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Latin words with English derivatives



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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Latin_words_with_English_derivatives






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This is a list of Latin words with derivatives in English (and other modern languages).

Note that ancient orthography did not distinguish between i and j or between u and v. Many modern works distinguish u from v but not i from j. In this article both distinctions are shown as they are helpful when tracing the origin of English words. See also Latin spelling and pronunciation.

Contents

Nouns and adjectives

The citation form for nouns (the one normally shown in Latin dictionaries) is the nominative singular, but this typically does not exhibit the root form from which English from Latin nouns are generally derived.

Latin Nouns and Adjectives
Citation form Declining stem Meaning English derivative
acerbus acerb- bitter acerbic
acetum acet- vinegar acetic
aedificium aedifici- building edifice
alacer alacr- quick alacrity
album alb- white album
alius ali- other alien
anima anim- soul, life animate
annus ann- year annual
aqua aqu- water aquamarine
aquatic
audax audac- brave, bold audacious
auris aur- ear aural
avis avi- bird avian
aviary
bellum bell- war bellicose
belligerence
bonus
– melior
– optimus
bon-
– melior-
– optim-
good
– better
– best
bonus
ameliorate
optimum
bōs bov- cow bovine
canis can- dog canine
cīvis civit- citizen civil
civilian
coniunx coniug- spouse conjugal
cornu corn- horn unicorn
deus de- god deity
diēs diē- day diet
diary
discipulus discipul- student disciple
dominus domin- lord dominion
dominate
domus dom- house domain
domestic
domicile
equus equ- horse equestrian
falx falc- sickle falcate
felinae felin- cat-like feline
fēmina fēmin- woman feminine
filius fili- son filial
finis fini- limit infinite
final
flos flor- flower floral
forma form- form, shape, beauty form
fors fort- luck fortuitous
fortitudō fort- strength fortitude
fortify
frater fratr- brother fraternity
frux frug- fruit frugal
fumus fum- smoke fume
genus gen- birth, offspring, creation generation
genuine
homō homin- man (human being) hominid
ignis - fire ignite
insula insul- island insulate
peninsula
insular
jūdex jūdic- judge judge
judicial
adjudicate
jūs jūr- right
law
justice
jurisdiction
lachryma lachrym- tear lachrymose
lex lēg- law legal
lūna lūn- moon lunar
lupus lup- wolf lupine
magister magistr- teacher magistrate
magnus
– mājor
– maximus
magn-
– mājor-
– maxim-
big
– bigger
– biggest
magnitude
major
maximum
malus mal- bad malevolence
malice
manus manu- hand
band of men
manual
mare mar- sea marine
maritime
māter mātr- mother matron
maternal
mora mor- delay moratorium
nihil nihil- nothing nil
nihilism
annihilate
nox noct- night nocturnal
oculus ocul- eye inoculate
ocular
onus oner- load exonerate
onus
pater patr- father patron
paternal
patriarch
pavimentum paviment- ground pavement
pes ped- foot pedestrian
pulcher pulchr- beautiful pulchritude
rex rēg- king regal
rūs rūr- farm rural
rustic
sinister sinistr- left sinister
terra terr- land terrain
terrestrial
unda und- wave undulate
urbs urb- city urban
Ursidae urs- bear ursine
vehiculum vehicul- wagon vehicle
veritas ver- truth veracity
verify
villa vill- country house village
villa
vir vir- man (male person) virile
vulpinae vulp- fox vulpine

Verbs

In some Latin verbs, a preposition caused a vowel change in the root of the verb. For example, "capiō" becomes "incipio".

Latin Verbs
Citation form Present stem Perfect stem Participial stem Meaning Typical derivative
agō ag- eg- āct- do agent, action
amō am- amav- amat- like
love
enamor
audiō aud- audiv- audit- hear audible
capiō
-cipiō
cap- cep-
-cip-
capt-
-cept-
take capable, captive
recipient, reception
cēdō cēd-   cess- yield, depart recede, recession
cogitō cogit- cogitav- cogitat- think
ponder
cogitate
colligo colligere collegi collectus collect collect
claudō
-clūdō
claud-
-clūd-
  claus-
-clūs-
close conclude, conclusive
clinō clin-   clinat- lean recline
cubō cub-   cubat- lie incubator
currō curr- cucurr- curs- run current
recursion
d-   dat-
-dit-
give add
dative
doleō dol- dolui dolit- grieve dolor
condolence
dubitō dubit- dubitav- dubitat- doubt indubitable
excipio excipere excepi exceptus receive except
faciō
-ficiō
fac- fec-
-fic-
fact-
-fect-
make effective, factory
ferō fer- tul- lāt- bring fertile, refer, relate
fīgō fīg- fīx-   fix crucifixion
fingō fing-   fict fashion, invent fiction
gradior
-gredior
gradi-
-gredi-
gress-
-gress-
none step ingredient, progressive
gustō gust- gustav- gustat- taste gustation
jaciō
-(j)iciō
jac- jec-
(j)ic-
jact-
-ject-
throw projectile
inject
laudō laud- laudav- laudat- praise laud
laudable
locō loc- locav- locat- place
put
location
lūdō lūd-   lūs- play collude, collusion
mergō merg- mers-   dip emerge, immerse
mittō mitt- mīs- miss- send commit, missive
moveō mov- mov- mot- move move
motor
motive
motion
nascor nasci natus none to be born natal
prenatal
necō nec- necav- necat- dead necrophilia, necrophilia
nōscō
-gnōscō
nōsc-
-gnōsc-
nosc- nōt-
-gnōt-, -gnit-
know notable
cognitive
nuntiō nunt- nuntiav- nuntiat- bring news of, announce announce
petō pet- petiv- petit- seek
attack
petulant
pōnō pōn- posu- posit- put component, position
portō     portat- carry deport
premō
-primō
prem- press- press- push pressure, oppress
pugnō pugn- pugnav- pugnat- fight pugnacious
putō put- putav- putat- think compute
putative
relinquō relinqu- reliqu- relict- abandon relinquish
rideō     ris- laugh, smile deride
ridiculous
rumpō rump- rup- rupt- break rupture, interrupt
sciō sc- sciv- scit- know science
scrībō scrīb- scrips- scrīpt- write scripture
sedeō sed- sed- sess- sit sedentary
sediment
sequor seq- secut- sum   follow sequence
sum es- fu- futur- be essence, future
veniō ven-   vent- come convene, prevention
vertō vert- vers- vers- turn reverse, revert
videō vidē- vid- vīs- see vision
vivō viv- vix- vict- live vivacity
volō vell- volu-   wish volition
benevolent
malevolent
volvō volv-   volūt- roll revolve, revolution
voveō vov-   vot- vow votive

Prepositions used to form compound words

Latin Preposition
Latin word Meaning Prefix
ad to, toward ad-
a to, toward a-
cum with, together con-, com-, col-
down from, about de-
ē, ex out of ex, e-, ec-
in in, into in-, im-, il-
inter between inter-, intel-
juxtā near, close to juxtā
ob in front of, on account of ob-, oc-
prae before prae-(pre-)
re again, back re-, red-
away from se-
per through per-
prō for, in front of, on behalf of pro-
post after, behind post-
sub under sub-, sus-, suc-
super above, on top of super-
trāns across trans-
ultra beyond ultra-

Other parts of speech

Latin word meaning  
paene almost penultimate, peninsula
primo first prime, primate
satis enough (of) satisfy

See also

External links






See all linguistics glossaries:





Published - January 2009


This glossary is available under the terms
of the GNU Free Documentation






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