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Oncology-related Terms Glossary
(Starting with "O")

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_oncology-related_terms




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Oblimersen

Oblimersen (INN, trade name Genasense; also known as Augmerosen and bcl-2 antisense oligodeoxynucleotide G3139) is an antisense oligodeoxyribonucleotide being studied as a possible treatment for several types of cancer, including chronic lymphocytic leukemia, B-cell lymphoma, and breast cancer. It may kill cancer cells by blocking the production of Bcl-2—a protein that makes cancer cells live longer—and by making them more sensitive to chemotherapy.

Obtundation

Obtundation refers to less than full mental capacity in a medical patient, typically as a result of a medical condition or trauma. The root word, obtund, means "dulled or less sharp".

Octreotide

Octreotide (brand names Sandostatin, Novartis Pharmaceuticals, and Octreo, New Medicon Pharma) is an octapeptide that mimics natural somatostatin pharmacologically, though it is a more potent inhibitor of growth hormone, glucagon, and insulin than the natural hormone. It was first synthesized in 1979 by the chemist Wilfried Bauer.

Ocular melanoma

Uveal melanoma is a cancer (melanoma) of the eye involving the iris, ciliary body, or choroid (collectively referred to as the uvea). Tumors arise from the pigment cells (melanocytes) that reside within the uvea giving color to the eye. These melanocytes are distinct from the Retinal pigment epithelium cells underlying the retina that do not form melanomas.

Ofloxacin

Ofloxacin is a synthetic chemotherapeutic antibiotic of the fluoroquinolone drug class considered to be a second-generation fluoroquinolone. The original brand, Floxin, has been discontinued by the manufacturer in the United States on 18 June 2009, though generic equivalents continue to be available.

Ofloxacin is a racemic mixture, which consists of 50% levofloxacin (the biologically active component) and 50% of its "mirror image" or enantiomer dextrofloxacin. When levofloxacin disks were not available in early clinical trials, a 5-pg ofloxacin disk was substituted. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) medical reviewers considered the two drugs to be one and the same and hence interchangeable.

Oblimersen

Oblimersen (INN, trade name Genasense; also known as Augmerosen and bcl-2 antisense oligodeoxynucleotide G3139) is an antisense oligodeoxyribonucleotide being studied as a possible treatment for several types of cancer, including chronic lymphocytic leukemia, B-cell lymphoma, and breast cancer. It may kill cancer cells by blocking the production of Bcl-2—a protein that makes cancer cells live longer—and by making them more sensitive to chemotherapy.

Oligoastrocytoma

Oligoastrocytomas are a subset of brain tumor that present with an appearance of mixed glial cell origin, astrocytoma and oligodendroglioma. Often called a "mixed glioma", about 2.3% of all reported brain tumors are diagnosed as oligoastrocytoma. The median age of diagnosis is 42 years of age. Oligoastrocytomas, like astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas, can be divided into low-grade and anaplastic variant, the latter characterized by high cellularity, conspicuous cytologic atypism, mitotic activity and, in some cases, microvascular proliferation and necrosis.

Oligodendroglioma/Oligodendroglial tumor

Oligodendrogliomas are a type of glioma that are believed to originate from the oligodendrocytes of the brain or from a glial precursor cell. They occur primarily in adults (9.4% of all primary brain and central nervous system tumors) but are also found in children (4% of all primary brain tumors). The average age at diagnosis is 35 years.

Oltipraz

Oltipraz is a schistosomicide.

A schistosomicide is a drug used to combat schistosomiasis.

Omega-3 fatty acid

n−3 fatty acids (popularly referred to as ω−3 fatty acids or omega-3 fatty acids) are a family of essential unsaturated fatty acids that have in common a final carbon–carbon double bond in the n−3 position; that is, the third bond from the methyl end of the fatty acid.

Nutritionally important n−3 fatty acids include α-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), all of which are polyunsaturated. The human body cannot synthesize n−3 fatty acids de novo, but it can form "long chain" 20-carbon n−3 fatty acids (like EPA) and 22-carbon n−3 fatty acids (like DHA) from the "short chain" eighteen-carbon n−3 fatty acid α-linolenic acid. The short chain n−3 fatty acids are converted to long chain forms (EPA, DHA) with an efficiency of approximately 5% in men, and at a greater percentage in women.

Omentectomy

The greater omentum (also the great omentum, omentum majus, gastrocolic omentum, epiploön, or, especially in animals, caul) is a large fold of parietal peritoneum that hangs down from the stomach. It extends from the greater curvature of the stomach, passing in front of the small intestines and reflects on itself to ascend to the transverse colon before reaching to the posterior abdominal wall. The common anatomical term "epiploic" derives from "epiploon" from the Greek "epipleein" meaning to float or sail on, since the greater omentum appears to float on the surface of the intestines.

Omentum

The greater omentum (also the great omentum, omentum majus, gastrocolic omentum, epiploön, or, especially in animals, caul) is a large fold of parietal peritoneum that hangs down from the stomach. It extends from the greater curvature of the stomach, passing in front of the small intestines and reflects on itself to ascend to the transverse colon before reaching to the posterior abdominal wall. The common anatomical term "epiploic" derives from "epiploon" from the Greek "epipleein" meaning to float or sail on, since the greater omentum appears to float on the surface of the intestines.

The lesser omentum (small omentum; gastrohepatic omentum) is the double layer of peritoneum that extends from the liver to the lesser curvature of the stomach and the start of the duodenum.

Omeprazole

Omeprazole is a proton pump inhibitor used in the treatment of dyspepsia, peptic ulcer disease (PUD), gastroesophageal reflux disease (GORD/GERD), laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) and Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. Omeprazole is one of the most widely prescribed drugs internationally and is available over the counter in some countries.

Ommaya reservoir

An Ommaya reservoir is an intraventricular catheter system that can be used for the aspiration of cerebrospinal fluid or for the delivery of drugs (e.g. chemotherapy) into the cerebrospinal fluid. It consists of a catheter in one lateral ventricle attached to a reservoir implanted under the scalp. It is used to treat brain tumors or leptomeningeal disease by intrathecal drug administration. In the palliative care of terminal cancer, an Ommaya reservoir can be inserted for intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of morphine.

Oncogene

An oncogene is a gene that has the potential to cause cancer. In tumour cells, they are often mutated or expressed at high levels.

Many abnormal cells normally undergo a programmed form of death (apoptosis). Activated oncogenes can cause those cells to survive and proliferate instead. Most oncogenes require an additional step, such as mutations in another gene, or environmental factors, such as viral infection, to cause cancer. Since the 1970s, dozens of oncogenes have been identified in human cancer. Many cancer drugs target those DNA sequences and their products.

Oncologist/Oncology

Oncology (from the Ancient Greek onkos (ὄγκος), meaning bulk, mass, or tumor, and the suffix -logy (-λογία), meaning "study of") is a branch of medicine that deals with tumors (cancer). A medical professional who practices oncology is an oncologist.

Oncology nurse

An oncology nurse is a specialized nurse who cares for cancer patients.

Oncolytic/Oncolytic virus

An oncolytic virus is a virus that preferentially infects and lyses cancer cells; these have obvious functions for cancer therapy, both by direct destruction of the tumour cells, and, if modified, as vectors enabling genes expressing anticancer proteins to be delivered specifically to the tumor site.

Onconase

Ranpirnase is a ribonuclease enzyme found in Northern Leopard Frog (Rana pipiens) oocytes. It is being studied in the treatment of cancer, specifically mesothelioma. It is manufactured by Tamir Biotechnology, Inc. (formerly Alfacell Corporation) of Monmouth Junction, NJ and known by the ONCONASE trademark. ONCONASE is currently in a Phase II trial.

Ondansetron

Ondansetron HCl (INN) (developed and first marketed by GlaxoSmithKline as Zofran) is a serotonin 5-HT3 receptor antagonist used mainly as an antiemetic to treat nausea and vomiting, often following chemotherapy. Its effects are thought to be on both peripheral and central nerves. Ondansetron reduces the activity of the vagus nerve, which deactivates the vomiting center in the medulla oblongata, and also blocks serotonin receptors in the chemoreceptor trigger zone. It has little effect on vomiting caused by motion sickness, and does not have any effect on dopamine receptors or muscarinic receptors.

ONYX-015

Onyx-015 is an experimental oncolytic virus created by genetically engineering an adenovirus. It has been trialed as a possible treatment for cancer. The E1B-55kDa gene has been deleted allowing the virus to selectively replicate in and lyse p53-deficient cancer cells.

Oophorectomy

Oophorectomy is the surgical removal of an ovary or ovaries. The surgery is also called ovariectomy, but this term has been traditionally used in basic science research describing the surgical removal of ovaries in laboratory animals. Removal of the ovaries in women is the biological equivalent of castration in males; however, the term castration is only occasionally used in the medical literature to refer to oophorectomy in humans. In the veterinary sciences, the complete removal of the ovaries, oviducts, uterine horns, and the uterus is called spaying and is a form of sterilization.

Open biopsy

An open biopsy is a procedure in which a surgical incision (cut) is made through the skin to expose and remove tissues. The biopsy tissue is examined under a microscope by a pathologist. An open biopsy may be done in the doctor's office or in the hospital, and may use local anesthesia or general anesthesia. A lumpectomy to remove a breast tumor is a type of open biopsy.

Open label study

An open-label trial or open trial is a type of clinical trial in which both the researchers and participants know which treatment is being administered. This contrasts with single blind and double blind experimental designs, where participants are not aware of what treatment they are receiving (researchers are also unaware in a double blind trial).

Opioid

An opioid is a chemical that works by binding to opioid receptors, which are found principally in the central and peripheral nervous system and the gastrointestinal tract. The receptors in these organ systems mediate both the beneficial effects and the side effects of opioids.

Opportunistic infection

An opportunistic infection is an infection caused by pathogens (bacterial, viral, fungal or protozoan) that usually do not cause disease in a healthy host, i.e. one with a healthy immune system. A compromised immune system, however, presents an "opportunity" for the pathogen to infect.

Oral and maxillofacial surgeon

Oral and maxillofacial surgery is surgery to correct a wide spectrum of diseases, injuries and defects in the head, neck, face, jaws and the hard and soft tissues of the oral and maxillofacial region. It is a recognized international surgical specialty and it is one of the nine specialties of dentistry.

Orchidectomy

Inguinal orchiectomy (also spelled orchidectomy) is a surgical procedure to remove a testicle and the full spermatic cord through an incision in the abdomen. The procedure is generally performed by a urologist. Often it is performed as same-day surgery, with the patient returning home within hours of the procedure. Some patients elect to have a prosthetic testicle inserted into their scrotum.

Inguinal orchiectomy

Inguinal orchiectomy (also spelled orchidectomy) is a surgical procedure to remove a testicle and the full spermatic cord through an incision in the abdomen. The procedure is generally performed by a urologist. Often it is performed as same-day surgery, with the patient returning home within hours of the procedure. Some patients elect to have a prosthetic testicle inserted into their scrotum.

Oropharynx

The human pharynx (plural: pharynges) is the part of the throat situated immediately posterior to (behind) the mouth and nasal cavity, and cranial, or superior, to the esophagus, larynx, and trachea. The human pharynx is conventionally divided into three sections: the nasopharynx (epipharynx), the oropharynx (mesopharynx), and the laryngopharynx (hypopharynx). The pharynx is part of the digestive system and also the respiratory system; it is also important in vocalization.

OSI-7904L

OSI-7904L is a novel noncompetitive liposomal thymidylate synthase inhibitor. Its effect on solid tumours is currently under evaluation

Osmolality

Osmolarity is the measure of solute concentration, defined as the number of osmoles (Osm) of solute per liter (L) of solution (osmol/L or Osm/L). The osmolarity of a solution is usually expressed as Osm/L (pronounced "osmolar"), in the same way that the molarity of a solution is expressed as "M" (pronounced "molar"). Whereas molarity measures the number of moles of solute per unit volume of solution, osmolarity measures the number of osmoles of solute particles per unit volume of solution.

Osteitis deformans

Paget's disease of the bone (other terms are Paget's disease, osteitis deformans, osteodystrophia deformans) is a chronic disorder that typically results in enlarged and deformed bones. The disease is named after Sir James Paget, the British surgeon who first described it in 1877. This paper appeared in the Transactions of the Medical and Surgical Society of London without illustrations; a plate showing his first patient is on display in the pathology museum at St. Bartholomew's Hospital in London. The original article and the illustration have been reunited, together with a modern commentary on Paget's disease, and can be read on-line. The excessive breakdown and formation of bone tissue that occurs with Paget's disease can cause bone to weaken, resulting in bone pain, arthritis, deformities, and fractures.

Osteogenic sarcoma

Osteosarcoma is an aggressive cancerous neoplasm arising from primitive transformed cells of mesenchymal origin that exhibit osteoblastic differentiation and produce malignant osteoid. It is the most common histological form of primary bone cancer.

Osteolytic

Osteolysis refers to an active resorption of bone matrix by osteoclasts as part of an ongoing disease process.

Osteoporosis

Osteoporosis is a disease of bones that leads to an increased risk of fracture. In osteoporosis the bone mineral density (BMD) is reduced, bone microarchitecture is deteriorating, and the amount and variety of proteins in bone is altered. Osteoporosis is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as a bone mineral density that is 2.5 standard deviations or more below the mean peak bone mass (average of young, healthy adults) as measured by DXA; the term "established osteoporosis" includes the presence of a fragility fracture. The disease may be classified as primary type 1, primary type 2, or secondary. The form of osteoporosis most common in women after menopause is referred to as primary type 1 or postmenopausal osteoporosis. Primary type 2 osteoporosis or senile osteoporosis occurs after age 75 and is seen in both females and males at a ratio of 2:1. Finally, secondary osteoporosis may arise at any age and affects men and women equally. This form of osteoporosis results from chronic predisposing medical problems or disease, or prolonged use of medications such as glucocorticoids, when the disease is called steroid- or glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (SIOP or GIOP). Because it can greatly increase the risk of fragility fracture, osteoporosis may significantly affect life expectancy and quality of life.

Osteosarcoma

Osteosarcoma is an aggressive cancerous neoplasm arising from primitive transformed cells of mesenchymal origin that exhibit osteoblastic differentiation and produce malignant osteoid. It is the most common histological form of primary bone cancer.

Ostomy

A stoma (Greek - pl. stomata) is an opening (a direct translation of the Koine Greek would be "mouth"), either natural or surgically created (artificial), which connects a portion of the body cavity to the outside environment. Surgical procedures in which stomata are created are ended in the suffix '-ostomy' and begin with a prefix denoting the organ or area being operated on.

Ovarian epithelial cancer

Ovarian cancer is a cancerous growth arising from different parts of the ovary.

Most (>90%) ovarian cancers are classified as "epithelial" and were believed to arise from the surface (epithelium) of the ovary. However, recent evidence suggests that the Fallopian tube could also be the source of some ovarian cancers. Since the ovaries and tubes are closely related to each other, it is hypothesized that these cells can mimic ovarian cancer. Other types arise from the egg cells (germ cell tumor) or supporting cells (sex cord/stromal).

Overexpress

Gene expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product. These products are often proteins, but in non-protein coding genes such as ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes or transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, the product is a functional RNA. The process of gene expression is used by all known life - eukaryotes (including multicellular organisms), prokaryotes (bacteria and archaea) and viruses - to generate the macromolecular machinery for life. Several steps in the gene expression process may be modulated, including the transcription, RNA splicing, translation, and post-translational modification of a protein. Gene regulation gives the cell control over structure and function, and is the basis for cellular differentiation, morphogenesis and the versatility and adaptability of any organism. Gene regulation may also serve as a substrate for evolutionary change, since control of the timing, location, and amount of gene expression can have a profound effect on the functions (actions) of the gene in a cell or in a multicellular organism.

Overgrowth syndrome

Overgrowth syndrome is a group of genetic disorders in which there is an abnormal increase in the size of the body or a body part that is often noted at birth. Examples of overgrowth syndromes include neurofibromatosis, Sotos syndrome, Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome, Weaver syndrome, Proteus syndrome, Sturge–Weber syndrome, and fragile X syndrome. Many of these syndromes increase the risk of cancer.

Oxaliplatin

Oxaliplatin is a coordination complex that is used in cancer chemotherapy. These platinum-based drugs are usually classified as alkylating agents, although they are not actually alkylating groups (they function by a similar mechanism).

Oxandrolone

Oxandrolone (Oxandrin) is a drug created by Raphael Pappo while at Searle Laboratories, now Pfizer Inc. under the trademark Anavar, and introduced into the US in 1964.

Oxandrolone is a synthetic anabolic steroid derived from dihydrotestosterone by substituting 2nd carbon atom for oxygen (O). It is widely known for its exceptionally small level of androgenicity accompanied by moderate anabolic effect. Although oxandrolone is a 17-alpha alkylated steroid, its liver toxicity is very small as well. Studies have showed that a daily dose of 20 mg oxandrolone used in the course of 12 weeks had only a negligible impact on the increase of liver enzymes. As a DHT derivative, oxandrolone does not aromatize (convert to estrogen, which causes gynecomastia or male breast tissue). It also does not significantly influence the body's normal testosterone production (HPTA axis) at low dosages (10 mg). When dosages are high, the human body reacts by reducing the production of LH (luteinizing hormone), thinking endogenous testosterone production is too high; this in turn eliminates further stimulation of Leydig cells in the testicles, causing testicular atrophy (shrinking). Oxandrolone used in a dose of 80 mg/day suppressed endogenous testosterone by 67% after 12 weeks of therapy.

Oxidative metabolism

Cellular respiration is the set of the metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and then release waste products. The reactions involved in respiration are catabolic reactions that involve the redox reaction (oxidation of one molecule and the reduction of another). Respiration is one of the key ways a cell gains useful energy to fuel cellular reformations.

Oxidative stress

Oxidative stress represents an imbalance between the production and manifestation of reactive oxygen species and a biological system's ability to readily detoxify the reactive intermediates or to repair the resulting damage. Disturbances in the normal redox state of tissues can cause toxic effects through the production of peroxides and free radicals that damage all components of the cell, including proteins, lipids, and DNA. Some reactive oxidative species can even act as messengers through a phenomenon called redox signaling.

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Published - April 2011







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