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Germanic and Latinate equivalents in English



By Wikipedia,
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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Germanic_and_Latinate_equivalents_in_English






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This list contains Germanic elements of the English language which have a close corresponding Latinate form. The correspondence is semantic - in most cases these words are not cognates.

It is worth noting that usually the Germanic-based words sound more common, and the Latinate-based ones more lofty.

Note that sometimes the English word has shifted meaning from its Germanic origins, for instance the word "throw" originally meant "turn" etc.

Germanic source

Germanic

Latinate

Latin source

Old Norse angr
Gmc *wraiþiþo

anger
wrath

rage
ire

rabiēs
īra

WGmc *aiskōn

ask

inquire
request

in + quaerere
re + quaerere

Gmc *ga-waraz

aware

cognizant

cognoscere

Gmc *bakam

back (n)

dorsum (> dorsal)

dorsum

Gmc *beforan

before

prior to

prior

WGmc *be + *ginnan

begin

commence

com + initiāre

Gmc *ga-laubjan

belief

creed or credence

crēdere

Gmc *balgiz

belly

abdomen

abdomen

Old English bodig

bodily

corporal

corpus

Gmc *brōþar

brotherly

fraternal

frāternus, frater

Gmc *bugjanan

buy

purchase

pro- + (vulgar L.) captiare

WGmc *kalbam

calf

veal

vitellus, vitulus

Gmc *koluz

cool

acquiesce

ad- + quiescere

Gmc *kilþam

child

infant

īnfāns

Gmc *kweman

come

arrive

ad + ripa

Gmc *kōuz

cow

beef, bovine
cattle

bōs/bōvis
med. L capitale

Gmc *daudaz + *likaz

deadly

mortal
fatal

mortālis
fatum

Gmc *deupaz

deep

profound

pro + fundus

Gmc *deuzam

deer

venison

venātiō/nis

Gmc *erþō

earth

soil

solium

Gmc *austra

eastern

oriental

orīri

Gmc *anðiōn

end

finish
complete
discontinue

fīnīre
complēre
dis- + continuāre

Gmc *fadar + *likaz

fatherly

paternal

paternus, pater

WGmc *fōljan

feeling

sentiment, sensation

sensus, sentiō

Gmc *fullijan + *up

fill up

replenish

re + plēnus

Gmc *furistaz

first

primary

prīmus

Gmc *floþuz

flood

inundate

inundāre < in + unda

Gmc *fulgian

follow

ensue

in- + sequi

Gmc *fur-*biudan

forbid

prohibit
interdict

prohibēre < pro + habēre
inter + dicere, dictus

WGmc *fur-*getan

forgetting

oblivion

oblīviscī

Gmc *fura + *taljanan (calque)

foretell

predict

praedīcere

WGmc *fuχs + *likaz

fox-like

vulpine

vulpēs

Gmc *frijaz

freedom

liberty

lībertās < līber

Gmc *frijond + *likaz

friendly

amicable

amīcus

Gmc *gadurojan

gather

assemble

ad + simul

Old Norse geta + Gmc *af

get off

descend

de- + scandere

Old Norse geta + Gmc *ut

get out

produce

pro- + ducere

Gmc *giftiz

gift

present

prae- + essere

Gmc *geban

give

provide

pro + vidēre

Gmc *glaþaz

gladness

joy
pleasure
delight

gaudium
placēre
dēlēctāre

Gmc *guþan

god

deity

deus

WGmc *gaian + Gmc *an

go on

proceed

pro- + cedere

Gmc *getiskanan

guess

suppose
presume
surmise

sub- + ponere
prae + sumere
super- + mittere

Gmc *χauzjian

hearing

audience

audīre

Gmc *χatojanan

hate

detest

de- + testari

Gothic *haiþi

heathen

pagan

pāgānus

WGmc *χōdjan

heed

attention

atteniō, attendere

Gmc *χauχiþa

height

altitude

altitūdō (< altus)

Gmc *χelpan

help

assist

assistere < ad + sistere

WGmc *χannja

hen

poultry

pullus

Gmc *χulnis

hill

mount

mōns, montis

Gmc *χrussaz

horse

equestrian

equestris

Gmc *χundaz + *likaz

hound-like

canine

canis

WGmc *jukkjan

itch

irritate

irritāre

Gmc *knoean

know

recognize

re + cognoscere

Gmc *laiþjan

leader

duke
president

dux
praesidēns

Gmc *laibijan

leave

depart
egress
exit

dispertīre
ēgressus
ex + īre

Gmc *langiþo

length

longitude

longitūdō (< longus)

Gmc *legjan

lie (lie down)

repose
recline

re- + pausa
re- + clinare

Gmc *lubo

loving

amorous

amōrōsus

Gmc *markojan

mark

indicate

in- + dicare

Gmc *ga-makon

match

correspond

con + respondēre

WGmc *mainijan

mean

intend
signify

intendere
significare

Gmc *motijan

meet

encounter

incontrāre < in + contrā

Old Norse mistaka

mistake

error

error (< errāre)

Gmc *mōdar + *likaz

motherly

maternal

māternus, māter

Gmc *neujaz

new

novel
modern

novus
modernus

Gmc *naχt + *likaz

nightly

nocturnal

nocturnus

WGmc *alda

old

ancient

ante - "before"

Gmc *anþaraz

other

different

differre

Old English pullian + Gmc *ut

pull out

extract

ex- + trahere

Gmc *rutjan

rot

putrefy

putrefacere

Gmc *seχwan

see

perceive

per- + capere

Old Norse sœma

seem

appear

apparere

WGmc *skæpa
Gmc *lambaz

sheep
lamb

mutton

med. L. multō

WGmc *skuttjan

shut

close

clausus

Gmc *skeuχ(w)az

shy

timid

timidus

Old Norse skil

skillful

adept

adeptus < adipiscī

Gmc *slæpan

sleeping

dormant

dormīre

Gmc *seχ(w)

sight

vision

vidēre/vīsum

Gmc *sprekan
Middle English talken

speak
talk

converse
discourse

con- + vertere
dis- + currere

Gmc *swīnam

swine

pork

porcus

Old Norse taka + Gmc *up

take up

resume

re- + sumere

Gmc *taikijan

teach

educate

ēdūcāre < ēdūcere

Gmc *taljanan

tell

relate

relatus < re- + ferre

Gmc *þankjan

thinking

pensive

pēnsāre

Gmc *þankjan

thought

idea

idea

WGmc *þræan

throw

eject

ex- + iacere

Old English teorian

tired

exhausted

ex- + hauriō

Gmc *tūnaz, tūnam

town

city

cīvitās, cīvis

Old English understandan

understand

comprehend

comprehendere

Gmc *up- + *luftijan

uplifting

elevating

ē- + levāre

Gmc *utizon

utter

pronounce

pro- + nunciare

Gmc *utizon

utterly

totally

tōtālis

Gmc *wadjojan

wage

stipend
salary

stipendium
salārium

Gmc *wakan

wait

expect

ex + spectāre

Gmc *wakan

watch

observe

ob + servāre

Gmc *wakan

watchful

vigilant

vigilāre

Gmc *westra

western

occidental

occidere

Gmc *(ga)χailaz

whole

entire

integer

Gmc *widas

width

latitude

latitūdō (< latus)

Gmc *wisaz

wise

prudent

prudēns < providēns

Gmc *wunskjan

wish

desire

desiderāre

Gmc *wulfaz + *likaz

wolf-like

lupine

lūpus

Gmc *widuz

wood

lignin

lignum

WGmc *gelwa

yellow

ochre

ochra

* reconstructed form






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