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Oncology-related Terms Glossary
(Starting with "B")

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_oncology-related_terms




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B cell/B lymphocyte

B cells are lymphocytes that play a large role in the humoral immune response (as opposed to the cell-mediated immune response, which is governed by T cells). The principal functions of B cells are to make antibodies against antigens, perform the role of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and eventually develop into memory B cells after activation by antigen interaction. B cells are an essential component of the adaptive immune system.

B7-1

Cluster of Differentiation 80 (also CD80 and B7-1) is a protein found on activated B cells and monocytes that provides a costimulatory signal necessary for T cell activation and survival. It is the ligand for two different proteins on the T cell surface: CD28 (for autoregulation and intercellular association) and CTLA-4 (for attenuation of regulation and cellular disassociation). CD80 works in tandem with CD86 to prime T cells.

Bacillus Calmette Guérin/BCG/BCG solution

Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (or Bacille Calmette-Guérin, BCG) is a vaccine against tuberculosis that is prepared from a strain of the attenuated (weakened) live bovine tuberculosis bacillus, Mycobacterium bovis, that has lost its virulence in humans by being specially cultured in an artificial medium for years. The bacilli have retained enough strong antigenicity to become a somewhat effective vaccine for the prevention of human tuberculosis. At best, the BCG vaccine is 80% effective in preventing tuberculosis for a duration of 15 years; however, its protective effect appears to vary according to geography.

Bacterial toxin

A bacterial toxin is a type of toxin that is generated by bacteria. Toxinosis is pathogenesis caused by the bacterial toxin alone, not necessarily involving bacterial infection (e.g. when the bacteria have died, but have already produced toxin, which becomes ingested) It can be caused by Staphylococcus aureus toxins.

Barium enema

A lower gastrointestinal series, also called a barium enema, is a medical procedure used to examine and diagnose problems with the human colon (large intestine). X-ray pictures are taken while barium sulfate fills the colon via the rectum.

Barium swallow

A barium swallow is a medical imaging procedure used to examine the upper GI (gastrointestinal) tract, which includes the esophagus and, to a lesser extent, the stomach.

Barrett's esophagus

Barrett's Esophagus (British English: oesophagus) (sometimes called Barrett's syndrome, CELLO—columnar epithelium lined lower oesophagus) refers to an abnormal change (metaplasia) in the cells of the inferior portion of the esophagus. A positive diagnosis generally requires observing specific macroscopic and microscopic changes. The normal squamous epithelium lining of the esophagus is replaced by metaplastic columnar epithelium. Columnar epithelium refers to a cell type that is typically found in more distal parts of the gastrointestinal system. The medical significance of Barrett's esophagus is its strong association with esophageal adenocarcinoma, a particularly lethal cancer.

Basal cell

The Stratum germinativum (or basal layer, stratum basale) is the deepest layer of the 5 layers of the epidermis, which is the outer covering of skin in mammals. The stratum germinativum is a continuous layer of cells. It is often described as one cell thick, though it may in fact be two to three cells thick in glabrous (hairless) skin and hyperproliferative epidermis (from a skin disease).

Basal cell carcinoma

Basal-cell carcinoma is the most common type of skin cancer. It rarely metastasizes or kills. However, because it can cause significant destruction and disfigurement, it is still considered malignant [ by invading surrounding tissues. Statistically, approximately 3 out of 10 Caucasians may develop a basal-cell cancer within their lifetime. In 80 percent of all cases, basal-cell cancers are found on the head and neck. There appears to be an increase in the incidence of basal-cell cancer of the trunk (torso) in recent years.

Basal cell nevus syndrome

Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS), also known as basal cell nevus syndrome, multiple basal cell carcinoma syndrome, Gorlin syndrome, and Gorlin–Goltz syndrome, is an inherited medical condition involving defects within multiple body systems such as the skin, nervous system, eyes, endocrine system, and bones. People with this syndrome are particularly prone to developing a common and usually non-life-threatening form of non-melanoma skin cancers.

Basophil

Basophil granulocytes, sometimes referred to as basophils, are the least common of the granulocytes, representing about 0.01% to 0.3% of circulating white blood cells.

Batimastat

A matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor (MMPI) inhibits matrix metalloproteinases. As they inhibit cell migration they have antiangiogenic effects. They may be both endogenous and exogenous. The most notorious endogenous metalloproteinases are tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP). There are also cartilage-derived angiogenesis inhibitor‎s.

BBR 2778

Pixantrone (6,9-bis[(2-aminoethyl)amino]benzo[g]isoquinoline-5,10-dione; rINN) is an experimental antineoplastic drug, an analogue of mitoxantrone with less toxic effects on cardiac tissue. It acts as a topoisomerase II poison and intercalating agent. The code name BBR 2778 refers to pixantrone dimaleate, the actual substance commonly used in clinical trials.

BBR 3464

Triplatin tetranitrate (rINN; also known as BBR3464) is a new platinum-based cytotoxic drug that is currently undergoing clinical trials throughout the world for the treatment of human cancer. It is a trinuclear platinum coordination complex, with chloride and amine ligands. The drug acts by forming coordinate covalent adducts with cellular DNA, preventing DNA transcription and replication, and through this inducing apoptosis. It is structurally similar to, but in a different family from, the anticancer drugs cisplatin, carboplatin and oxaliplatin.

Bcl-2 antisense oligodeoxynucleotide G3139

Oblimersen (INN, trade name Genasense; also known as Augmerosen and bcl-2 antisense oligodeoxynucleotide G3139) is an antisense oligodeoxyribonucleotide being studied as a possible treatment for several types of cancer, including chronic lymphocytic leukemia, B-cell lymphoma, and breast cancer. It may kill cancer cells by blocking the production of Bcl-2—a protein that makes cancer cells live longer—and by making them more sensitive to chemotherapy.

BCX-1777

Forodesine (INN; also known as Immucillin H) is a transition-state analog inhibitor of purine nucleoside phosphorylase under development for the treatment of relapsed B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome

Beckwith–Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) is an overgrowth disorder present at birth characterized by an increased risk of childhood cancer and certain features. Originally, Professor Wiedemann coined the term exomphalos-macroglossia-gigantism (EMG) syndrome to describe the combination of congenital exomphalos, macroglossia, and gigantism. Over time, this constellation was renamed Beckwith–Wiedemann syndrome. Five common features used to define BWS are: macroglossia (large tongue), macrosomia (birth weight and length >90th percentile), midline abdominal wall defects (omphalocele, umbilical hernia, diastasis recti), ear creases or ear pits, and neonatal hypoglycemia (low blood sugar after birth).

Beclomethasone

Beclometasone dipropionate (INN modified) or beclomethasone dipropionate (USAN, former BAN), also referred to as beclometasone (INN), is a potent glucocorticoid steroid. In the form of an inhaler (e.g. Clenil, Qvar), a wide number of brands of which are available, it is used for the prophylaxis of asthma. As a nasal spray (e.g. Beconase, alanase, Vancenase), it is used for the treatment of rhinitis (e.g. hayfever) and sinusitis. In some instances, it is used by oral pathologists in the treatment of unusually severe aphthous ulcers.

Bellini duct carcinoma

Bellini duct carcinoma (BDC, also known as low-grade collecting duct carcinoma and tubulocystic carcinoma) is a type of kidney cancer that originates in the duct of Bellini of the kidney. It is rare, accounting for 1-3% of all kidney cancers. It is also recently described; a 2002 review found just 40 case reports worldwide. Previously, due to its location, BDC was commonly diagnosed as renal cell carcinoma or a subtype of renal cell carcinoma. However, BDC does not respond well to chemotherapy drugs used for renal cell carcinoma, and progresses and spreads more quickly. One small study reporting 20% survival at 2 years.. BDC may be related to urothelial carcinoma aka transitional cell carcinoma, and case reports of treating BDC as for transitional cell carcinoma indicate some benefit.

Bendamustine

Bendamustine (INN, trade names Ribomustin and Treanda; also known as SDX-105) is a nitrogen mustard used in the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemias (CLL) and lymphomas. It belongs to the family of drugs called alkylating agents. It is also being studied for the treatment of sarcoma.

Benign

Benignity (Latin bene- = "well" and "-ignis" = "fire"), is a medical term used to describe a condition that is harmless. A tumor or other condition is often described as benign to emphasize that it is not cancer or malignant.

Benign proliferative breast disease

Benign proliferative breast disease is a group of noncancerous conditions that may increase the risk of developing breast cancer. Examples include ductal hyperplasia, lobular hyperplasia, and papillomas.

Benign prostatic hyperplasia/hypertrophy

Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) also known as benign prostatic hypertrophy (technically a misnomer), benign enlargement of the prostate (BEP), and adenofibromyomatous hyperplasia, refers to the increase in size of the prostate.

Benign tumor

A benign tumor is a tumor that lacks the ability to metastasize. Common examples of benign tumors include moles and uterine fibroids. The term "benign" implies a mild and nonprogressive disease. Indeed, many kinds of benign tumors are harmless to human health. However, some neoplasms defined as 'benign tumors' because they lack the invasive properties of a cancer, may still produce negative health effects. Examples of this include tumors which produce a "mass effect" (compression of vital organs such as blood vessels), or tumors of endocrine tissues, which may overproduce certain hormones. Examples include thyroid adenomas, adrenocortical adenomas, and pituitary adenomas.

Benzaldehyde

Benzaldehyde (C6H5CHO) is an organic compound consisting of a benzene ring with a formyl substituent. It is the simplest aromatic aldehyde and one of the most industrially useful. This colorless liquid has a characteristic pleasant almond-like odor. In fact, benzaldehyde is the primary component of bitter almond oil and can be extracted from a number of other natural sources.

Benzydamine

Benzydamine, available as the hydrochloride, is a locally-acting nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug with local anaesthetic and analgesic properties providing both rapid and extended pain relief as well as a significant anti-inflammatory treatment for the painful inflammatory conditions of the mouth and throat. It selectively binds to inflamed tissues (Prostaglandin synthetase inhibitor) and is virtually free of any adverse systemic effects.

Best practice

Best practices are generally-accepted, informally-standardized techniques, methods, or processes that have proven themselves over time to accomplish given tasks. Often based upon common sense, these practices are commonly used where no specific formal methodology is in place or the existing methodology does not sufficiently address the issue. The idea is that with proper processes, checks, and testing, a desired outcome can be delivered more effectively with fewer problems and unforeseen complications. In addition, a "best" practice can evolve to become better as improvements are discovered. Best-practice is considered by some as a business buzzword used to describe the process of developing and following a standard way of doing things that multiple organizations can use.

Beta carotene

β-Carotene is an organic compound and classified as a terpenoid. It is a strongly-coloured red-orange pigment abundant in plants and fruits. β-Carotene is also the substance in carrots that colours them orange. As a carotene with beta-rings at both ends, it is the most common form of carotene.

Beta hemolytic streptococcus group B

Streptococcus agalactiae (also known as Group B streptococcus or GBS) is a beta-hemolytic Gram-positive streptococcus.

Beta-endorphin

β-endorphin is an endogenous opioid peptide neurotransmitter found in the neurons of both the central and peripheral nervous system.

Beta-glucan

β-Glucans (beta-glucans) are polysaccharides of D-glucose monomers linked by β-glycosidic bonds. β-glucans are a diverse group of molecules that can vary with respect to molecular mass, solubility, viscosity, and three-dimensional configuration. They occur most commonly as cellulose in plants, the bran of cereal grains, the cell wall of baker's yeast, certain fungi, mushrooms and bacteria. Some forms of beta glucans are useful in human nutrition as texturing agents and as soluble fiber supplements, but can be problematic in the process of brewing.

Beta-human chorionic gonadotropin

Human chorionic gonadotropin or human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) is a glycoprotein hormone produced in pregnancy that is made by the developing embryo after conception and later by the syncytiotrophoblast (part of the placenta) but it is not known whether this production is a contributing cause or an effect of tumorigenesis.

Bevacizumab

Bevacizumab (trade name Avastin, Genentech/Roche) is a drug that blocks angiogenesis, the growth of new blood vessels. It is used to treat various cancers, including colorectal, lung, and kidney cancer, and eye disease.

Bexarotene

Bexarotene (Targretin) is an oral antineoplastic agent indicated by the FDA (in 2000) for cutaneous T cell lymphoma. It has been used off-label for lung cancer, breast cancer, and Kaposi's sarcoma.

Bexxar regimen

Tositumomab is a drug for the treatment of follicular lymphoma. It is a IgG2a anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody derived from immortalized mouse cells. Tositumomab is applied in a sequential infusion followed by iodine (131I) tositumomab, which is the same antibody covalently bound to the radionuclide iodine-131 (131I). 131I emits both beta and gamma radiation and decays with a half-life of 8 days.

BI-RADS

BI-RADS is an acronym for Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System, a quality assurance tool originally designed for use with mammography. The system is a collaborative effort of many health groups but is published and trademarked by the American College of Radiology (ACR).

Bicalutamide

Bicalutamide (marketed as Casodex, Cosudex, Calutide, Kalumid) is an oral non-steroidal anti-androgen used in the treatment of prostate cancer and hirsutism. It was first launched in 1995 as a combination treatment (with surgical or medical castration) for advanced prostate cancer and subsequently launched as monotherapy for the treatment of earlier stages of the disease.

Bidi

A beedi is a thin, South Asian cigarette filled with tobacco flake and wrapped in a tendu leaf tied with a string at one end.

The word comes from beeda, Marwari for a leaf wrapped in betel nuts, herbs, and condiments.

Bilateral nephrectomy

Nephrectomy is the surgical removal of a kidney.

Bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy

Oophorectomy is the surgical removal of an ovary or ovaries. The surgery is also called ovariectomy, but this term has been traditionally used in basic science research describing the surgical removal of ovaries in laboratory animals. Removal of the ovaries in women is the biological equivalent of castration in males; however, the term castration is only occasionally used in the medical literature to refer to oophorectomy in humans. In the veterinary sciences, the complete removal of the ovaries, oviducts, uterine horns, and the uterus is called spaying and is a form of sterilization.

Bile duct

A bile duct is any of a number of long tube-like structures that carry bile. Bile, required for the digestion of food, is excreted by the liver into passages that carry bile toward the hepatic duct, which joins with the cystic duct (carrying bile to and from the gallbladder) to form the common bile duct, which opens into the intestine.

Biliary

A bile duct is any of a number of long tube-like structures that carry bile. Bile, required for the digestion of food, is excreted by the liver into passages that carry bile toward the hepatic duct, which joins with the cystic duct (carrying bile to and from the gallbladder) to form the common bile duct, which opens into the intestine.

Bilirubin

Bilirubin (formerly referred to as hematoidin) is the yellow breakdown product of normal heme catabolism. Heme is found in hemoglobin, a principal component of red blood cells. Bilirubin is excreted in bile and urine, and elevated levels may indicate certain diseases. It is responsible for the yellow color of bruises, urine (via its reduced breakdown product, urobilin), and the yellow discoloration in jaundice.

Binding agent

A binder is an ingredient used to bind together two or more other materials in mixtures. Its two principal properties are adhesion and cohesion.

Bioavailable

In pharmacology, bioavailability is used to describe the fraction of an administered dose of unchanged drug that reaches the systemic circulation, one of the principal pharmacokinetic properties of drugs. By definition, when a medication is administered intravenously, its bioavailability is 100%. However, when a medication is administered via other routes (such as orally), its bioavailability decreases (due to incomplete absorption and first-pass metabolism) or may vary from patient to patient (due to inter-individual variation). Bioavailability is one of the essential tools in Pharmacokinetics, as bioavailability must be considered when calculating dosages for non-intravenous routes of administration.

Biochanin A

Biochanin A is an O-methylated isoflavone. It is a natural organic compound in the class of phytochemicals known as flavonoids. Biochanin A can be found in red clover in soy, in alfalfa sprouts, in peanuts, in chickpea (Cicer arietinum) and in other legumes.

Biological response modifier

Biological response modifers, also known as BRM's, are substances that the human body produces naturally, as well as something that scientists can create in a lab. These substances arouse the body's response to an infection. Some of these are used to treat arthritis, cancer, and some other diseases. Biologics include Monoclonal antibodies, Interleukin-2, Interferon, various types of colony-stimulating factors (CSF, GM-CSF, G-CSF)

Biological therapy

Immunotherapy is a medical term defined as "treatment of disease by inducing, enhancing, or suppressing an immune response". Immunotherapies designed to elicit or amplify an immune response are classified as activation immunotherapies. Immunotherapies designed to reduce, suppress or more appropriately direct an existing immune response, as in cases of autoimmunity or allergy, are classified as suppression immunotherapies.

Biomarker

A biomarker, or biological marker, is in general a substance used as an indicator of a biological state. It is a characteristic that is objectively measured and evaluated as an indicator of normal biological processes, pathogenic processes, or pharmacologic responses to a therapeutic intervention. It is used in many scientific fields.

Biomed 101

Biomed 101 is an agent binding to the leukotriene B4 receptor. This leads to reduced levels of interleukin-2 mediated hypoxia. Biomed 101 does not affect interleukin-2 antitumor activity. Biomed 101 is also in the process of being tested to see if it can help reduce the side effects of a drug called interleukin-2 (IL-2), already it has been found that Biomed 101 does not affect interleukin-2 antitumor activity meaning these two drugs can work to gather safely if the anti-side effect property is found within Biomed 101.

Biopsy/Biopsy specimen

A biopsy is a medical test involving the removal of cells or tissues for examination. It is the medical removal of tissue from a living subject to determine the presence or extent of a disease. The tissue is generally examined under a microscope by a pathologist, and can also be analyzed chemically. When an entire lump or suspicious area is removed, the procedure is called an excisional biopsy. When only a sample of tissue is removed with preservation of the histological architecture of the tissue's cells, the procedure is called an incisional biopsy or core biopsy. When a sample of tissue or fluid is removed with a needle in such a way that cells are removed without preserving the histological architecture of the tissue cells, the procedure is called a needle aspiration biopsy.

Biotherapy

Zootherapy is the use of living animals for medical treatment or as an adjunct to medical diagnosis.

Birt-Hogg-Dube syndrome

Birt–Hogg–Dubé syndrome (BHD) is a human genetic disorder that involves susceptibility to renal cancer, renal and pulmonary cysts, and noncancerous tumors of the hair follicles. The disorder has been reported in more than 100 families worldwide, and it is inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern. The pattern of mutations and spectrum of symptoms are heterogeneous between individuals.

Bispecific antibody/Bispecific monoclonal antibody

A bispecific monoclonal antibody (BsMAb, BsAb) is an artificial protein that is composed of fragments of two different monoclonal antibodies and consequently binds to two different types of antigen. The most widely used application of this approach is in cancer immunotherapy, where BsMAbs are engineered that simultaneously bind to a cytotoxic cell (using a receptor like CD3) and a target like a tumour cell to be destroyed.

Bisphosphonate

In pharmacology, bisphosphonates (also called diphosphonates) are a class of drugs that prevent the loss of bone mass, used to treat osteoporosis and similar diseases. They are called bisphosphonates because they have two phosphonate (PO3) groups.

Black cohosh

Actaea racemosa (black cohosh, black bugbane or black snakeroot or fairy candle; syn. Cimicifuga racemosa) is a plant of the buttercup family (Ranunculaceae). It is native to eastern North America from the extreme south of Ontario to central Georgia, and west to Missouri and Arkansas. Black cohosh grows in a variety of woodland habitats, and is often found in small woodland openings. The roots and rhizomes of black cohosh have long been used medicinally by Native Americans. Extracts from these plant materials are thought to possess analgesic, sedative, and anti-inflammatory properties. Today, black cohosh preparations (tinctures or tablets of dried materials) are used mainly to treat symptoms associated with menopause.

Black snakeroot

Actaea racemosa (black cohosh, black bugbane or black snakeroot or fairy candle; syn. Cimicifuga racemosa) is a plant of the buttercup family (Ranunculaceae). It is native to eastern North America from the extreme south of Ontario to central Georgia, and west to Missouri and Arkansas. Black cohosh grows in a variety of woodland habitats, and is often found in small woodland openings. The roots and rhizomes of black cohosh have long been used medicinally by Native Americans. Extracts from these plant materials are thought to possess analgesic, sedative, and anti-inflammatory properties. Today, black cohosh preparations (tinctures or tablets of dried materials) are used mainly to treat symptoms associated with menopause.

Blast

In cytology, a precursor cell, also called a blast cell or simply blast, is a type of partially differentiated, usually unipotent cell that has lost most or all of the stem cell multipotency.

Usually precursor cells are cells capable of differentiating into one or two closely related final forms. Sometimes precursor cell is used as an alternative term for multipotent stem cells.

Blast crisis

Chronic myelogenous (or myeloid) leukemia (CML), also known as chronic granulocytic leukemia (CGL), is a cancer of the white blood cells. It is a form of leukemia characterized by the increased and unregulated growth of predominantly myeloid cells in the bone marrow and the accumulation of these cells in the blood. CML is a clonal bone marrow stem cell disorder in which proliferation of mature granulocytes (neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils) and their precursors is the main finding. It is a type of myeloproliferative disease associated with a characteristic chromosomal translocation called the Philadelphia chromosome. It is now treated with one of several targeted therapies including imatinib, dasatinib, and nilotinib, which have dramatically improved survival to nearly 90% due to the advent of these targeted therapies.

Bleomycin

Bleomycin is a glycopeptide antibiotic produced by the bacterium Streptomyces verticillus. Bleomycin refers to a family of structurally related compounds. When used as an anticancer agent, the chemotherapeutical forms are primarily bleomycin A2 and B2. It works by causing breaks in DNA. The drug is used in the treatment of Hodgkin's lymphoma (as a component of the ABVD regimen), squamous cell carcinomas, and testicular cancer, as well as in the treatment of plantar warts and as a means of effecting pleurodesis.

Blessed thistle

Cnicus benedictus (St. Benedict's thistle, blessed thistle, holy thistle or spotted thistle), was the sole species in the genus Cnicus, but has been reclassified as Centaurea benedicta. (Note, this is not the same as milk thistle.)

Blinded study

A blind or blinded experiment is a scientific experiment where some of the persons involved are prevented from knowing certain information that might lead to conscious or unconscious bias on their part, invalidating the results.

Blood cell count

A complete blood count (CBC), also known as full blood count (FBC) or full blood exam (FBE) or blood panel, is a test panel requested by a doctor or other medical professional that gives information about the cells in a patient's blood. A scientist or lab technician performs the requested testing and provides the requesting medical professional with the results of the CBC.

Blood chemistry study

A basic metabolic panel (BMP) is a set of seven or eight blood chemical tests. It is one of the most common lab tests ordered by health care providers. It provides key information that has a variety of applications in guiding the medical management of a patient. For example, values can be used to assess and monitor a patient's fluid and electrolyte status, kidney function, blood sugar levels, and response to various medications and other medical therapies. It is also frequently employed as a screening tool to look for problems that might need to be addressed, as many disease processes can cause a derangement in the blood serum levels of basic metabolites.

Blood thinner

An anticoagulant is a substance that prevents coagulation; that is, it stops blood from clotting. A group of pharmaceuticals called anticoagulants can be used in vivo as a medication for thrombotic disorders. Some chemical compounds are used in medical equipment, such as test tubes, blood transfusion bags, and renal dialysis equipment.

Blood transfusion

Blood transfusion is the process of receiving blood products into one's circulation intravenously. Transfusions are used in a variety of medical conditions to replace lost components of the blood. Early transfusions used whole blood, but modern medical practice commonly uses only components of the blood, such as red blood cells, white blood cells, plasma, clotting factors, and platelets.

Blood-brain barrier

The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a separation of circulating blood and the brain extracellular fluid (BECF) in the central nervous system (CNS). It occurs along all capillaries and consists of tight junctions around the capillaries that do not exist in normal circulation. Endothelial cells restrict the diffusion of microscopic objects (e.g. bacteria) and large or hydrophilic molecules into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), while allowing the diffusion of small hydrophobic molecules (O2, hormones, CO2). Cells of the barrier actively transport metabolic products such as glucose across the barrier with specific proteins. This barrier also includes a thick basement membrane and astrocytic endfeet.

BMS-182751

Satraplatin (INN, codenamed JM216) is a platinum compound that is currently under investigation as one treatment of patients with advanced prostate cancer who have failed previous chemotherapy. It has not yet received approval from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. First mentioned in the medical literature in 1993, satraplatin is the first orally active platinum-based chemotherapeutic drug; other available platinum analogues—cisplatin, carboplatin, and oxaliplatin—must be given intravenously.

BMS-247550

Ixabepilone (INN; also known as azaepothilone B, codenamed BMS-247550) is an epothilone B analog developed by Bristol-Myers Squibb as a cancer drug.

BMS-354825

Dasatinib, previously known as BMS-354825, is a cancer drug produced by Bristol-Myers Squibb and sold under the trade name Sprycel. Dasatinib is an oral multi- BCR/ABL and Src family tyrosine kinase inhibitor approved for use in patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) after imatinib treatment and Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph+ ALL). It is being evaluated for use in numerous other cancers, including advanced prostate cancer.

Bolus (medicine)

In medicine, a bolus (from Latin bolus, ball) is the administration of a medication, drug or other compound that is given to raise its concentration in blood to an effective level. The administration can be given intravenously, by intramuscular, intrathecal or subcutaneous injection.

Bolus infusion

In medicine, a bolus (from Latin bolus, ball) is the administration of a medication, drug or other compound that is given to raise its concentration in blood to an effective level. The administration can be given intravenously, by intramuscular, intrathecal or subcutaneous injection.

Bone marrow

Bone Marrow is the flexible tissue found in the interior of bones. In humans, marrow in large bones produces new blood cells. It constitutes 4% of the total body weight of humans, i.e. approximately 2.6 kg (5.7 lbs.) in adults. Bone marrow also prevents the backflow of lymph, working as a vital part of the lymphatic system.

Bone marrow aspiration/biopsy

Bone marrow examination refers to the pathologic analysis of samples of bone marrow obtained by bone marrow biopsy (often called a trephine biopsy) and bone marrow aspiration. Bone marrow examination is used in the diagnosis of a number of conditions, including leukemia, multiple myeloma, lymphoma, anemia, and pancytopenia. The bone marrow produces the cellular elements of the blood, including platelets, red blood cells and white blood cells. While much information can be gleaned by testing the blood itself (drawn from a vein by phlebotomy), it is sometimes necessary to examine the source of the blood cells in the bone marrow to obtain more information on hematopoiesis; this is the role of bone marrow aspiration and biopsy.

Bone marrow transplantation

Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the transplantation of multipotent hematopoietic stem cell or blood, often derived from bone marrow, umbilical cord blood or hemopoietic stem cells derived from a placenta. Stem cell transplantation is a medical procedure in the fields of hematology and oncology, most often performed for people with diseases of the blood, bone marrow, or certain cancer.

Bone metastases

Bone metastases, or cancer metastases to the bone, are a major clinical concern that can cause severe pain, bone fractures, spinal cord compression, hypercalcemia, and rapid degradation in the quality of life for patients. The bone microenvironment, and the ECM in particular, play a major role in the preferential metastasis to bone by certain cancers, mainly prostate and breast cancer. Types of cancer that most commonly metastasize to bone include prostate, breast, and lung cancers, although all types of cancer are capable of doing so.

Bone scan

A Bone scan or bone scintigraphy is a nuclear scanning test to find certain abnormalities in bone which are triggering the bone's attempts to heal. It is primarily used to help diagnose a number of conditions relating to bones, including: cancer of the bone or cancers that have spread (metastasized) to the bone, locating some sources of bone inflammation (e.g. bone pain such as lower back pain due to a fracture), the diagnosis of fractures that may not be visible in traditional X-ray images, and the detection of damage to bones due to certain infections and other problems.

Bone-seeking radioisotope

A bone-seeking radioisotope is a radioactive substance that is given through a vein, and collects in bone cells and in tumor cells that have spread to the bone. It kills cancer cells by giving off low-level radiation.

Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is an experimental form of radiotherapy that uses a neutron beam that interacts with boron injected into a patient. BNCT depends on the interaction of slow neutrons with boron-10 to produce alpha particles and lithium nuclei, without producing other types of ionizing radiation.

Bortezomib

Bortezomib (INN, originally codenamed PS-341; marketed as Velcade by Millennium Pharmaceuticals) is the first therapeutic proteasome inhibitor to be tested in humans. It is approved in the U.S. for treating relapsed multiple myeloma and mantle cell lymphoma. In multiple myeloma, complete clinical responses have been obtained in patients with otherwise refractory or rapidly advancing disease.

Bowen's disease

Bowen's disease (BD) (also known as "squamous cell carcinoma in situ") is a neoplastic skin disease, it can be considered as an early stage or intraepidermal form of squamous cell carcinoma. It was named after Dr John T. Bowen, the doctor who first described it in 1912. Erythroplasia of Queyrat is a form of squamous cell carcinoma in situ arising on the glans or prepuce, possibly induced by HPV.

Brachial plexopathy

The brachial plexus is a network of nerves that conducts signals from the spinal cord, which is housed in the spinal canal of the vertebral column (or spine), to the shoulder, arm and hand. These nerves originate in the fifth, sixth, seventh and eighth cervical (C5-C8), and first thoracic (T1) spinal nerves, and innervate the muscles and skin of the chest, shoulder, arm and hand. Brachial plexus injuries, or lesions, are caused by damage to those nerves.

Brachial plexus

The brachial plexus is an arrangement of nerve fibers, running from the spine, formed by the ventral rami of the lower four cervical and first thoracic nerve roots (C5-T1). It proceeds through the neck, the axilla (armpit region), and into the arm.

Brachytherapy

Brachytherapy (from the Greek word brachys, meaning "short-distance"), also known as internal radiotherapy, sealed source radiotherapy, curietherapy or endocurietherapy, is a form of radiotherapy where a radiation source is placed inside or next to the area requiring treatment. Brachytherapy is commonly used as an effective treatment for cervical, prostate, breast, and skin cancer and can also be used to treat tumours in many other body sites. Brachytherapy can be used alone or in combination with other therapies such as surgery, External Beam Radiotherapy (EBRT) and chemotherapy.

Brain metastasis

A brain metastasis is a cancer that has metastasized (spread) to the brain from another location in the body. Brain metastases are the most common cause of intracranial mass lesions, and up to 45% of cancer patients eventually develop brain metastases during the course of their illness, with 98,000 to 170,000 new cases diagnosed each year in the US. As primary cancer treatments such as surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy have become more effective in the past few decades, people with cancer are living longer after initial treatment than ever before.

Brainstem glioma

A brainstem glioma is a cancerous glioma tumor in the brainstem. They are most often found in children under the age of twenty (75% of the time), but have been known to affect adults as well. Brainstem gliomas start in the brain or spinal cord tissue and typically spread throughout the nervous system. Brainstem gliomas are often primary brain tumors, and rarely metastasize, or spread, to affect another part of the body.

Brain stem tumor

A brain stem tumor is a tumor in the part of the brain that connects to the spinal cord (the brain stem).

BRCA1

BRCA1 is a human tumor suppressor gene that produces a protein called breast cancer type 1 susceptibility protein. It originally stood for Berkeley, California, as the first evidence for the existence of the gene was provided by the King laboratory at UC Berkeley in 1990. The gene was later cloned in 1994 by scientists at Myriad Genetics.

BRCA2

BRCA2 (Breast Cancer 2 susceptibility protein) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BRCA2 gene. BRCA2 orthologs have been identified in most mammals for which complete genome data are available. BRCA2 belongs to the tumor suppressor gene family and the protein encoded by this gene is involved in the repair of chromosomal damage with an important role in the error-free repair of DNA double strand breaks.

Breakthrough pain

Breakthrough pain is pain that comes on suddenly for short periods of time and is not alleviated by the patients' normal pain suppression management. It is common in cancer patients who commonly have a background level of pain controlled by medications, but the pain periodically "breaks through" the medication. The characteristics of breakthrough cancer pain vary from person to person, including the duration and possible causes.

Breast duct endoscopy

Breast duct endoscopy is a method used to examine the lining of the lactiferous ducts to look for abnormal tissue. A very thin, flexible, lighted tube attached to a camera is inserted through the nipple, and threaded into the breast ducts deep in the breast. Tissue and fluid samples may be removed during the procedure.

Breast implant

In mammoplastic surgery, a breast implant is a prosthesis used to alter the size and the shape of a woman's breasts in breast reconstruction after mastectomy; for correcting congenital chest wall deformities; for aesthetic enhancement; and as an aspect of male-to-female gender transition surgery. There are three types of breast implant device: saline, silicone, and composite. The saline implant has an elastomer silicone shell filled with sterile saline solution, the silicone implant has an elastomer silicone shell filled with viscous silicone gel, and the alternative composition implants featured miscellaneous fillers such as soy oil and polypropylene string, et cetera. The pectoral implant is the male breast implant device used in reconstructive and cosmetic surgery for a man's chest wall, (see mastopexy). In mammoplastic surgical praxis, the breast tissue expander implant is a temporary breast-implant device used in staged breast reconstruction.

Breast reconstruction

Breast reconstruction is the rebuilding of a breast, usually in women. It involves using autologous tissue or prosthetic material to construct a natural-looking breast. Often this includes the reformation of a natural-looking areola and nipple. This procedure involves the use of implants or relocated flaps of the patient's own tissue.

Breast self-exam

Breast self-examination (BSE) is a screening method used in an attempt to detect early breast cancer. The method involves the woman herself looking at and feeling each breast for possible lumps, distortions or swelling. BSE was once promoted heavily as a means of finding cancer at a more curable stage, but large randomized controlled studies found that it was not effective in preventing death, and actually caused harm through needless biopsies and surgery.

Breast-conserving surgery

Breast-conserving surgery is a less radical cancer surgery than mastectomy. Breast-conserving surgery, as in a lumpectomy removes part of the breast tissue during surgery, as opposed to the entire breast.

Breast-sparing surgery/Brief Pain Inventory

Breast-conserving surgery is a less radical cancer surgery than mastectomy. Breast-conserving surgery, as in a lumpectomy removes part of the breast tissue during surgery, as opposed to the entire breast.

BRIP1

Fanconi anemia group J protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BRCA1-interacting protein 1 (BRIP1) gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the RecQ DEAH helicase family and interacts with the BRCT repeats of breast cancer, type 1 (BRCA1). The bound complex is important in the normal double-strand break repair function of breast cancer, type 1 (BRCA1). This gene may be a target of germline cancer-inducing mutations.

Brivudine

Brivudine is an antiviral drug used in the treatment of herpes zoster.

BRM

British Racing Motors (generally known as BRM) was a British Formula One motor racing team. Founded in 1945, it raced from 1950 to 1977, competing in 197 Grands Prix and winning 17. In 1962, BRM won the Constructors' Title. At the same time, its driver, Graham Hill became World Champion. In 1963, 1964, 1965 and 1971, BRM came second in the Constructors' Competition.

Bromelain

Bromelain can refer to one of two protease enzymes extracted from the plant family Bromeliaceae, or it can refer to a combination of those enzymes along with other compounds produced in an extract.

Bronchiole

The bronchioles or bronchioli are the first airway branches that no longer contain cartilage. They are branches of the bronchi. The bronchioles terminate by entering the circular sacs called alveoli.

Bronchitis

Bronchitis is inflammation of the mucous membranes of the bronchi, the airways that carry airflow from the trachea into the lungs. Bronchitis can be divided into two categories, acute and chronic, each of which has unique etiologies, pathologies, and therapies.

Bronchoscope/Bronchoscopy

Bronchoscopy is a technique of visualizing the inside of the airways for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. An instrument (bronchoscope) is inserted into the airways, usually through the nose or mouth, or occasionally through a tracheostomy. This allows the practitioner to examine the patient's airways for abnormalities such as foreign bodies, bleeding, tumors, or inflammation. Specimens may be taken from inside the lungs. The construction of bronchoscopes ranges from rigid metal tubes with attached lighting devices to flexible optical fiber instruments with realtime video equipment.

Bronchus

A bronchus (plural bronchi, adjective bronchial) is a passage of airway in the respiratory tract that conducts air into the lungs. The bronchus branches into smaller tubes, which in turn become bronchioles. No gas exchange takes place in this part of the lungs.

Brostallicin

Brostallicin is a substance being studied in the treatment of cancer. It is a type of DNA intercalator.

Broxuridine

Bromodeoxyuridine (5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine, BrdU) is a synthetic nucleoside that is an analogue of thymidine. BrdU is commonly used in the detection of proliferating cells in living tissues.

BrdU can be incorporated into the newly synthesized DNA of replicating cells (during the S phase of the cell cycle), substituting for thymidine during DNA replication. Antibodies specific for BrdU can then be used to detect the incorporated chemical (see immunohistochemistry), thus indicating cells that were actively replicating their DNA. Binding of the antibody requires denaturation of the DNA, usually by exposing the cells to acid or heat.

Bryostatin 1

Bryostatins are a group of macrolide lactones first isolated in the 1960s by George Pettit from extracts of a species of bryozoan, Bugula neritina. The structure of bryostatin 1 was determined in 1982. Until today 20 different bryostatins have been isolated. Bryostatins are a potent modulators of protein kinase C. They are currently under investigation as anti-cancer agents and as a memory enhancing agent.

Buccal mucosa

The oral mucosa is the mucous membrane epithelium of the mouth.

Budesonide

Budesonide is a glucocorticoid steroid for the treatment of asthma and non-infectious rhinitis (including hay fever and other allergies), and for treatment and prevention of nasal polyposis. In addition, it is used for Crohn's disease (inflammatory bowel disease).

Bupropion

Bupropion (also known as Wellbutrin, Zyban, Voxra, Budeprion, or Aplenzin; formerly known as amfebutamone) is an atypical antidepressant and smoking cessation aid. The drug is a non-tricyclic antidepressant that differs from most commonly prescribed ones (SSRIs), as its primary pharmacological action is norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibition. It binds selectively to the dopamine transporter, but its behavioural effects have often been attributed to its inhibition of norepinephrine reuptake. It also acts as a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist. Bupropion belongs to the chemical class of aminoketones and is similar in structure to stimulants cathinone and diethylpropion, and to phenethylamines in general.

Burdock

Burdock is any of a group of biennial thistles in the genus Arctium, family Asteraceae. Native to the Old World, several species have been widely introduced worldwide.

Plants of the genus Arctium have dark green leaves that can grow up to 28" (71 cm) long. They are generally large, coarse and ovate, with the lower ones being heart-shaped. They are woolly underneath. The leafstalks are generally hollow. Arctium species generally flower from July through to October.

Burkitt's lymphoma/leukemia

Burkitt's lymphoma (or "Burkitt's tumor", Burkitt lymphoma or "malignant lymphoma, Burkitt's type") is a cancer of the lymphatic system (in particular, B lymphocytes). It is named after Denis Parsons Burkitt, a surgeon who first described the disease in 1956 while working in equatorial Africa.

Burr hole

Trepanning, also known as trephination, trephining or making a burr hole, is a medical intervention in which a hole is drilled or scraped into the human skull, exposing the dura mater in order to treat health problems related to intracranial diseases. It may also refer to any "burr" hole created through other body surfaces, including nail beds. It is often used to relieve pressure beneath a surface. A trephine is an instrument used for cutting out a round piece of skull bone.

Buserelin

Buserelin is a Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH agonist). By causing constant stimulation of the pituitary, it decreases pituitary secretion of gonadotropins luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). Like other GnRH agonists, buserelin may be used in the treatment of hormone-responsive cancers such as prostate cancer or breast cancer, estrogen-dependent conditions (such as endometriosis or uterine fibroids), and in assisted reproduction.

Buspirone

Buspirone (trademark name BuSpar) is a psychoactive drug and pharmaceutical medication of the piperazine and azapirone chemical classes. It is used primarily as an anxiolytic, specifically for generalized anxiety disorder. Bristol-Myers Squibb (BMS) gained Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval for buspirone in 1986 for generalized anxiety disorder only, and it became available as a generic in 2001.

Busulfan

Busulfan (Myleran, GlaxoSmithKline, Busulfex IV, PDL BioPharma, Inc.) is a cancer drug, in use since 1959. Busulfan is a cell cycle non-specific alkylating antineoplastic agent, in the class of alkyl sulfonates. Its chemical designation is 1,4-butanediol dimethanesulfonate.

Buthionine sulfoximine

Buthionine sulfoximine is a sulfoximine used in chemotherapy which reduces levels of glutathione. The compound inhibits gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase, the enzyme required in the first step of glutathione synthesis. Buthionine sulfoximine may also be used to increase the sensitivity of parasites to oxidative antiparasitic drugs.

 

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Published - April 2011







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