

Sturge-Weber syndrome

Sturge-Weber syndrome, sometimes referred to as encephalotrigeminal angiomatosis, is a rare congenital neurological and skin disorder. It is one of the phakomatoses and is often associated with port-wine stains of the face, glaucoma, seizures, mental retardation, and ipsilateral leptomeningeal angioma. It is characterized by proliferation of arteries of the brain, resulting in multiple angiomas that occur on the same side as the physical signs described above. As a consequence, arteriovenous malformations often form. Normally, only one side of the head is affected.

SU011248

Sunitinib (marketed as Sutent by Pfizer, and previously known as SU11248) is an oral, small-molecule, multi-targeted receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) inhibitor that was approved by the FDA for the treatment of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and imatinib-resistant gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) on January 26, 2006. Sunitinib was the first cancer drug simultaneously approved for two different indications.

SU101

Leflunomide is a medication of the DMARD type, used in active moderate to severe rheumatoid arthritis and psoriatic arthritis. It is a pyrimidine synthesis inhibitor.

SU5416

Semaxanib (proposed INN, also semaxinib or SU5416) is a drug intended for use in the treatment of cancer. It is still at an experimental stage and as such has not yet received a licence for use on human patients (except in the setting of a clinical trial). Semaxanib is a potent and selective synthetic inhibitor of the Flk-1/KDR vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor tyrosine kinase. It targets the VEGF pathway, and both in vivo and in vitro studies have demonstrated antiangiogenic potential.

Subcutaneous port

A subcutaneous port is a tube surgically placed into a blood vessel and attached to a disk placed under the skin. It is used for the administration of intravenous fluids and drugs; it can also be used to obtain blood samples.

Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid

Vorinostat (rINN) or suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) is a member of a larger class of compounds that inhibit histone deacetylases (HDAC). Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDI) have a broad spectrum of epigenetic activities.

Sucralfate

Sucralfate is a cytoprotective agent, an oral gastrointestinal medication primarily indicated for the treatment of active duodenal ulcers. Brand names include Sucramal in Italy; Carafate in U.S.A.,Pepsigard,Sucral,sucrafil, hapifate in India, Sutra in parts of South-East Asia, Sulcrate in Canada; and Antepsin in Turkey. Sucralfate is also used for the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and stress ulcers. Unlike the other classes of medications used for treatment of peptic ulcers, sucralfate is a sucrose sulfate-aluminium complex that binds to the mucosa, thus creating a physical barrier that impairs diffusion of hydrochloric acid in the gastrointestinal tract and prevents degeradation of mucus by acid. It also stimulates bicarbonate output and acts like an acid buffer with cytoprotective properties. Sucralfate was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1981.

Sulfonamide

Sulfonamide or sulphonamide is the basis of several groups of drugs. The original antibacterial sulfonamides (sometimes called sulfa drugs or sulpha drugs) are synthetic antimicrobial agents that contain the sulfonamide group. Some sulfonamides are also devoid of antibacterial activity, e.g., the anticonvulsant sultiame. The sulfonylureas and thiazide diuretics are newer drug groups based on the antibacterial sulfonamides.

Sulindac

Sulindac is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug of the arylalkanoic acid class that is marketed in the UK & U.S. by Merck as Clinoril.

Superior vena cava

The superior vena cava (also known as the precava) is a large diameter, yet short, vein that carries deoxygenated blood from the upper half of the body to the heart's right atrium.

Superior vena cava syndrome

Superior vena cava syndrome (SVCS), or superior vena cava obstruction (SVCO), is usually the result of the direct obstruction of the superior vena cava by malignancies such as compression of the vessel wall by right upper lobe tumors or thymoma and/or mediastinal lymphadenopathy. The most common malignancies that cause SVCS is bronchogenic carcinoma. Cerebral edema is rare, but if it occurs it may be fatal.

Supraclavicular lymph node

Supraclavicular lymph nodes are lymph nodes found superior to the clavicle, palpable in the supraclavicular fossa.

Supraglottis

The larynx (plural larynges), commonly called the voice box, is an organ in the neck of mammals (including humans)and many other vertebrates involved in breathing, sound production, and protecting the trachea against food aspiration. It manipulates pitch and volume. The larynx houses the vocal folds (commonly but improperly termed the "vocal cords"), which are essential for phonation. The vocal folds are situated just below where the tract of the pharynx splits into the trachea and the esophagus.

Supratentorial

In anatomy, the supratentorial region of the brain is the area located above the tentorium cerebelli. The area of the brain below the tentorium cerebelli is the infratentorial region. The supratentorial region contains the cerebrum, while the infratentorial region contains the cerebellum.

Suramin

Suramin is a drug developed by Oskar Dressel and Richard Kothe of Bayer, Germany in 1916, and is still sold by Bayer under the brand name Germanin.

Surgical oncologist

Surgical oncology is the branch of surgery which focuses on the surgical management of cancer.

Survival rate

In biostatistics, survival rate is a part of survival analysis, indicating the percentage of people in a study or treatment group who are alive for a given period of time after diagnosis. Survival rates are important for prognosis; for example, whether a type of cancer has a good or bad prognosis can be determined from its survival rate.

Syncytium

In biology, a syncytium (also spelled syncitium, plural syncytia) is a large cell-like structure; filled with cytoplasm and containing many nuclei. Most cells in eukaryotic organisms have a single nucleus; syncytia are specialized forms used by various organisms. The term may also refer to cells that are connected by specialized membrane proteins (e.g. gap junctions), like the heart muscle cells.

Syngeneic bone marrow transplantation

Syngeneic bone marrow transplantation is a procedure in which a person receives bone marrow donated by his or her healthy identical twin.

Syngeneic stem cell transplantation

Syngeneic stem cell transplantation is a procedure in which a patient receives blood-forming stem cells (cells from which all blood cells develop) donated by his or her healthy identical twin.

Synovial membrane

Synovial membrane (or synovium) is the soft tissue that lines the non-cartilaginous surfaces within joints with cavities (synovial joints).

Synovial sarcoma

A synovial sarcoma is a rare form of cancer which usually occurs near to the joints of the arm or leg. It is one of the soft tissue sarcomas.

Systemic disease

A systemic disease is one that affects a number of organs and tissues, or affects the body as a whole. Although most medical conditions will eventually involve multiple organs in advanced stage (e.g. Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome), diseases where multiple organ involvement is at presentation or in early stage are considered elsewhere.

Systemic lupus erythematosus

Systemic lupus erythematosus, often abbreviated to SLE or lupus, is a systemic autoimmune disease (or autoimmune connective tissue disease) that can affect any part of the body. As occurs in other autoimmune diseases, the immune system attacks the body's cells and tissue, resulting in inflammation and tissue damage. It is a Type III hypersensitivity reaction caused by antibody-immune complex formation.

Systemic therapy

Systemic therapy is a school of psychology which seeks to address people not on individual level, as had been the focus of earlier forms of therapy, but as people in relationship, dealing with the interactions of groups and their interactional patterns and dynamics.

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Published - April 2011







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