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English words of Persian origin



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As Indo-European languages, English and Persian have many words of common Proto-Indo-European origin, and many of these cognate words often have similar forms. Examples of these include: English (Mother) and Persian (Madar), English (Father) and Persian (Pedar), English (Daughter) and Persian (Dokhtar), English (Sister) and Persian (Khwahar) and English (Brother) and Persian (Baradar). However, this article will be concerned with loanwords, that is, words in English that derive from Persian, either directly, or more often, via one or more intermediary languages.

Many words of Persian origin have made their way into the English language through different, often circuitous, routes. Some of them, such as "paradise", date to cultural contacts between the Persians and the ancient Greeks or Romans and through Greek and Latin found their way to English. Persian as the second important language of Islam has influenced many languages in the Muslim world, and its words have found their way beyond the Muslim world.

Persia remained largely impenetrable to English-speaking travelers well into the 19th century. Persia was protected from Europe by overland trade routes that passed through territory inhospitable to foreigners, while trade at Persian ports in the Persian Gulf was in the hands of locals. In contrast, intrepid English traders operated in Mediterranean seaports of the Levant from the 1570s, and some vocabulary describing features of Ottoman culture found their way into the English language. Thus many words in the list below, though originally from Persian, arrived in English through the intermediary of Ottoman Turkish language.

Many words also came into English through Hindustani during the British Raj. Persian was the lingua franca of India before British rule.

Other words of Persian origin found their way into European languages— and eventually reached English at second-hand— through the Moorish-Christian cultural interface in the Iberian peninsula during the Middle Ages thus being transmitted through Arabic.


A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z

A

Abbasi
A Persian coin or unit of weight; an Afghan coin. Etymology: Abbas plus Persian suffix i; literally, "of Abbas", with reference to Abbas I (died 1628), shah of Persia.[1] Not to be confused with the Abbasi family or the Abbasid dynasty.
Abkar
A wine manufacturer or seller, whose trade is subject to abkari tax. Etymology: Persian abkar, from ab "water, liquid" (from Old Persian pi-) + kar, "doer" (from Middle Persian).[2]
Abkari
Etymology: "abkari." manufacture or sale of intoxicating liquors or drugs.[3]
Absinthe
Etymology: Perhaps from Persian aspand. alcoholic liqueur distilled from wine mixed with wormwood.[4]
Achaemenid
Etymology: Greekified of Old Persian Hakhaamanesh. The Old Persian Achaemenid empire from 559 B.C. to 330 B.C.[5]
Achar
Etymology: Persian achar. a pickled article of food as prepared in India: a pickle or relish[6]
Afreet
Etymology: Arabic ifrit, probably from Persian afarida created being. a powerful evil jinni, demon, or monstrous giant in Arabic mythology.[7]
Afghanistan
Afghan combined with Persian suffix stan.[8] Literally meaning "Land of Afghans" in Persian.
Ahriman
from Persian Ahriman. Zoroastrian conception of evil.
Ahu
Etymology: Persian ahu, from Middle Persian ahuk. the common gazelle (Gazella subgutturosa) of central Asia.[9]
ahung
Etymology: Chinese a-hong from Persian akhun. theologian, preacher.[10]
Ahura Mazda 
from Old. Pers Auramazdâ. Zoroastrian conception of God literally meaning wise lord.[11]
Akhundzada
Etymology: Hindi akhundzada, from Persian, from akhund teacher + zada son. In India the son of a head officer – used as a title[12]
Algorithm 
from the name of the Persian scientist Al-Khwarizmi.[13][14]
Alkenkengi
from Arabic al-kakanj the ground-cherry originally from Persian kakunaj.[15]
Amani
Etymology: Hindi & Persian aman, from Arabic amanah security. The aman+i (where the suffix i is Persian).[16]
Angra Mainyu 
older version of Ahriman.
Angaria 
Etymology: Late Latin, from Greek angareia, from angaros royal (Persian) courier. In Roman and civil law: a compulsory service exacted by the government, a lord, or the church[17]
Angel
Etymology: Middle English angel, from Old French angele, from Late Latin angelus, from Greek angelos, literally, messenger, probably of Iranian origin; akin to the source of Greek angaros imperial Persian courier; perhaps akin to Sanskrit angiras one of a group of luminous divine beings. a supernatural spirit especially in Persian, Jewish, Christian, and Islamic theologies that is commonly depicted as being winged and serving as God's messenger and divine intermediary and as special guardian of an individual or nation.[18]
Apadana
Etymology: Old Persian apadana palace, from apa- away + dana container. the great hall in ancient Persian palaces.[19]
Armenia
etymology not necessarily Persian although first mentioned in the Old Persian inscription of the Achaemenids as Armina. Arman.[20][21][22]
arsenic 
from zarnig.[23]
Arya 
from Old Persian Ariya and Sanskrit Arya.[24]
Aryan 
See Arya above.
As
Etymology: Persian. a Persian card game similar to poker and by some thought to be its progenitor.[25]
Asafetida
Etymology: Persian aza (mastic) + Latin foetida. tTe fetid gum resin of various Persian and East Indian plants of the genus Ferula occurring in the form of tears and dark-colored masses, having a strong odor and taste, and formerly used in medicine as an antispasmodic[26]
Asmodeus 
evil spirit, prince of demons, from L. Asmodaeus, from Gk. Asmodaios, from Talmudic Heb. Ashmeday, from Avestan (Old-Iranian) Aesh-ma-dæva, lit. "Aeshma the deceitful."[27]
Assassin
Sometimes considered a Persian word; see Assassin and Hashshashin for discussion.
aubergine 
from Persian بادنجان Bâdinjân itself maybe originally from Sanskrit.[28]
Aumildar
Etymology: from Arabic 'amal work + Persian -dar (agent suffix). A revenue collector in India.[29]
Avesta
see next entry.
Avestan
Etymology: Avesta, sacred books of the ancient Zoroastrian religion (from Middle Persian Avastik) + English -an. of or relating to the Avesta or to Avestan.[30]
Azadirachta
Etymology: New Latin, from Persian azad dirakht, literally, free or noble tree.[31]
Azedarach
Etymology: French azédarac, from Persian azad dirakht, literally, free or noble tree[32]
Azha 
from Persian Ashiyana (آشیانه)
Azure (color) 
from Medieval Latin azura, from Persian lājaward[33]

B

Babouche 
Etymology: from Persian papoosh (پاپوش), from pa "foot" + poosh "covering." a chiefly oriental slipper made without heel or quarters.[34][35]
Babul
Etymology: Persian babul; akin to Sanskrit babbula, babbla (Acacia arabica). an acacia tree (Acacia arabica) that is probably native to the Sudan but is widespread in northern Africa and across Asia through much of India[36]
Badian
Etymology: French badiane, from Persian baadiaan anise.[37]
Baghdad 
From Middle Persian Bhagadad "Gifted by God"
Bakhtiar
Etymology: Persian Bakhtyr, perhaps from bakhtyr fortunate, rich, from bakht fortune, prosperity. a member of the Bakhtiari people.[38]
Baksheesh 
from Persian bakhshesh (بخشش), lit. "gift," from verb bakhshidan "to give.". a gift of money[39][40]
Balaghat
Etymology: probably from Hindi, from Persian baalaa above (from Middle Persian) + Hindi gaht pass. tableland above mountain passes.[41]
Balcony
Etymology: balaakhana from Persian balaa = above + khana = house, upperhouse[42]
Baluchi
Etymology: Persian Baluch, Baluchi. an Indo-Iranian people blended from a mixture of the Veddoid type isolated in the Hadhramaut and of the Irano-Afghan type and located in Baluchistan in the southwestern part of Pakistan.[43]
Baluchistan
Etymology: from Baluchistan, country of western Asia, from Persian Baluchistaan. a rug in somber colors (as mulberry and deep blue) woven by nomad tribes in Baluchistan and especially Seistan.[44]
Ban (title) 
"governor of Croatia," from Serbo-Croat. ban "lord, master, ruler," from Persian baan (بان) "prince, lord, chief, governor"[45]
Barbican
possibly from Persian (khāneh "house").[46]
Barsom
Etymology: Persian barsam, from Middle Persian barsum, from Avestan barsman. a bundle of sacred twigs or metal rods used by priests in Zoroastrian ceremonies.[47]
Bas
Etymology: Hindi bas, from Persian. The word means Enough, Stop.[48]
Bazaar 
from Persian بازار bāzār (="market"), from Middle-Persian bahâ-zâr ("The Place of Prices").[49]
Bazigar
Etymology: Hindi bazigar, from Persian. literally means a player and it refers to a gypsylike nomadic Muslim people in India.[50]
Bedeguar
Etymology: Middle French bedegard, from Persian baadaaward. gall like a moss produced on rosebushes (as the sweetbrier or eglantine) by a gall wasp (Rhodites rosae or related species)[51]
Begar
Etymology: Hindi begaar, from Persian bi-kaar. Meaning without work, forced labor.[52]
Begari
Etymology: Hindi begaar, from Persian. Meaning a person without work, a forced laborer.[53]
Beige
Etymology: French, perhaps from Italian bambagia cotton, from Medieval Latin bambac-, bambax, from Middle Greek bambak-, bambax, probably from a Turkish word represented now by Turkish pamuk cotton, probably of Persian origin; akin to Persian pamba cotton. cloth (as dress goods) made of natural undyed wool. a variable color averaging light grayish yellowish brown. a pale to grayish yellow.[54] "beige" /bazh/ may derive from "camBYSES" (Gk. "byssos" fine cloth, "bysses.byses" fine threads. Persian princes' robe)<Persian "kamBUJIYA"<Babylonian "kamBUZI" title of kings of Babylon who wore the robe each New Year.
Belleric
Etymology: French, from Arabic balilaj, from Persian balilah. the fruit of the bahera. compare to MYROBALAN.[55]
Bellum
Etymology: modification of Persian balam. a Persian-gulf boat holding about eight persons and propelled by paddles or poles.[56]
Benami
Etymology: Hindi benaam, from Persian banaam in the name of + i. made, held, done, or transacted in the name of.[57]
Bezoar 
from pād-zahr (پادزهر) antidote. Also used in the following words BEZOAR, ORIENTAL BEZOAR, PHYTOBEZOAR, TRICHOBEZOAR, WESTERN BEZOAR. any of various concretions found in the alimentary organs (especially of certain ruminants) formerly believed to possess magical properties and used in the Orient as a medicine or pigment --[58][59]
Bheesty 
Etymology: from Persian bihisht heavenly one. India: a water carrier especially of a household or a regiment.[60]
Bhumidar 
Etymology: Hindi bhumidar, from bhumi earth, land (from Sanskrit also Persian Bumi and Old Persian Bum) + dar holder (from Persian). India: a landholder having full title to his land.[61]
Bibi 
Etymology: Hindi bibi, from Persian.[62]
Bildar 
Etymology: Hindi beldar, from Persian bildaar, from bil spade + -dar holder. Digger, Excavator.[63]
Biryani 
Etymology: Hindi, or Urdu biryaan from Persian beryaan. roasted, grilled. Also an Indian dish containing meat, fish, or vegetables and rice flavored with saffron or turmeric.[64][65]
Bobachee 
Etymology: Hindi babarchi, from Persian baawarchi. India: a male cook[66]
Bombast 
Etymology: modification of Middle French bombace, from Medieval Latin bombac-, bombax cotton, alteration of Latin bombyc-, bombyx silkworm, silk, from Greek bombyk-, bombyx silkworm, silk garment, probably of Persian origin; akin to Persian pamba cotton. 1) obsolete: cotton or any soft fibrous material used as padding or stuffing 2) a pretentious inflated style of speech or writing.[67]
Borax 
Etymology: from Persian burah. the best-known sodium borate Na2B4O7.10H2O[68][69]
Bostanji 
Turkish bostanci, literally, gardener, from bostan garden, from Persian bustaan flower or herb garden, from bo fragrance + -stan place. one of the imperial guards of Turkey whose duties include protecting the palace and its grounds, rowing the sultan's barge, and acting as imperial gardeners[70]
Bronze 
Etymology: Perhaps ultimately from Pers. birinj "copper.".[71]
Brinjal 
Etymology: from Persian badingaan, probably from Sanskrit vaatingana. Eggplant.[72]
Buckshee 
Etymology: Hindi bakhsis, from Persian bakhshish.[73]
Budmash 
Etymology: Persian badma'sh immoral, from bad bad (from Middle Persian vat) + ma'sh (Arabic) living, life. India: a bad character: a worthless person.[74]
Bukshi 
Etymology: Persian bakhshi, literally, giver, from bakhshidan to give. India: a military paymaster.[75]
bulbul 
Etymology: Persian originally borrowed from Arabic. a Persian songbird frequently mentioned in poetry that is a nightingale. a maker or singer of sweet songs.[76]
Bund 
Etymology: Hindi band, from Persian. An embankment used especially in India to control the flow of water.[77]
Bunder Boat 
Etymology: Hindi bandar harbor, landing-place, from Persian. a coastal and harbor boat in the Far East.[78]
Bundobust 
Etymology: Hindi band-o-bast, literally, tying and binding, from Persian. India: arrangement or settlement of details.[79]
Burka 
Etymology: Russian, probably from buryi dark brown (of a horse), probably of Turkic origin; akin to Turkish bur red like a fox; the Turkic word probably from Persian bur reddish brown;[80]
Burkundaz 
Etymology: Hindi barqandz, from Persian, from barq lightning (from Arabic) + andz thrower. an armed guard or policeman of 18th and 19th century India.[81]
Buzkashi 
from Persian buz "goat" + kashi "dragging"[82]

C

Caftan 
Etymology: Russian kaftan, from Turkish, from Persian qaftan. an ankle-length coatlike garment, usually of cotton or silk, often striped, with very long sleeves and a sash fastening, common throughout the Levant.[83]
Calabash 
possibly from Persian kharabuz, Kharbuzeh (خربزه) melon.[84]
Calean 
Etymology: Persian qalyaan. a Persian water pipe.[85]
Calender 
Etymology: Persian qalandar, from Arabic, from Persian kalandar uncouth man. one of a Sufic order of wandering mendicant dervishes.[86]
Camaca
Etymology: Middle English, from Middle French camocas or Medieval Latin camoca, from Arabic & Persian kamkha, kimkha. a medieval fabric prob. of silk and camel's hair used for draperies and garments.[87]
Candy
from Arabic qandi "candied," derived from Persian qand, meaning "sugar."[88]
Carafe 
from Arabic gharafa (قرافه), "to pour"; or from Persian qarabah, (قرابه) "a large flagon"[89]
Caravan 
Etymology: Italian caravana, carovana, from Persian kārawān. a company of travelers, pilgrims, or merchants on a long journey through desert or hostile regions: a train of pack animals.[90]
Caravansary
Etymology: modification of Persian kārwānsarā, from kārwān caravan + sarā palace, large house, inn; an inn in eastern countries where caravans rest at night that is commonly a large bare building surrounding a court.[91]
Carcass
Etymology: Etymology: Middle French carcasse, alteration of Old French carcois, perhaps from carquois, carquais quiver, alteration of tarquais, from Medieval Latin tarcasius, from Arabic tarkash, from Persian tirkash, from tir arrow (from Old Persian tigra pointed) + -kash bearing (from kashdan to pull, draw, from Avestan karsh-);[92]
Carcoon
Etymology: Marathi kaarkun, from Persian kaarkon manager, from kaar work, business + -kon doer. India: CLERK.[93]
Cash
Etymology: from Sanskrit karsa, a weight of gold or silver but akin to Old Persian karsha-, a weight. a unit of value equivalent to one cash coin.[94]
Cassock 
Etymology: Middle French casaque, from Persian kazhaghand padded jacket, from kazh, kaj raw silk + aaghand stuffed. a long loose coat or gown formerly worn by men and women.[95][96]
Caviar 
from Fr. caviar, from It. or Turk., from Pers. khaviyar (خاویار), from khaya "egg"+ dar "bearing, holder".[97][98]
Ceterach 
Medieval Latin ceterah, from Arabic shtaraj, from Persian shitarakh. A small genus of mainly Old World ferns (family Polypodiaceae) typified by the scale fern[99]
Chador 
Hindi caddar, from Persian chaddar. a large cloth used as a combination head covering, veil, and shawl usually by women among Muslim and Hindu peoples especially in India and Iran.[100]
Chakar 
Hindi chakor, from Persian chaker. India: a person in domestic service: SERVANT; also: a clerical worker.[101]
Chakari
From Chakar. India: domestic or more commonly clerical service.[102]
Chakdar
From Panjabi chakdar, from chak tenure (from Sanskrit cakra) + Persian -dar having. a native land tenant of India intermediate in position between the proprietor and cultivator.[103]
Chalaza
Old Slavic zledica frozen rain, Persian zhaala hail. Either of a pair of spiral bands of thickened albuminous substance in the white of a bird's egg that extend out from opposite sides of the yolk to the ends of the egg and are there attached to the lining membrane.[104]
Chappow
Persian Chapu pillage or Chapaul raid. Word is Mongolian in Origin. Pillage/Raid.[105]
Charka
Hindi carkha, from Persian charkha, charkh wheel, from Middle Persian chark; akin to Avestan chaxra- wheel, Sanskrit cakra. Wheel. a domestic spinning wheel used in India chiefly for cotton.[106]
Charpoy
From Persian Char-pai. Literally meaning four-footed. a bed consisting of a frame strung with tapes or light rope used especially in India.[107]
Chawbuck
Hindi cabuk, from Persian chabuk archaic, chiefly India: a large whip.[108]
Check(and Cheque) 
check (cheque)(n.) from O.Fr. eschequier "a check at chess," from eschec, from V.L. *scaccus, from shah "king," the principal piece in a chess game (see shah). 1st Sassanid Empire. When the king is in check a player's choices are limited. Meaning widened from chess to general sense of "adverse event, sudden stoppage" and by c.1700 to (from Persian 'chek' (چك)"a token used to check against loss or theft" (surviving in hat check) and "a check against forgery or alteration," which gave the modern financial use of "bank check, money draft" (first recorded 1798), probably influenced by exchequeur. Check-up "careful examination" is 1921, American English, on notion of a checklist of things to be examined.[109][110]
Checkmate
from Middle French eschec mat, from Persian shâh mât (="the King cannot escape")[111][112]
Chess
from Russian Shach, from Persian shah ("the King"), an abbreviation of Shâh-mât (Checkmate).[113]
Cheyney
Etymology: probably from Persian chini literally meaning Chinese. a woolen fabric in use during the 17th and 18th centuries.[114]
Chick
Hindi ciq, from Persian chiq. a screen used in India and southeast Asia especially for a doorway and constructed of bamboo slips loosely bound by vertical strings and often painted.[115]
Chillum
Etymology: Hindi cilam, from Persian chilam.[116]
Chilamchi
Etymology: Hindi cilamci, from Persian chilamchi. India: a metal wash basin.[117]
China
Modification (influenced by China, the country) of Persian chn(Chinese) porcelain.[118]
Chinar
Hindi chinar, from Persian chanar. A type of Oriental Tree.[119]
Chobdar
Hindi cobdar. From Persian chubar. from chub, chub staff, wood (from Middle Persian chup wood) + -dar having.[120]
Cinnabar 
probably from Persian zanjifrah[121]
Coomb
Middle English combe, from Old English cumb, a liquid measure; akin to Middle Low German kump bowl, vessel, Middle High German kumpf bowl, Persian gumbed(Gonbad). an English unit of capacity equal to 4 imperial bushels or 4.13 United States bushels.[122]
Culgee; Etymology
Hindi kalg, from Persian kalgi jeweled plume. a jeweled plume worn in India on the turban.[123]
Cummerbund 
from Hindi kamarband (كمربند), from Persian, from kamar (="waist") + band (="band")[124]
Cushy 
modification of Hindi khush pleasant, from Persian khush.[125]

D

Daeva
daeva, deva from Avestan daevo; dev from Persian deev. Zoroastrianism: a maleficent supernatural being: an evil spirit.[126]
dafadar
From Persian Daf'adaar. from Arabic daf'ah time, turn + Persian -dar holder.[127]
Daftar
Hindi, record, office, from Persian Daftar, from Arabic daftar, diftar, from Greek diphthera prepared hide, parchment, leather.[128]
Daftardar
Etymology: Hindi daftardar, from Persian, finance officer, from daftar + -dar holder.[129]
Dakhma
Etymology: Persian, from Middle Persian dakhmak, from Avestan daxma- funeral place.[130]
Daroga
Etymology: Hindi daroga, from Persian daaroga. India: a chief officer; especially: the head of a police, customs, or excise station.[131]
Darvesh
Persian darvish.[132]
Darzi
Hindi darzi, from Persian Darzi. A tailor or an urban caste of tailors in Hindu society in India.[133]
Das
Sanskrit daasa demon, enemy, infidel, slave; probably akin to Persian daah servant, Avestan dahyn-, dainhu-, danghu- land, Old Persian dahyn- land, province, Sanskrit dasyu demon, barbarian. a Hindu slave or servant.[134]
Dastur
Hindi dastur custom, from Persian Dastur. customary fee.[135]
Dastur
From Persian Dastur. a Parsi high priest.[135]
Dasturi
Hindi Dasturi from Persian Dastur. Gratuity.[136]
Defterdar
Turkish, from Persian daftardar finance officer. a Turkish government officer of finance; specifically: the accountant general of a province.[137]
Dehwar
Persian dehwar=Dih(land)+war (having possession of).  : a member of the Dehwar racial type usually having the status of a laborer or slave.[138]
  • del , delta heart, in Persian language
Dervish 
from Persian Darvish Middle Persian Darweesh. a member of any Muslim religious fraternity of monks or mendicants noted for its forms of devotional exercises[139][140]
Dewan
Etymology: Hindi diwan, from Persian, account book.[141]
Demitasse 
from Fr., lit. "half-cup," from demi- + tasse, an O.Fr. borrowing from Arabic tassah, from Pers. tasht "cup, saucer".
Div
See the Entry Daeva above.[142]
Divan
from Persian dēvān (="place of assembly", "roster"), from Old Persian dipi (="writing, document") + vahanam (="house")[143][144]
Doab
Etymology: Persian doab, from do two (from Middle Persian) + -ab water. a tract of land between two rivers: INTERFLUVE.[145]
Dogana
Etymology: from Persian, account book. an Italian customhouse.[146]
Douane
Etymology: from Persian Divan. CUSTOMHOUSE.[147]
Dubber
Etymology: from Persian Dabba. a large globular leather bottle used in India to hold ghee, oil, or other liquid.[148]
Duftery
Etymology: from Dafter (Record)+i. A servant in an office whose duty is to dust and bind records, rule paper, make envelopes. An office boy.[149]
Dumba
Etymology: Persian, from dumb tail. a fat-tailed sheep of Bokhara and the Kirghiz steppe that furnishes astrakhan.[150]
Durbar
Etymology: Persian, from dar door + baar door, admission, audience. admission, audience of the King.[151]
Durwan
Etymology: Persian darwan, from dar door (from Middle Persian, from Old Persian duvar-) + Persian -wan keeping, guarding.[152]
Dustuck
Etymology: Hindi dastak, from Persian Dastak (handle, related to hand).[153]

E

Emblic
New Latin emblica, from Arabic amlaj, from Persian aamlah. an East Indian tree (Phyllanthus emblica) used with other myrobalans for tanning.[154]
Enamdar
Hindi in'aamdaar, from Persian, from ina'm (originally Arabic meaning Gift) + -dar holder. the holder of an enam (Gifts).[155]
Euphrates
From OLd Persian Ufratu "Good to cross over"

F

Farsakh 
Arabic Farsakh from Persian Farsang - فرسنگ -. a Persian metric unit equal to 10 kilometers or 6.21 miles.[156]
Farsi 
- فارسی - the name for Persian in Arabic. Standard Arabic lacks the /p/ phoneme, as a result, the Arabs who invaded Persia slowly began to refer to the language and the people as "Farsi", rather than "Parsi".[157][158]
Faujdar 
Hindi Fawjdaar from Persian, from Arabic Fawj Host (troops) + Persian daar (holder). petty officer (as one in charge of police).[159]
Faujdari
from Persian, from fawjdar. a criminal court in India.[160]
Ferghan
from Persian Ferghana. a region in Central Asia. a usually small heavy Persian rug chiefly of cotton having usually a web and a fringed end, a deep blue or rose field with an all over herati sometimes guli hinnai design and a main border with a turtle design, and being highly prized if antique.[161]
Feringhee 
from Persian 'Farangi'- فرنگی -: from the word Frankish: a person from Europe. The first encounter with Western Europe was during Charlemagne who was King of Franks. From that time the word Farangi means European, especially Western European. Also after the first Crusade this word appeared frequently in Persian and Arabic literature. (in Arabic as 'Faranji' because they could not pronounce /g/) . The Ottoman Turks pronounced it as Feringhee.[162]
Fers
Middle English, from Middle French fierce, from Arabic farzan, from Persian farzin. obsolete: a chess queen.[163]
Fida'i
Arabic fida (sacrifice) plus Persian suffix 'i'. فدایی - a member of an Ismaili order of assassins known for their willingness to offer up their lives in order to carry out delegated assignments of murdering appointed victims.[164]
Firman
from Persian ferman, - فرمان - from Old Persian framaanaa. a decree or mandate, order, license, or grant issued by the ruler of an Oriental country.[165][166]

G

Gatch 
from Persian گچ (Gach), a plaster used especially in Persian architectural ornamentation.[167]
Ghee 
from Hindi घी (ghi), possibly originally from Persian grdan, or to mix
Galingale 
from Persian خلنجان khalanjan, a plant.[168]
Gherkin 
probably from Middle Persian angArah watermelon. A small oblong prickly cucumber of West Indian origin that is used chiefly for pickling – called also bur gherkin[169]
Ghorkhar 
from Persian گوره خر (Gureh Khar). a wild ass of northwestern India believed to be identical with the onager.[170]
Giaour 
from Pers. gaur, variant of gabr "fire-worshipper"[171][172]
Gigerium
from Latin gigeria, plural, entrails of fowl, perhaps of Iranian origin; akin to Persian jigar liver.[173]
Gizzard
earlier gysard, alteration of gysar, from Middle English giser, gyser, from Old North French guisier liver (especially of a fowl), gizzard, modification of Latin gigeria (neuter plural) cooked entrails of poultry, perhaps of Iranian origin; akin to Persian jigar liver;[174]
Gul
Etymology: Persian Gol/Gul گل. Rose.[175]
Gulhinnai
Etymology: Persian guli hinna, from Persian gul flower, rose + Arabic hinna/henna. a Persian rug design consisting of a plant with central stem and attached star flowers.[176]
Gulmohar
Etymology: Hindi gulmohur, from Persian gul rose, flower + muhr seal, gold coin.[177]
Gunge
Etymology: Hindi gãj, of Iranian origin; akin to Persian ganj treasure.[178]
Gymkhana
Etymology: probably modification (influenced by English gymnasium) of Hindi gend-khana racket court, from Persian khana house. a meet or festival featuring sports contests or athletic skills: as a: a horseback-riding meet featuring games and novelty contests (as musical chairs, potato spearing, bareback jumping).[179]

H

Halalcor 
Hindi halalkhor, from Persian, from Arabic halal + Persian khor eating. a person in Iran and India to whom any food is lawful.[180]
Havildar 
Hindi hawaldar, from Arabic 'hawala' charge + Persian 'dar' having. a noncommissioned officer in the Indian army corresponding to a sergeant.[181]
Hyleg 
modification of Persian hailaj 'material body'. The astrological position of the planets at the time of birth[182]
Hindi
Hind India, from Persian. literary language of northern India usually written in the Devanagari alphabet that is the official language of several states in India and is scheduled to become the official language of the republic.[183]
Hindu 
from medieval Persian word Hindu (mod. Hendi), from ancient Avestan hendava ultimately from Sanskrit saindhava. "Indian"[184][185]
Hindustan 
Hindi Hindustan, from Persian Hindustan (mod. Hendustan) India.[186]
Hircarrah 
Persian harkara, from har every, all (from Old Persian haruva-) + kaar work, deed, from Middle Persian, from Old Persian kar- to do, make.[187]
Homa
hom from Persian hom, from Avestan haoma. a stylized tree pattern originating in Mesopotamia as a symbol of the tree of life and used especially in Persian textiles.[188]

I

India
from Persian Hind, from Sanskrit Sindu, a river, in particular, the river Indus.[189]
Iran
from Middle Persian Ir (Ary) + an (plural suffix)[190]
Ispaghol
literally, horse's ear, from asp horse (from Middle Persian) + ghol ear. an Old World plantain (Plantago ovata) with mucilaginous seeds that are used in preparing a beverage.[191]

J

Jackal 
from Persian shaghāl, ultimately from Sanskrit sṛgālaḥ. Any of several doglike mammals of the genus Canis of Africa and southern Asia that are mainly foragers feeding on plants, small animals, and occasionally carrion.[192][193]
Jagir 
from Persian Ja (place) + gir (keeping, holding). a grant of the public revenues of a district in northern India or Pakistan to a person with power to collect and enjoy them and to administer the government in the district;[194]
Jama 
from Persian Jama (garment). a long-sleeved cotton coat of at least knee length worn by men in northern India and Pakistan. Also used as suffix in the word Pajama.[195]
Jasmine 
from yasmin, the name of a climbing plant with fragrant flowers.[196][197]
Jemadar 
Hindi jama'dar, jam'dar (influenced in meaning by Persian jam'at body of troops), from Arabic jam' collections, assemblage + Persian dar having. an officer in the army of India having a rank corresponding to that of lieutenant in the English army. any of several police or other officials of the government of India.[198]
Jezail 
Persian jaza'il. a long heavy Afghan rifle.[199]
Jujube 
Greek zizyphon, Persian zayzafun, an Asiatic tree with datelike fruit.[200]
Julep 
from gulab (rose(gul)-water(ab)).[201][202]

K

Kabob 
or kebab, possibly from Persian kabab کباب, or from identical forms in Arabic and Urdu[203]
Kabuli 
 : Persian kabuli, of or belonging to Kabul, Afghanistan.[204]
Kaftan 
from Persian خفتان khaftân.[205]
Kajawah
from Persian کجاوه (Kajavah/Kajawah). a pannier used in pairs on camels and mules especially in India.[206]
Kala-Azar
from Hindi kala (black) + Persian āzār (disease, pain). a severe infectious disease chiefly of eastern and southern Asia that is marked by fever, progressive anemia, leukopenia, and enlargement of the spleen and liver and is caused by a flagellate (Leishmania donovani) which is transmitted by the bite of sand flies (genus Phlebotomus) and which proliferates in reticuloendothelial cells – called also visceral leishmaniasis.[207]
Kamboh
Etymology: Unabridged Merriam-Webster Dictionary defines Kamboh as "a member of a low caste in the Punjab engaged chiefly in agriculture".[208] This definition of Webster for Kamboh is based on a Persian proverb, reportedly of modern origin, according to which, the Afghans, the Kambohs and the Kashmiris are all rogues. This proverb, though very popular, also has several versions, across the length and breadth of the north-west region, some of which name the Sindis and/or the Jatts in place of Kambohs.[209] According to H. Blochman, this proverb is of recent origin since it was indeed a matter of honour to belong to the Kamboh lineage during the reigns of Mughal emperors like Akbar and Jahangir etc.[210][211][212] According to Encyclopedia Britannica, the Sayyids and the Kambohs, from among the Indians, were specially favored for high civil and military positions during muslim rule in India.[213]
The Kambohs are modern representatives of ancient Kambojas (q.v.),[214] a famous Kshatriya (warrior) clan of Indo-Iranian affinities[215] who find numerous references in ancient Sanskrit and Pali texts as well as in many ancient inscriptions, including those of king Ashoka.
Numerous Indologists have connected name Kamboja to royal name Cambyses or Kambujiya (q.v.) of the Old Persian Inscriptions.[216]
The Manusmriti,[217] and Indian epic Mahabharata[218] etc. attest that the Kambojas, Sakas, Pahlavas etc were originally noble Kshatriyas, but on account of their defiance of Brahmanical authority and their refusal to follow Hindu rituals & codes of conduct, these foreign conquerors were socially punished by the wrathful Brahmananical clergy who assigned them to a degenerate Kshatriya status (i.e. vrishaltam) in the Brahmanical caste system of India.[219][220] Brahmanical text Harivamsa[221] and numerous Puranas[222] also attest that the Kambojas, Yavanas, Sakas, Pahlavas etc were originally high-class Kshatriyas, but it was Vedic king Sagara, the ruler of Kosala, who had forbidden these invaders from performing "Svadhyayas" and "Vasatkaras" (Vedic rituals) and thereby, divested them off their noble Kshatriya status, because these Kshatriyas had wrested Kosala kingdom from his father, king Bahu.[223] Harivamsa rather, describes these Kshatriya invaders as Kshatriya pungavas i, e foremost among the Kshatriyas. Bhishama Parava of Mahabharata delineates the Kamboja lineage as a very high lineage.[224] Bombay Gazetteer maintains that the Kambojas etc lost their original high Kshatriya status because of their famed staunchness to Buddhism over Brahmanism.[225] Dr Romila Thapar maintains that the Kamboj etc clans lost their noble Kshatriya status because of their switching to republican constitution.[226]
A section of Kambojas or Kambohs ruled in Saurashtra, Bengal, and also colonised Sri Lanka & Cambodia. See: Kamboja Colonists of Sri Lanka & Kambojas and Kambodia.
Karez
Etymology: kârez an underground irrigation tunnel bored horizontally into rock slopes in Baluchistan. a system of irrigation by underground tunnels.[227]
Kemancha
Etymology: from Persian Kamancheh. a violin popular in Middle East, Caucus and Central Asia. It has usually a single string and a gourd resonator and is held vertically when played.[228]
Kerana 
Etymology: modification of Persian karranâi کرنای, from nâi, reed, reed pipe. a long Persian trumpet.[229]
Kenaf 
Etymology: Persian. a valuable fiber plant (Hibiscus cannabinus) of the East Indies now widespread in cultivation.[230]
Khaki 
from khaki (="made from soil", "dusty" or "of the colour of soil"), from khak (= "soil")[231]
Khakhsar 
Etymology: Hindi khâksâr, from Persian khâkâsr خاکسار humble, probably from khâk dust + -sâr like. a member of a militant Muslim nationalist movement of India.[232]
Khan
Arabic khân, from Persian. (not to be confused by the Altaic Khan). a caravansary or rest house in some Asian countries.[233]
Khankah
Etymology: Hindi khânaqâh, from Persian khâna house + gâh place.[234]
Khidmatgar
from Arabic khidmah service + Persian -gar (suffix denoting possession or agency). In India: a male waiter[235]
Khoja
Etymology: originally from Persian khâwja خواجه. used as a title of respect.[236]
Khuskhus
Etymology: Persian & Hindi khaskhas. an aromatic grass (Andropogon zizamoides) whose especially fragrant roots yield an oil used in perfumery and are also made into mats in tropical India – called also vetiver.[237]
Kincob
Etymology: Hindi kimkhab, kamkhwab, from Persian. an Indian brocade usually of gold or silver or both.[238]
Kiosk 
from kushk (="palace, portico, pavilion") or Middle Persian gōšak "corner"[239][240]
Koftgari
Hindi koftgar, from Persian koftgari, from koft blow, beating + -gar doing. Indian damascene work in which steel is inlaid with gold.[241]
Koh-i-noor 
from Pers. koh کوه "mountain" + Arabic Noor (light)." famous diamond that became part of the British crown jewels after the annexation of Punjab by Great Britain in 1849, from Persian Kh-i-nr, literally, mountain of light[242][243]
Kotwal 
Hindi kotwal, from Persian. a chief police officer or town magistrate in India.[244]
Kotwalee
Hindi kotwal, from Persian, from kotwalee. a police station in India.[245]
Kran
Persian qran. the basic monetary unit of Persia from 1826 to 1932. a silver coin representing one kran.[246]
Kurta 
Hindi & Urdu kurta, from Persian kurtâ. a loose-fitting collarless shirt.[247]
Kusti 
Persian kusti, kushti, from kusht waist, side, from Middle Persian kust, kustak. the sacred cord or girdle worn by Parsis as a mark of their faith – compare.[248]

L

Lac
Persian lak and Hindi lakh. Resinous substance secreted by the lac insect and used chiefly in the form of shellac. any of various plant or animal substances that yield hard coatings resembling lac and shellac.[249]
Lamasery
French lamaserie, from lama + -serie (from Persian sarāi palace, large house).[250]
Larin
Etymology: Persian lārī. a piece of silver wire doubled over and sometimes twisted into the form of a fishhook that was formerly used as money in parts of Asia.[251]
Lascar
Urdu lashkarī < Pers, equiv. to lashkar army + -ī suffix of appurtenance]. an East Indian sailor. Anglo-Indian. an artilleryman.[252]
Lasque
Etymology: perhaps from Persian lashk bit, piece. a flat thin diamond usually cut from an inferior stone and used especially in Hindu work.[253]
Leucothoe
legendary Persian princess supposed to have been changed by Apollo into a sweet-scented shrub. a large genus of American and Asiatic shrubs of the family Ericaceae with herbage that contains a poisonous substance similar to that found in shrubs of the genus Kalmia and with flowers in terminal and axillary one-sided racemes.[254]
Lemon 
Origin: 1350–1400; 1905–10 for def. 4; < ML lemōnium; r. ME lymon < ML līmō, (s. līmōn-) < Pers līmū, līmun. Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2006.[255] the yellowish, acid fruit of a subtropical citrus tree, Citrus limon. According to www.dictionary.com: Although we know neither where the lemon was first grown nor when it first came to Europe, we know from its name that it came to us from the Middle East because we can trace its etymological path. One of the earliest occurrences of our word is found in a Middle English customs document of 1420-1421. The Middle English word limon goes back to Old French limon, showing that yet another delicacy passed into England through France. The Old French word probably came from Italian limone, another step on the route that leads back to the Arabic word laymūn or līmūn, which comes from the Persian word līmūn.
Lilac 
from Pers. lilak, variant of nilak "bluish," from nil "indigo"[256]
Lungī
Hindi lungī, from Persian. a usually cotton cloth used especially in India, Pakistan, and Burma for articles of clothing (as sarongs, skirts, and turbans).[257]
Laari
Etymology: probably from Divehi (Indo-Aryan language of the Maldive Islands), from Persian lr piece of silver wire used as currency, from Lārī, town in S Persia where the currency was first minted. a Maldivian monetary unit equal to 1/100 rufiyaa. a coin representing one laari.[258]

M

Magic
Middle English magik, from Middle French magique, from Latin magicus, from Greek magikos, from magos magus, wizard, sorcerer (of Iranian origin; akin to Old Persian magush sorcerer). of or relating to the occult: supposedly having supernatural properties or powers.[259]
Magus, magi 
from magus, from Old Persian maguš "mighty one", Priest of Zoroastrianism. A member of the Zoroastrian priestly caste of the Medes and Persians. Magus In the New Testament, one of the wise men from the East, traditionally held to be three, who traveled to Bethlehem to pay homage to the infant Jesus.[260][259]
Malguzar 
Hindi malguzar, from Arabic mal property, rent + Persian guzar payer. Equivalent to Malik in India.[261]
Manichean
Latin Manichaeus member of the Manichean sect (from Late Greek Manichaios, from Manichaios Manes died ab276A.D. Persian sage who founded the sect) + English -an. of or relating to Manichaeism or the Manichaeans. characterized by or reflecting belief in Manichaeism. Manicheanism was founded by Mani.[262]
Manticore 
from O. Pers. word for "man eater," cf. martiya- "man" + root of khvar- "to eat". a legendary animal having the head of a man often with horns, the body of a lion, and the tail of a dragon or scorpion.[263][264]
Markhor 
Persian mār(snake)+khōr(eating), consuming (from khōrdan to eat, consume). a wild goat (Capra falconieri) of mountainous regions from Afghanistan to India.[265]
Mazdak
Name of Persian reformer of Zoroastrian Faith.
Mazdakite
from Mazdak (of belonging to Mazda), 5th century A.D. Persian religious reformer + English ite. a member of the sect of Mazdak.[266]
Mazdoor
Hindi mazdur, from Persian muzdur. an Indian laborer.[267]
Mehmandar
Persian mihmāndār, from mihmān guest (from Middle Persian mehmān) + -dār holder. an official in India, Persia, or Afghanistan appointed to escort an ambassador or traveler.[268]
Mehtar
Persian mihtar prince, greater, elder, from mih great (from Middle Persian meh, mas) + -tar, comparative suffix (from Middle Persian, from Old Persian -tara-). A groom[269]
Mesua
New Latin, from Johannes Mesuë (Arabic Yuhanna ibn-Masawayah) died 857 Persian Christian physician Masawayah in the service of the Caliph. a genus of tropical Asiatic trees (family Guttiferae) having large solitary flowers with a 2-celled ovary.[270]
Mezereon
Middle English mizerion, from Medieval Latin mezereon, from Arabic mazariyun, from Persian. a small European shrub (Daphne mezereum) with fragrant lilac purple flowers that appear before the leaves, an acrid bark used in medicine, and a scarlet fruit sometimes used as an adulterant of black pepper.[271]
Mirza
Persian mirza, literally, son of a lord. a common title of honor in Persia prefixed to the surname of a person of distinction.[272]
Mithra
from the name of the Persian God Mithra.[273]
Mithraeum
from Persian Mithra[274][273]
Mithraism
from Persian Mithra[275][273]
Mobed
a Parsi priest. The word is cognate with Magian and Magus.[276]
Mogul 
from mughul (="Mongolian")[277]
Mohur
Hindi muhur, muhr gold coin, seal, from Persian muhr; an old gold coin of the Moguls that circulated in India from the 16th century. any one of several gold coins formerly issued by Indian states (as Bikaner, Gwalior, Hyderabad) and by Nepal and Tibet.[278]
Mummy
Middle English mummie, from Middle French momie, from Medieval Latin mumia, from Arabic mumiyah mummy, bitumen, from Persian mum wax. a concoction formerly used as a medicament or drug containing powdered parts of a human or animal body.[279]
Murra
Etymology: Latin, probably of Iranian origin like Greek morrhia murra; akin to Persian mori, muri little glass ball. a material thought to be of semiprecious stone or porcelain used to make costly vessels in ancient Rome.[280]
Musk 
ultimately from Middle Persian musk, from Sanskrit muska (="testicle") from diminutive of mus (="mouse"). a substance that has a penetrating

persistent odor, that is obtained from a sac situated under the skin of the abdomen of the male musk deer, that when fresh in the pods is brown and unctuous and when dried is a grainy powder, that varies in quality according to the season and age of the animal, and that is used chiefly in the form of a tincture as a fixative in perfumes[281][282]

Musth 
Hindi mast intoxicated, ruttish, from Persian mast; akin to Sanskrit madati he rejoices, is drunk. a periodic state of murderous frenzy of the bull elephant usually connected with the rutting season and marked by the exudation of a dark brown odorous ichor from tiny holes above the eyes- on must also in must: in a state of belligerent fury – used of the bull elephant.[283]
Mussulman 
from Persinan musulman (adj.), from Arabic Muslim (q.v.) + Persian adj. suffix -an.[284]

N

Nakhuda 
Etymology: Persian nākhudā, from nāv boat (from Old Persian) + khudā master, from Middle Persian khutāi. a master of a native vessel.[285]
Namaz 
Etymology: Persian namāz. akin to Sanskrit namas obeisance. Islamic worship or prayer.[286]
Naphtha 
Latin, from Greek, of Iranian origin; akin to Avestan napta moist, Persian neft naphtha; from Persian naft "naphtha". perhaps akin to Greek nephos cloud, mist. petroleum especially when occurring in any of its more volatile varieties.[287]
Nargil
Origin: 1830–40; < Turk nargile < Pers nārgīleh, deriv. of nārgīl coconut, from which the bowl was formerly made.[288][289]
Nauruz
Persian nauruz. literally, new day, from nau new + ruz. the Persian New Year's Day celebrated at the vernal equinox as a day of great festivity.[290]
Nay
Etymology: Arabic nay, from Persian. a vertical end-blown flute of ancient origin used in Muslim lands.[291]
Neftgil
Etymology: German, from Persian naftdagil naphtha clay[292]
Numdah
Etymology: Hindi namda, from Persian namad, from Middle Persian namat; akin to Avestan namata. a thick felted rug of India and Persia usually made of pounded goat's hair and embroidered with bird or floral designs in colored wool yarn [293]
Naan
Etymology: Hindi + Urdu + Persian nan bread; Hindi + Urdu nan, from Persian nan; akin to Baluchi nayan bread, Sogdian nyny. a round or oblong flat leavened bread especially of the Indian subcontinent.[294]
Nuristani
Etymology: Persian nuristan (Arabic Nur+Persian Istan(Place)), from Nuristan, region of northeastern Afghanistan.[295][289]

O

orange  
from Milanese narans, from Arabic nāranj, from Persian nārang, from Sanskrit nāraṅga, from some Dravidian language, possibly Tamil or Malayalam[296]

P

Padishah
Origin: 1605–15; < Pers (poetical form), equiv. to pādi- (earlier pati) lord + shāh. More on Etymology: Persian pādishah, from Middle Persian pātakhshah, from Old Persian pati + xshay- to rule; akin to Avestan xshayeti. great king; emperor (a title applied esp. formerly to the shah of Iran, the sultan of Turkey, and to the British sovereign as emperor in India).[297][298]
Pagoda 
via Portuguese pagode, from a corruption of Pers. butkada, from but "idol" + kada "dwelling."[289]
Pahlavi 
Etymology: Middle Persian Pahlavi. The Middle Persian language of Sassanid Persia. a script used for writing Pahlavi and other Middle Iranian languages.[299]
Pajama
from Urdu/Hindi paajaama, from Persian pāë (pāÿ) jāmah, from pAy (="leg") + jAma (="garment"). of, pertaining to, or resembling pajamas: a pajama top; a lounging outfit with pajama pants[300][301][255]
Pakistan
The persian word of "Land of the Pure"
Paneer
Hindi & Urdu panir, from Persian (Cheese). a soft uncured Indian cheese.[302]
Papoosh
earlier papouch, from French, from Persian pāpush. BABOUCHE.[303]
Para
Etymology: Turkish, from Persian pārah. a Turkish monetary unit equal in modern Turkey to 1/4000 of a lira. any one of several units of value formerly used in countries at one time under the Turkish Empire.[304]
Paradise 
from Greek paradeisos (=enclosed park"), from the Avestan word pairidaeza (a walled enclosure), which is a compound of pairi- (around), a cognate of the Greek περί peri-, and -diz (to create, make), a cognate of the English dough. An associated word is the Sanskrit word paradesha which literally means supreme country.[305][306]
Parasang 
Latin parasanga, from Greek parasanges, of Iranian origin; akin to Persian farsung parasang
any of various Persian units of distance; especially: an ancient unit of about four miles (six kilometers)[307][308][301]
Pargana 
Etymology: Hindi pargana, from Persian. a group of towns in India constituting an administrative subdivision of the zillah.[309]
Parsee 
Etymology: from O.Pers. parsi "Persian." In M.E., Parsees from Pârsi. Meaning Persian. Also Zoroastrian of India descended from Persian refugees fleeing Islam in the 7th century and settling principally at Bombay[310][311]
Parthia 
from Latin< Old Persian parthava-, variant form of the stem Parsa-, from which Persia derives[312]
Parthian 
see Parthia
Parting Shot 
from Parthian Shot, originally a reference to the Parthian tactic of firing arrows at the enemy even when retreating. It has come to mean a verbal salvo given by the person leaving the area.
Pasar
 : Malay, from Persian bāzār. See bazar. an Indonesian public market.[313]
Pasha 
Turkish paşa possibly from Persian pādshāh; see Padishah.[301]
Pashm 
Etymology: pashm, pashim from Persian pashm wool; pashmina from Persian pashmn woolen, from pashm. the under fleece of upland goats of Kashmir and the Punjab that was formerly used locally for the production of rugs and shawls but is now largely exported.[314]
Pashmina 
from Pashmineh, made from pashm; pashm (= "wool"). the fine woolly underhair of goats raised in northern India.[315]
Pashto
Persian pashtu, from Afghan. According to Morgenstein the word is akin to Parthava, Persian, Pahlav. The Iranian language of Pathan people and the chief vernacular of eastern Afghanistan, North-West Frontier Province of Pakistan, and northern Baluchistan[316]
Peach 
a corruption of the Latin word "Persicum." Peaches are called in Latin malum Persicum (Persian apple) prunum persicum (Persian plum), or simply persicum (pl. persici). This should not be confused with the more modern Linnaean classification Prunus persica, a neologism describing the peach tree itself (from the Latin prunus, -i which signifies "plum tree").[317][318]
Percale
Persian pargālah. a firm smooth cotton cloth closely woven in plain weave and variously finished for clothing, sheeting, and industrial uses.[319]
Percaline
French, from percale (from Persian pargālah) + -ine. a lightweight cotton fabric made in plain weave, given various finishes (as glazing, moiré), and used especially for clothing and linings; especially: a glossy fabric usually of one color used for bookbindings.[320]
Peri 
Persian پري (peri) or fairy, genius, from Middle Persian parik. Persian folklore: a male or female supernatural being like an elf or fairy but formed of fire, descended from fallen angels and excluded from paradise until penance is accomplished, and originally regarded as evil but later as benevolent and beautiful. Also a beautiful and graceful girl or woman.[321]
Persepolis 
from Pârsa+ Greek polis.
Persia
from Old Persian Pârsa
Persis 
from Old Persian Pârsa
Peshwa
Hindi & Marathi pesva, from Persian peshwa leader, guide, from pesh before. the chief minister of a Maratha prince.[322]
Pilaf Origin
1925–30; < Turk pilâv < Pers pilāw. a Middle Eastern dish consisting of sautéed, seasoned rice steamed in bouillon, sometimes with poultry, meat or shellfish.[255]
Pir 
Etymology: Persian Pir (Old Man). a religious instructor, esp. in mystical sects.[323][324]
Pistachio 
from Latin pistācium, from Greek πιστάκιον, from Persian pistah. small tree (Pistacia vera) of southern Europe and Asia Minor having leaves with 3 to 5 broad leaflets, greenish brown paniculate flowers, and a large fruit. the edible green seed of the pistachio tree.[325]
Posteen
Persian pustin of leather, from pust skin, from Middle Persian. an Afghan pelisse made of leather with the fleece on.[326]
Popinjay 
from O.Fr. papegai (12c.), from Sp. papagayo, from Ar. babagha', from Pers. babgha "parrot,"
Prophet Flower
translation of Persian guli paighmbar flower of the Prophet (Muhammad died A.D.632 Arabian prophet and founder of Islam). an East Indian perennial herb (Arnebia echioides) having yellow flowers marked with five spots that fade after a few hours; also: a related annual[327]
Punjab 
via Hindi Panjab, from Pers. panj "five" + ab "water.". of or relating to the Punjab or its inhabitants.[328]
Purwannah
Hindi parwana, from Persian. a written pass or permit.[329]
Pyke
Hindi pāyik, pāyak messenger, from Persian dialect England: a civilian at whose expense a soldier is treated or entertained.[330]
Pyjama
Urdu/Hindi pajama from Persian: پاجامہ (pajama, literally, feet-garments). These are loose lightweight trousers formerly much worn in the Near East, a loose usually two-piece lightweight suit designed especially for sleeping or lounging. [331]

R

rank 
from Persian rang meaning "color", as the Sassanid army was ranked and dressed by color[332]
roc 
from Persian rukh (name of a legendary bird)
rook 
from Middle English rok, from Middle French roc, from Arabic rukh, from Persian رخ rukh (=chess piece)[333]
rose 
from Latin rosa, probably from ancient Greek rhodon, possibly ult. from Pers. *varda-. Zie.[334]
roxanne 
fem. proper name, from Fr., from L. Roxane, from Gk. Rhoxane, of Pers. origin (cf. Avestan raoxšna- "shining, bright").[335]

S

Sabzi
Etymology: Hindi sabz, literally, greenness, from Persian. a green vegetable[336]
Saffian
Etymology: Russian saf'yan, from Turkish sahtiyan, from Persian sakhtiyn goatskin, from sakht hard, strong. a leather made of goatskins or sheepskins tanned with sumac and dyed with bright colors.[337]
Samosa
Etymology: Hindi samosa from Persian sambusa. a small triangular pastry filled with spiced meat or vegetables and fried in ghee or oil[338]
Sandal
Etymology: Arabic sandal, from Persian sandal skiff.[339]
Saoshyat
Etymology: Avestan, savior. one of three deliverers of later Zoroastrian eschatology appearing at thousand year intervals and each inaugurating a new order of things and a special period of human progress.[340]
Sapindales 
from Persian Spand (اسپند)
Sarangousty
Etymology: Persian sar-angushti thin paste for painting the tips of fingers, from sari angusht fingertip, fromsar head + angusht finger, toe. stucco made waterproof for protection against dampness.[341]
Sard from Persian زرد Zard.
Sarod
Etymology: Hindi sarod, from Persian.[342]
Sarwan
Etymology: Persian saarbaan. a camel driver.[343]
Satrap
governor of a province of ancient Persia, from Latin satrapes, from Greek satrapes, from Old Persian kshathrapavan-, lit. "guardian of the realm,"[344]
scarlet 
from Pers. saqalat "a type of red cloth". a rich cloth of bright color. a vivid red that is yellower and slightly paler than apple red[345]
Scimitar
Etymology: Middle French cimeterre, from Old Italian scimitarra, perhaps from Persian shamshir. a type of blade.[346]
Sebesten
Etymology: Middle English, from Arabic sibistn, from Persian segpistan. an East Indian tree (Cordia myxa) with white flowers in loose terminal panicles.[347]
Seer
Etymology: Hindi ser; perhaps akin to Persian seer. a unit of weight.[348]
Seerpaw
Etymology: Sar(head)+paa(feet). head to foot.[349]
Seersucker 
Pers. shir o shakkar "striped cloth," lit. "milk and sugar".[350] Also from Sanskrit क्षीरशर्करा (kshirsharkara), or milk-sugar." [351]
Sepoy
Etymology: modification of Portuguese sipai, sipaio, from Hindi sipah, from Persian, horseman, soldier of the cavalry, from sipah army. a native of India employed as a soldier in the service of a European power; especially: one serving in the British army.[352]
Serai
Etymology: from Persian saraay, palace, mansion, inn.[353]
Seraglio 
from sarây "inn"[354]
Serang
Etymology: Persian sarhang commander, boatswain, from sar chief + hang authority. boatswain. the skipper of a small boat.[355]
Serdab
Persian sardab ice cellar, from sard cold + ab water. a living room in the basement of a house in the Near East that provides coolness during the summer months[356]
Serendipity 
from the Persian fairy tale The Three Princes of Serendip سه شاهزاده‌ى سرانديپ, from Persian Sarandip سرانديپ(="Sri Lanka"),
Sesban
Etymology: French, from Arabic saisabaan, from Persian sisabaan. Either of two East Indian plants of the genus Sesbania (S. aculeata and S. aegyptiaca).[357]
Setwall
Etymology: from Persian zaadwar.[358]
Shabundar/Shabandar
Etymology: From Persian shahbandar, from shah King + bandar city, harbor.[359]
Shah 
Etymology: from shāh, from Old Persian χšāyaþiya (="king"), from an Old Persian verb meaning "to rule"[360]
Shahi
Etymology: Persian shahi. a former Persian unit of value equal to 1/20 silver kran; also: a corresponding coin of silver or copper or nickel[361]
Shahidi
Etymology: Arabic Shahid (one who bears witness) + Persian suffix i.[362]
Shahin
Etymology: Persiah Shahin (Falcon). an Indian falcon (Falco peregrinus peregrinator) having the underparts of a plain unbarred ferruginous color, being related to the peregrine falcon, and used in falconry[363]
Shahzada
Etymology: Hindi shah-zada, from Persian, from shah king + zada son. The son of a Shah.[364]
Shame
from Persian شرم (sharm).[365]
Shamiana
Etymology: Hindi shamiyana, from Persian shamyanah. a cloth canopy[366]
Shawl 
Etymology: from Persian shāl.[367]
Sherristar
Etymology: from Hindi sarrishtadr, from Persian sarrishta(sarreshteh) record office + daar having. Registrar.[368]
Sherry 
According to one theory, it is from Jerez in Spain, which itself comes from Pers Shiraz during the time of Rustamid empire in Spain.[369] The theory is also mentioned by Professor. T.B. Irving in one of his book reviews[370]
Sherryvallies
Etymology: modification of Polish szarawary, from Russian sharavary, from Greek sarabara loose trousers, probably of Iranian origin; akin to Persian shalwar, shulwar loose trousers. overalls or protective leggings of thick cloth or leather formerly worn for riding on horseback[371]
Shikar
Etymology: Hindi sikar, from Persian shikaar, Middle Persian shkaar. The word means hunting.[372]
Shikargah
Etymology: Hindi sikaargaah, from Persian shikrgaah, from shikaar hunting + -gah place. A grame preserve.[373]
Shikari
Etymology: From Persian Shikar+Persian suffix (i) denoting possession. a big game hunter.[374]
Shikasta
Etymology: Persian shikasta broken, from shikastan شكستن to break, from Middle Persian shikastan.[375]
Shikra
Etymology: from Persian shikara bird trained to hunt. a small Indian hawk (Accipiter badius) sometimes used in falconry.[376]
Simurgh 
Etymology: from Pers. simurgh, from Pahlavi sin "eagle" + murgh "bird." Cf. Avestan saeno merego "eagle," Skt. syenah "eagle," Arm. cin "kite.". a supernatural bird, rational and ancient, in Pers. mythology.[377]
Sipahis
See Spahi and Sepoy.
Sircar
Etymology: Hindi sarkaar, from Persian sarkaar. a district or province in India under the Mogul empire. the supreme authority. used also as a title of respect. in Bengal a domestic servant having the functions of a steward.[378]
Sitar 
Etymology: via Hindi sitar, from Pers. sitar "three-stringed," from sih/seh "three" (O.Pers. thri-) + Persian. tar "string". an Indo-Iranian lute with a long broad neck and a varying number of strings whose various forms are used in Iran, Afghanistana and the Indian subcontinent.[379]
Softa 
Etymology: Turkish, from Persian sukhtah burnt, kindled (with love of knowledge).[380]
Sogdian 
Etymology: Latin sogdianus, from Old Persian Sughuda. of, relating to, or characteristic of ancient Sogdiana.[381]
Soorki
: Etymology: Hindi surkh, from Persian surkh, literally, redness, from surkh red, from Middle Persian sukhr; akin to Avestan suXra- bright, Sanskrit sukra[382]
Sowar
Etymology: Persian suwar rider, from Middle Persian asbar, aspwar, from Old Persian asabra- horseman, from asa- horse + -bra- carried by, rider. a mounted orderly. Lancer.[383]
Spahi
Etymology: Middle French spahi, from Turkish sipahi, from Persian سپاه from Pahlavi spāh, from Old Persian taxma spāda, from Avestan spādha, meaning army, military. one of a corps of Algerian native cavalry in the French army normally serving in Africa. one of a corps of largely irregular Turkish cavalry disbanded after the suppression of the Janissaries in 1826.[384][385]
Spinach 
Etymology: Middle French espinache, espinage, from Old Spanish espinaca, from Arabic isbnakh, isfinaakh, from Persian aspanakh.[386]
-Stan 
meaning "land" or "country", source of place names such as Afghanistan, Pakistan, Uzbekistan, etc., from Pers. -stan "country," from Indo-Iranian *stanam "place," lit. "where one stands,"[387]
Subahdar
Etymology: Persian subadar, from suba province + -dar having, holding, from Old Persian dar- to hold. the chief native officer of a native company in the former British Indian army having a position about equivalent to that of captain[388]
Sugar 
Etymology: The word is Sanskrit which is an Indo-Iranian language of the Indo-Aryan branch but Persian played a role in transmitting it. Middle English sugre, sucre, from Anglo-French sucre, from Medieval Latin saccharum, from Old Italian zucchero, from Arabic sukkar, from Pahlavi shakar, ultimately from Sanskrit sarkara[389][385]
Suclat
Etymology: Hindi suqlaa, from Persian saqalaat a rich cloth. In India any of various woolens; specifically European broadcloth.[390]
Surma
Etymology: Persian Surma. native antimony sulfide used in India to darken the eyelids.[391]
Surnay
Etymology: Persian Surnaay. a Middle Eastern and Central Asian oboe.[392]
syagush
Persian siyah-gush, literally, black ear. Caracal.[393]
Samosa
Etymology: Hindi samos & Urdu samosa, sambsa, from Persian sambusa.[394]

T

Tabasheer
Etymology: Hindi tabshr, from Persian. a siliceous concretion in the joints of the bamboo valued in the East Indies as a medicine.[395]
Tabor
Etymology: Middle English tabur, from Old French, alteration of tambur. See tambour.[396]
Taffeta 
Etymology: from Persian taftah meaning woven.[397]
Tahsildar
Etymology: Hindi tahsildar, from Persian, from Arabic tahsil + Persian -dar. a revenue officer in India.[398]
Taj
Etymology: Arabic taj, from Persian taj, crown, crest, cap. a cap worn in Muslim countries; especially: a tall cone-shaped cap worn by dervishes.[399]
Taj Mahal 
from Pers., lit. "the best of buildings;" or "the Crown's Place".
Tajikistan 
Tajik combined with Persian suffix -stan.[8] Literally meaning "Land of Tajiks" in Persian.
Talc 
from Pers. talk "talc."
Tambour
Etymology: French, drum, from Middle French, from Arabic tanbur, modification (influenced by tunbur, a lute) of Persian tabir.[400]
Tambourine 
See above.
Tanbur
Etymology: Persian Tambur.[401]
Tangi
Etymology: Persian Tangi. a narrow gorge[402]
Tandoori 
from tannur "oven, portable furnace,"+Persian suffix i.
Tapestry 
probably from an Iranian source (cf. Pers. taftan, tabidan "to turn, twist").[403]
Tar
Etymology: Persian. An oriental lute.[404]
Tarazet 
from (Shahin-e Tarazu) شاهین ترازو
Tass
Etymology: Middle French tasse, from Arabic tass, tassah, from Persian tast. a drinking cup or bowl.[405]
Tebbad
Etymology: perhaps from Persian tab fever + bad wind, from Middle Persian vat; akin to Avestan vata- wind, Sanskrit vata.[406]
Temacha
Etymology: Persian tamakhra joke, humor. a Persian comic or farcical interlude performed by traveling players.[407]
Thanadar
Etymology: Hindi thandar, from than + Persian -dar having. the chief officer of a thana.[408]
Tiara 
via Latin tiara from Persian تاره tara
Timar
Etymology: Turkish timar attendance, care, timar, from Persian tmr sorrow, care. a Turkish fief formerly held under condition of military service.[409]
Tiger 
via Greek tigris from an Iranian source
Tigris 
From Middle Persian Tigr "arrow", originally from Old Persian Tigra "pointed" or "sharp"
Toque 
from O. Pers. taq "veil, shawl."
Tranky
Etymology: Persian dialect tranki. an undecked bark used in the Persian gulf.[410]
Trehala
Etymology: probably from French tréhala, from Turkish tgala, from Persian tighal.[411]
Tulip 
Etymology: any of various plants belonging to the genus Tulipa. from French tulipe, from Persian dulband.[412]
Turan 
from Persian توران
Turanian
Etymology: Persian Turan Turkistan, the region north of the Oxus + English -ian. A member of any of the peoples of Ural-Altaic stock.[413]
Turanite
Etymology: from Persian Turan + Russian -it' -ite. a basic vanadate of copper prob. Cu5(VO4)2(OH)4.[414]
Turanose
Etymology: German turanos, from Persian Turan + German -os -ose; obtained by the partial hydrolysis of melezitose; 3-α-glucosyl-fructose[415]
Turban 
from Persian dulband Band = To close, To tie.[416]
Turkmenistan 
Turkmen combined with Persian suffix -stan.[8] Literally meaning "Land of Turkmens" in Persian.
Typhoon  
Etymology: from Persian word Toofaan ( طوفان )

U

Uzbekistan 
Uzbek combined with Persian suffix -stan.[8] Literally meaning "Land of Uzbeks" in Persian.

V

Vispered
Avestan vispa ratavo meaning all the lords. one of the supplementary ritual texts included in the Avestan sacred writings.[417]
vizier 
وزير etymology disputed; general references often derive it from Arabic wazir, "viceroy", lit. "one who bears (the burden of office)", lit. "porter, carrier", from Arabic wazara, "he carried". However, Jared S. Klein derives it from Middle Persian vichir, from Avestan vicira, "arbitrator, judge".

X

Xerxes 
Gk. form of O. Pers. Kshayarshan-, lit. "male (i.e. 'hero') among kings," from Kshaya- "king" (cf. shah) + arshan "male, man."

Y

Yarak 
Etymology: From Persian yaraki power, strength. good flying condition: FETTLE – used of a hawk or other bird used in hunting eagles ... are difficult to get into yarak – Douglas Carruthers.[418]
Yasht
Modern Persian یشت from Avesta. Avestan yashtay adoration. one of the hymns to angels or lesser divinities forming part of the Avesta[419]

.

Yuft
Etymology: Russian yuft', yukht', perhaps from Persian juft pair.[420]

Z

Zamindar 
Etymology: zamindar, from Persian, from zamn land + -dar holder meaning "Possessor of real estate" in Persian. A collector of revenues from the cultivators of the land of a specified district for the government of India during the period of Muslim rule[421]
Zamindari
Etymology: from Persian, from zamindar.[422]
Zanza 
Etymology: Arabic sanj castanets, cymbals, from Persian sanj. an African musical instrument consisting of graduated sets of tongues of wood or metal inserted into and resonated by a wooden box and sounded by plucking with the fingers or thumbs.[423]
Zarathushtra or Zarathustra 
the Persian prophet
Zedoary
Etymology: Middle English zeduarie, from Medieval Latin zeduria, from Arabic zadwr, from Persian. an East Indian drug consisting of the rhizome of either of two species of curcuma, Curcuma zedoaria or C. aromatica, used as a stimulant.[424]
Zenana
Etymology: From Persian zan woman. The literal meaning is Women-related. The part of a dwelling in which the women of a family are secluded in India and Persian.[425]
Zena 
feminine given name from Persian Zan (woman).
Zerda
Etymology: Arabic zerdaw, probably of Persian origin. Fennec.[426]
Zircon 
from Persian zargun زرگون, "gold-colored"[427]
Zirconate
zircon + the suffix -ate, from Latin -atus
Zirconia
zircon + the New Latin -ia suffix
Zirconium
zircon + the New Latin suffix -ium
Zoroaster 
from Persian Zarathushtra
Zoroastrianism 
The religion brought forth by Zoroaster.
Zumbooruk
from Persian zanburah.[428]

References

Abbreviation Reference abbreviated
AHD online The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th edition. Free site.
MW Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002.
MW Online Merriam-Webster Unabridged. Subscription required.
OED Oxford English Dictionary. Ed. J.A. Simpson and E.S.C. Weiner. 2nd ed. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1989.
OED Online Oxford University Press. Free site.
  1. ^ "abbasi." MW.
  2. ^ "abkar." MW.
  3. ^ "abkari." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  4. ^ "absinthe", OED http://www.etymonline.com/...absinthe
  5. ^ "achaemenid." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  6. ^ "achar." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  7. ^ "afreet." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  8. ^ a b c d "stan", OED
  9. ^ "ahu." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  10. ^ "ahung." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  11. ^ Old Persian Inscriptions
  12. ^ "akhundzada." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  13. ^ "algorithm", OED
  14. ^ algorism." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  15. ^ "alkekengi." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  16. ^ amani. Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  17. ^ angaria." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  18. ^ "angel." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  19. ^ "apadana." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  20. ^ [http://www.1911encyclopedia.org/Armenia Persian Armina, Armenian Hayasdan, or Hayq, Encyclopaedia Britannica: 11th Edition]
  21. ^ http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-44266 Encyclopaedia Britannica Online
  22. ^ Old Persian Inscriptions [1]
  23. ^ "arsenic", OED
  24. ^ "Arya", OED
  25. ^ "as." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com (12 September 2006).
  26. ^ "asafetida." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com (12 September 2006).
  27. ^ "Asmodeus", OED
  28. ^ "aubergine", OED
  29. ^ "aumildar." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  30. ^ "avestan." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  31. ^ "azadirachta." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  32. ^ "azedarach." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  33. ^ "azure", OED
  34. ^ "babouche." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  35. ^ "babouche", OED (marked as "not naturalized, alien")
  36. ^ "babul." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  37. ^ "badian." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  38. ^ "bakhtiari." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  39. ^ "baksheesh", OED (marked as "not naturalized, alien")
  40. ^ "baksheesh." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com (14 September 2006).
  41. ^ "balaghat." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  42. ^ A Dictionary of English Etymology By Hensleigh Wedgwood http://books.google.com/...=JNyFUQ6dd54GRieHznoC7kOFbcs
  43. ^ "baluchi." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  44. ^ "baluchistan." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  45. ^ "ban, n.2", OED (marked as "not naturalized, alien")
  46. ^ "barbican", OED
  47. ^ "barsom." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  48. ^ "bas." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  49. ^ "bazaar", OED
  50. ^ "bazigar." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  51. ^ "bedeguar." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  52. ^ "begar." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  53. ^ "begari." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  54. ^ "beige." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com (14 September 2006).
  55. ^ "belleric." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  56. ^ "bellum." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  57. ^ "benami." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  58. ^ "bezoar", OED
  59. ^ "bezoar." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com (14 September 2006).
  60. ^ "bheesty." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  61. ^ "bhumidar." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  62. ^ "bibi." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  63. ^ "bildar." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  64. ^ The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. [2]
  65. ^ "biryani." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  66. ^ "bobachee." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  67. ^ "bombast." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  68. ^ "borax." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  69. ^ "borax", OED
  70. ^ "bostanji." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  71. ^ Online Etymological Dictionary http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=bronze
  72. ^ "brinjal." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  73. ^ "buckshee." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  74. ^ "budmash." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  75. ^ "bukshi." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  76. ^ "bulbul." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  77. ^ "bund." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  78. ^ "bunder boat." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  79. ^ "bundobust." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  80. ^ "burka." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  81. ^ "burkundaz." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  82. ^ "buzkashi", OED (marked as "not naturalized, alien")
  83. ^ "caftan." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  84. ^ "calabash", OED
  85. ^ "calean." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  86. ^ "calender." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  87. ^ "camaca." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  88. ^ "candy", OED http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=candy
  89. ^ "carafe", OED
  90. ^ "caravan." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  91. ^ "caravansary." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  92. ^ "carcass." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  93. ^ "carcoon." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  94. ^ "cash." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  95. ^ "cassock", OED
  96. ^ "cassock." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002.
  97. ^ Online Etymology Dictionary
  98. ^ Etymological Online Dictionary [3]
  99. ^ "ceterach." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  100. ^ "chador." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com (4 October 2006).
  101. ^ "chakar." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  102. ^ "chakari." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  103. ^ "chakdar." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  104. ^ "chalaza." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  105. ^ "chappow." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  106. ^ "charka." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com (4 October 2006).
  107. ^ "charpoy." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  108. ^ "chawbuck." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com (4 October 2006).
  109. ^ "check, int. and n.1", OED
  110. ^ "check." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  111. ^ "checkmate, int. and n.", OED
  112. ^ "checkmate." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  113. ^ "chess, n.1", OED
  114. ^ "cheyney." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  115. ^ "chick." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com (4 October 2006).
  116. ^ "chillum." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  117. ^ "chillumchee." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com (4 October 2006).
  118. ^ "china." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  119. ^ "chinar." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  120. ^ chobdar." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  121. ^ "cinnabar", OED
  122. ^ "coomb." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  123. ^ "culgee." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  124. ^ "cummerbund", OED (marked as "not naturalized, alien")
  125. ^ "cushy." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  126. ^ "daeva." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  127. ^ a noncommissioned officer in the former Indian army or police
  128. ^ "daftar." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  129. ^ "daftardar." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  130. ^ "dakhma." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  131. ^ "daroga." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  132. ^ "darvesh." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com (4 October 2006).
  133. ^ "darzi." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  134. ^ "das." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  135. ^ a b "dastur." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  136. ^ "dasturi." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  137. ^ "defterdar." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  138. ^ "dehwar." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  139. ^ "dervish", OED
  140. ^ "dervish." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  141. ^ "dewan." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  142. ^ "div." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  143. ^ "divan", OED
  144. ^ "divan." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  145. ^ "doab." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  146. ^ "dogana." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  147. ^ "douane." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  148. ^ "dubber." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  149. ^ "duftery." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  150. ^ "dumba." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  151. ^ "durbar." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  152. ^ "durwan." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  153. ^ "dustuck." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  154. ^ "emblic." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  155. ^ "enamdar." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  156. ^ "farsakh." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  157. ^ "Farsi, n. (a.)", OED
  158. ^ "farsi." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  159. ^ "faujdar." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  160. ^ "faujdari." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  161. ^ "feraghan." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  162. ^ "Feringhee", OED
  163. ^ "fers." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  164. ^ "fida'i." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  165. ^ "firman." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  166. ^ "firman", OED
  167. ^ "gatch." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  168. ^ "galingale", OED
  169. ^ "Gherkin." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  170. ^ "ghorkhar." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  171. ^ "giaour", OED (marked as "not naturalized, alien")
  172. ^ "Guebre", OED
  173. ^ "gigerium." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  174. ^ "gizzard." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  175. ^ "gul." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  176. ^ "guli hinnai." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002.
  177. ^ "gulmohar." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002.
  178. ^ "gunge." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  179. ^ "gymkhana." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  180. ^ "halalcor." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  181. ^ "havildar." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  182. ^ "hyleg." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  183. ^ "Hindi." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  184. ^ "Hindu, Hindoo, n. and a.", OED
  185. ^ "Hindu." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  186. ^ "Hindustani." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002.
  187. ^ "hircarrah." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  188. ^ "homa." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  189. ^ "India", OED
  190. ^ D. Mackenzie. Iran and Iranshahr in Encyclopedia Iranica [4]
  191. ^ "ispaghul." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002.
  192. ^ "jackal", OED
  193. ^ "jackal." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002.
  194. ^ Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002.
  195. ^ "jama." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  196. ^ "jasmine, -in, jessamine, -in", OED
  197. ^ "jasmine." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002.
  198. ^ "jemadar." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  199. ^ " Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002.
  200. ^ "jujube." Online Etymology Dictionary, http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=jujube
  201. ^ "julep", OED
  202. ^ "julep." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002.
  203. ^ "cabob", OED
  204. ^ kabuli." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002.
  205. ^ "caftan", OED (marked as "not naturalized, alien")
  206. ^ "kajawah." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002.
  207. ^ "kala-azar." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002.
  208. ^ "Kamboh." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002
  209. ^
    Agar kahat ul rijal uftad, azeshan uns kamgiri
    Eke Afghan, doyam Kamboh soyam badzat Kashmiri|
    (Roebuck’s Oriental Proverbs, Part I. p. 99).
    Trans: Of the Afghan, Kamboh and rascal Kashmiri, all three are rogues (degraded Kshatriyas). However, Richard F. Burton (Arabian Nights, Vol. 10, pp. 178-219) presents this proverb in the following form:
    Agar kaht-i-mardurn uftad, az ín sih jins kam gírí;
    Eki Afghán, dovvum Sindí,siyyum badjins-i-Kashmírí:
    Trans: Of the Afghan, Sindi and rascal Kashmiri, all three are rogues (degraded kshatriyas).
    {Note that for "Kamboh, Richard F. Burton presents Sindi. Others vary the saying ad libitum}
    Yet, in another version of the same proverb, the three rogues stated are the Sindis, the Jats and the Kashmiris (See: Lady Burton, Arabian Nights, Vol IV, p 92; Also: Tribes and Castes of North-western Province and Oudh, p 120, William Crooke).
  210. ^ Aina-i-Akbari, Abu-al-Fazal, English Trans by H. Blochman, Part I, p 614 .
  211. ^ Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency, 1899, Govt. Central Press, p 14, Sir James MacNabb Campbell, Reginald Edward Enthoven.
  212. ^ The Tribes and Castes of the north-western Provinces and Oudh, Vol III, p 120, William Crooke.
  213. ^ See: The Composition of the Mughal Nobility, Online Encyclopedia of Britannica; Mughal Nobility under Aurangzeb, 2002, p 21, M Athar Ali; Some Aspects of Afghan Despotism in India, 1969, pp 23, 59, Iqtidar Hussain Siddiqui; Medieval India, A Miscellany, 1969, p 154, Aligar University Department of History, Center of Advanced Studies; cf: Cultural History of India, 1975, p 261, prof A. L. Basham; See also quote in: Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency, 1899, Govt. Central Press, p 14, Sir James MacNabb Campbell, Reginald Edward Enthoven.
  214. ^ See: An Inquiry into the Ethnography of Afghanistan, 1891, pp. 2, 146, 150, H. W. Bellew; Literary History of Ancient India, 1952, p 165, Dr Chandra Chakraverty; Problems of Indian Society, 1968, p 69, Dr D. Bose; BHartiya Itihaas ki Mimamsa, p 230, Dr J. C. vidyalankar; Bani Kanta Kakati Memorial Lecturers, p 21, Gauhati University; India and the World, 1964, p 154, Dr Buddha Prakash; Geographical Data in Early Purana, A Critical Study, 1972, p 168, Dr M. R. Singh; Report on the Settlement of Land Revenue of Sultanpur Distt. (With) Accompaniement; 1873, p 88, A. F. Millet; Tribes of Ancient India, 1977, p 322, Dr M. Choudhury; Supplementary Glossary of Tribes, 1844, p 304, H. M. Ellot; The Tribes and Castes of North-western and Oudh, 1906, pp 119-120, 458, William Crooke; Early History of India, 1942, p 2, Roshan Rai; History of Poros, 1967, p 12, Dr Buddha Prakash; Kirata-Kriti: The Indo-Mongloloids, Their Contribution to History and Culture of India, 1974, p 113, Dr S. K. Chatterjee; cf: Indo-Aryans: contributions towards the elucidation of their ancient and mediæval history, 1881, p 187, Rājendralāla Mitra etc.
  215. ^ See: Vedic index of names & subjects by Dr. Arthur Anthony Macdonnel, Dr Arthur. B Keath, I.84, p 138; Ethnology of Ancient Bhārata, 1970, p 107, Dr Ram Chandra Jain; The Journal of Asian Studies, 1956, p 384, Association for Asian Studies, Far Eastern Association (U.S.); Balocistān: siyāsī kashmakash, muz̤mirāt va rujḥānāt, 1989, p 2, Munīr Aḥmad Marrī; India as Known to Pāṇini: A Study of the Cultural Material in the Ashṭādhyāyī, 1953, p 49, Dr Vasudeva Sharana Agrawala; Afghanistan, p 58, W. K. Fraser, M. C. Gillet; Afghanistan, its People, its Society, its Culture, Donal N. Wilber, 1962, p 80, 311 etc.
  216. ^ See: Ramayana of Valmiki, Canto No VI, The King, p 14, fn 13:6, Ralph T. H. Griffth: i.e. "Name Kamboja is etymologically connected with Cambyses which in the cuneiform inscription of Behistun is written Ka(m)bujia" ; Der Name Kambyses (Kanbuji­ya), ZII 2, 1923, pp. 140-52, Dr. J. Charpentier; L'Inde aux temps des Maurya, p. 15 and 40. La Valle Poussin; Early Zoroastrian, 2005, p 45, James Hope Moulton, Kessinger Publishing; Ancient Kamboja, Iran and Islam, 1971, p 68-71, Dr H. W. Bailey; Kyros, Beitrage zur Namen-forschung, II (1964), p 210, Dr. W. Eiler; Aryan and Non-Aryan Names in Vedic India, Data for Linguistic situation, C 1900-500 BC, footnote 24, Dr Michael Witzel; The Home of the Aryan, p 6, footnote 11, Dr Michael Witzel, Harvard University. Other prominent scholars include Dr C. Lassen, Dr. A. A. Macdonnel, Dr A. B. Keith, Dr G. Kuhn, Dr A Hoffman, Dr G. K. Nariman, Dr S. Levi, H. W. Bellew, Dr Markwart, Dr S. Sen, Dr D. R. Bhandarkar, Dr V. S. Aggarwala, Musa Khan Jalzai etc.
  217. ^ Manusmriti X.43-44.
  218. ^ Mahabharata 13.23.20-23.
  219. ^ See: Indian Caste, 2000, p 419, John Wilson; Ancient Indian Republics: From the Earliest Times to the 6th Century A.D., 1976, p 101, Shive Nandan Misra; Vikrama Volume, 1046,p 599, Vikramāditya Śakāri; Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, 1841, p 426, Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland; The Pāradas: A Study in Their Coinage and History, 1972, p 53, Bratindra Nath Mukherjee; Society and Religion: From Rigveda to Puranas, 1996, p 134, Jayant Gadkari; Hindu Superiority: An Attempt to Determine the Position of the Hindu Race in the Scale of Nations, 1922, p 158, Har Bilas Sarda.
  220. ^ NOTE: "Vrishaltah was an epithet used for the high caste Kshatriyas who had ceased to obsertve brahmanical codes and rituals stipulated in the Hindu Religious Books" (See: Chandragupta Mauriya, National Book Trust India, pp 57-58, Gopal Lalanji).
  221. ^ Harivamsa 14.1.19.
  222. ^ Vishnu Purana 5.3.15-21, Vayu Purana 18.127-43, Brahma Purana 8.35-51, Brahamanda Purana 3.63.123-141; Shiva Purana 7.61.23; Vishnu Purana 5.3.15-21, Padama Purana 6.21.16-33 etc.
  223. ^ Ancient Indian Historical Traditions, p 268-69, Dr F. E. Pargiter.
  224. ^ MBH 6.65.31-33.
  225. ^ See: Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency, 1901, pp 447-448, Sir James MacNabb Campbell, Reginald Edward Enthoven.
  226. ^ A History of India, Vol I, p 51.
  227. ^ karez." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002.
  228. ^ "kemancha." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002.
  229. ^ "kerana." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002.
  230. ^ "kenaf." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  231. ^ "khaki", OED (marked as "not naturalized, alien")
  232. ^ "khaksar." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002.
  233. ^ "khan." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002.
  234. ^ "khankah." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  235. ^ "khidmatgar." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002.
  236. ^ "khoja." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  237. ^ khuskhus." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002.
  238. ^ "kincob." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002.
  239. ^ "kiosk", OED (marked as "not naturalized, alien")
  240. ^ "kiosk." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002.
  241. ^ "koftgari." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  242. ^ "koh-i-noor", OED (marked as "not naturalized, alien")
  243. ^ "koh-i-noor." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  244. ^ kotwal. Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  245. ^ "kotwalee." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  246. ^ "kran." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  247. ^ "kurta." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  248. ^ "kusti." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  249. ^ "lac." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  250. ^ "lamasery." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  251. ^ "larin." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  252. ^ Random House Unabridged Dictionary, Random House, Inc. 2006.[5]
  253. ^ lasque." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  254. ^ "leucothoe." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  255. ^ a b c Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2006.
  256. ^ "lilac", OED
  257. ^ "lungi." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  258. ^ "laari." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  259. ^ a b "magic." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  260. ^ "Magus", OED>
  261. ^ "malguzar." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002.
  262. ^ "manichaean." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002.
  263. ^ "manticore", OED
  264. ^ "manticore." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  265. ^ "markhor." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  266. ^ "mazdakite." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  267. ^ "mazdoor." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  268. ^ "mehmandar." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002.
  269. ^ "mehtar." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  270. ^ "mesua." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  271. ^ "mezereon." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  272. ^ "mirza." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  273. ^ a b c "mithras", OED
  274. ^ "Mithraeum", OED
  275. ^ "Mithraism", OED
  276. ^ "mobed." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  277. ^ "Mogul, n.1 and a.", OED
  278. ^ "mohur." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  279. ^ "mummy." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002.
  280. ^ "murra." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  281. ^ "musk, n.", OED
  282. ^ "musk." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002.
  283. ^ "musth." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  284. ^ "Mussulman, n. and a.", OED
  285. ^ "nakhoda." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  286. ^ namaz." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  287. ^ naphtha." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  288. ^ "nargil." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002.
  289. ^ a b c Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2006.
  290. ^ nauruz." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  291. ^ "nay." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  292. ^ "neftgil." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  293. ^ "numdah." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  294. ^ "naan." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  295. ^ "nuristani." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  296. ^ "orange, n.1 and a.1", OED
  297. ^ .1) Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2006
  298. ^ padishah." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  299. ^ "pahlavi." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  300. ^ "pajama." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002.
  301. ^ a b c The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition
  302. ^ "paneer." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  303. ^ papoosh." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  304. ^ "para." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  305. ^ Paradise - Definition from the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary
  306. ^ Online Etymology Dictionary
  307. ^ Parasang - Definition from the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary
  308. ^ parasang." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  309. ^ "pargana." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  310. ^ Online Etymological Dictionary http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=Parsee
  311. ^ "parsi." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  312. ^ Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2006
  313. ^ "pasar." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  314. ^ "pashm." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  315. ^ http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/Pashmina Webster's New Millennium Dictionary of English, Preview Edition (v 0.9.6) Copyright © 2003-2005 Lexico Publishing Group, LLC
  316. ^ pashto." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com (11 April 2007).
  317. ^ peach, OED.
  318. ^ "peach." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  319. ^ "percale." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  320. ^ "percaline." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  321. ^ "peri." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  322. ^ "peshwa." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  323. ^ Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.0.1) Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2006. [6]
  324. ^ "pir." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  325. ^ "pistachio." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  326. ^ posteen." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  327. ^ "prophet flower." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002.
  328. ^ Punjabi." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  329. ^ "purwannah." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  330. ^ "pyke." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  331. ^ http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/pajama
  332. ^ Heritage of Persia, Richard Nelson Frye, Professor of Iranian Hravard University, 1963 The World Publishing Company
  333. ^ rook." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  334. ^ "rose." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  335. ^ Online Etymology Dictionary
  336. ^ "sabzi." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  337. ^ "saffian." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  338. ^ "samosa." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  339. ^ "sandal." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  340. ^ "saoshyant." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  341. ^ "sarangousty." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com (12 September 2006).
  342. ^ "sarod." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com (12 September 2006).
  343. ^ "sarwan." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  344. ^ [Online Etymological Dictionary http://www.etymonline.com/...searchmode=none]
  345. ^ "scarlet." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  346. ^ "scimitar." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002.
  347. ^ "sebesten." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  348. ^ "seer." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  349. ^ "seerpaw." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  350. ^ "seersucker." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com (12 September 2006).
  351. ^ "seersucker_sans." Spoken Sanskrit Dictionary. http://spokensanskrit.de/ (30 December 2008).
  352. ^ "sepoy." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  353. ^ "serai." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com (12 September 2006).
  354. ^ Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.0.1) Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2006. [7]
  355. ^ "serang." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com (12 September 2006).
  356. ^ "serdab." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  357. ^ "sesban." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  358. ^ "setwall." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  359. ^ "shabunder." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com (12 September 2006).
  360. ^ "shah." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  361. ^ "shahi." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com (12 September 2006).
  362. ^ "shahidi." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com (12 September 2006).
  363. ^ "shahin." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  364. ^ "shahzada." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com (12 September 2006).
  365. ^ "shame." English to Farsi Dictionary.http://beta.ariadic.com/# (30 December 2008).
  366. ^ "shamiana." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  367. ^ "shawl." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com (12 September 2006).
  368. ^ "sheristadar." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com (12 September 2006).
  369. ^ A Sherry Primer By Darrin Siegfried [8]
  370. ^ T. B. Irving, Journal of Islamic Studies 1990 1: 164-167
  371. ^ "sherryvallies." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  372. ^ "shikar." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com (14 September 2006).
  373. ^ "shikargah." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com (14 September 2006).
  374. ^ "shikari." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  375. ^ "shikasta." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  376. ^ "shikra." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  377. ^ Online Etymological Dictionary. [9]
  378. ^ "sircar." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com (14 September 2006).
  379. ^ Online Etymological Dictionary http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=sitar]
  380. ^ "softa." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  381. ^ "sogdian." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  382. ^ "soorkee." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  383. ^ "sowar." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  384. ^ "spahi." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com (14 September 2006).
  385. ^ a b Dehkhoda Dictionary
  386. ^ "spinach." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  387. ^ Online Etymology Dictionary
  388. ^ "subahdar." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  389. ^ sugar - Definition from the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary
  390. ^ "suclat." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  391. ^ "surma." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  392. ^ "surnay." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  393. ^ "syagush." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  394. ^ a small triangular pastry filled with spiced meat or vegetables and fried in ghee or oil
  395. ^ "tabasheer." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  396. ^ Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.0.1) Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2006. http://dictionary.reference.com/search?q=tabor
  397. ^ "taffeta." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  398. ^ "tahsildar." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  399. ^ "taj." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  400. ^ "tambour." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  401. ^ "tanbur." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  402. ^ "tangi." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  403. ^ Online Etymological Dictionary [10]
  404. ^ "tar." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  405. ^ "tass." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  406. ^ "tebbad." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  407. ^ "temacha." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  408. ^ "thanadar." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  409. ^ timar." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  410. ^ "tranky." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  411. ^ "trehala." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  412. ^ Online Etymological Dictionary. [11]
  413. ^ "turanian." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  414. ^ "turanite." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  415. ^ "turanose." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  416. ^ "turban." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  417. ^ vispered." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  418. ^ "yarak." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  419. ^ "yasht." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  420. ^ "yuft." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com (12 September 2006).
  421. ^ "zamindar." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  422. ^ "zamindari." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  423. ^ "zanza." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  424. ^ Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2006. http://dictionary.reference.com/search?r=2&q=zedoary]
  425. ^ "zenana." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  426. ^ "zerda." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com
  427. ^ Online Etymological Dictionary [12]
  428. ^ "zumbooruk." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com .

Sources

  • Online etymology dictionary
  • Persian in English: Interaction of languages and cultures. by Mirfazaelian A., published by Farhang Moaser, Tehran, Iran 2006. (in Persian)

External links

 

 

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Published - January 2009


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