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Articles for Translators and Translation Companies
Translation Theory




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Translation Shifts in English and Arabic
Translation is, in practical terms, an ongoing practice that never reaches completion or perfection, contrary to the popular saying "practice makes perfect". In fact, the more one practices translation, the more one realizes that translation is an open-ended learning process which always reveals new tricks of the trade, unlike probably many practical fields…
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Strategies of Translating Metaphors in Foreign Movies employed by Iranian Subtitlers
The purpose of the present thesis was to investigate the approaches and strategies employed by Iranian subtitlers in the translation of metaphors into Persian. The material gathered for this purpose consisted of six subtitled films. The films were selected among those originally produced in English and subtitled to Persian. In order to have a contrastive analysis of metaphors and their translations, the movies dialogues and their subtitles were contrasted…
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Translation on the Basis of Frequency: Compliment and Compliment Response
Compliments are a social phenomenon. In English, there are general rules of their usage, but because of a series of social factors, they vary according to the situation. They also consist of frequently occurring structures/words. In this article, compliments together with compliment responses are briefly discussed. Then, we will try to show that a structure/word that frequently occurs in the source language should be translated to a structure / word occurring with a fairly similar frequency in the target language…
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The Illusion of Transparency
The choices made by the translator during the process of translation are an essential part of producing an adequate target text. They constitute an essential factor in interlingual communication and, effectively, constitute the translator's voice. However, the search for transparent translations attempts to silence this voice and seems to be clearly linked to the subordinate role translation has traditionally had in the past…
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Who’s Listening/Reading?
The first job I ever had in the language business was interpreting a meeting between an American businessman and the management team of a French company in the mid-1970s. Things kicked off in a rather unpromising manner. The American came across as surly and uncooperative as the French chitchatted about all sorts of topics. After an unrewarding first few minutes, the French CEO, who was obviously trying to break the ice, told me “let our dear guest know that we will be having lunch in an excellent restaurant.”…
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The Transposition of Form
A derivative describes a work that is related to a previously existing original. We currently have two common types of derivatives: adaptation and translation. Adaptation uses the original as a rough template for a new text. Translation is more or less a direct copy of the original in a different language. Somewhere between these two types is transposition…
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A Typology of Derivatives: Translation, Transposition, Adaptation
What would The Nose be if Nikolai Gogol were an American writing in the twenty-first century?
Certainly we would see a different text: The content wouldn’t include a horse and carriage or cobblestone streets; the form, in all likelihood, would consist of shorter sentences with fewer clauses; the position of the narrator would move closer to the protagonist(s)...
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Is every bilingual a translator?
All over the world, translation has become a universal activity. Bilingualism as a concept is based On the field of psycholinguistics with different scholars having divergent views about its role in the theory of translation. What is translation activity? What is bilingualism? Is there any peculiar relationship between these two concepts? What are the specific functions of bilingualism in the general theory of translation?..
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The Art of Poetry and its Translation
According to Oxford English Dictionary poetry is “The art or work of poet”. Another depiction of it is given by John Ruskin in his “Lectures on Art” (1870), “What is poetry? The suggestion, by the imagination, of noble grounds for the noble emotions”. According to T. S. Eliot “Poetry is not a turning loose of emotion, but an escape from emotion; it is not the expression of personality, but an escape from personality”. Percy Bysshe Shelly describes poetry as the eternal truth...
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Translating Literary Prose: Problems and Solutions
This article deals with the problems in translating literary prose and reveals some pertinent solutions and also concentrates on the need to expand the perimeters of Translation Studies. The translation courses offered at many universities in Bangladesh and overseas treat the subject mostly as an outcome of Applied Linguistics...
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Towards an inclusive mould of translation and interpretation requisite competence
This piece of research will address the concept of requisite competence in translation and interpretation. Competence is a broad concept which signifies certain sorts of expertise and aptitude that language users (e.g. translators, interpreters, foreign language speakers/learners) in the general sense need to master. Professional translators and interpreters work within the realm of interlingual communication. Translation and interpretation share basic grounds (competences), thus, they intersect at some points and diverse in others...
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A comparative study of 9 reviews on Why Translation Matters
This paper makes an analysis of nine book reviews on Western Medias such as New York Review of Books, Sunday Times, The Smart Set”, Global & Mail, The Telegraph, Open Letter Monthly, National Post, Complete Review and The Australian in March and July 2010. The book in question is Why Translation Matters by Edith Grossman, one of the widely acclaimed Spanish translators in the West, whose translation of Don Quixote is both masterpiece and bestseller...
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A Taxonomy of Human Translation Styles
While the translation profession becomes increasingly technological, we are still far from understanding how humans actually translate and how they could be best supported by machines. In this paper we outline a method which helps to uncover characteristics of human translation processes. Based on the translators' activity data, we develop a taxonomy of translation styles. The taxonomy could serve to inform the development of advanced translation assistance tools and provide a basis for a felicitous and grounded integration of human machine interaction in translation...
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A Model of Translation Based on Proverbs and Their Metaphors: A Cognitive Descriptive Approach
This paper demonstrates that representation of translation by way of a model is possible. As a corpus, proverbs offer a vast and reliable source of previously translated metaphors, in this case, French to English. Proverbs and their metaphors constitute a sign with inherent components that include, but are not limited to, message, meaning(s), connotations, and syntactic structure, as well as information derived from sources such as the text or an individual's personal knowledge...
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Hybridity in Immigration Literature and Translated Literature
The main purpose of the present study was to detect and compare the signs of hybridity in immigration literature and translated literature. The research was designed to answer these questions ‘Are there any similarities between the literature produced in Persian and in English by immigrant writers and the literature translated into Persian, in terms of hybridity?’...
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Problem of Equivalence in Translating English Articles into Tamil
The art of translation has had a very long history. It is almost as old as written literature. It has been shown that fragmentary versions of the Sumerian Gilgamesh epic have been founded in four or five Asiatic languages of the 2-nd millennium B.C. Even in China about 781, according to the Nestorian inscription of singantu, 27 books of Jesus were known, probably as translations...
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Translation of Proper Names
“Proper names are never translated” seems to be a rule deeply rooted in many people’s minds. Yet looking at translated texts we find that translators do all sorts of things with proper names: non-translation, non-translation that leads to a different pronunciation in the target language, transcription or transliteration from non-Latin alphabets, morphological adaptation to the target language, cultural adaptation, substitution, and so on. It is interesting to note, moreover, that translators do not always use the same techniques with all the proper names of a particular text they are translating...
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What Is to Be Considered as A Unit of Translation?
Being one of the fundamental concepts always argued about in the realm of translation, the unit of translation (UT) has been given various definitions by different theorists. Shuttleworth and Cowie (1997) define it as: "a term used to refer to the linguistic level at which ST is recodified in TL" (p. 192). In other words, it's an element with which the translator decides to work while translating the ST...
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How to Translate Personal Names
Translation has many challenges, one of which is the problem of translating proper nouns (PNs), a term used here interchangeably with the term 'proper names,' adequately from one language to another. The focus of this study lies within translation of personal names, which are a subclass of proper nouns. Notwithstanding the fact that a challenge that translators often encounter in their work comes from personal names, this paper presents some translation techniques proposed by various researchers in this regard. It should be mentioned that this paper does not intend to prescribe any special rules...
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Literary Approach to Translation Theory
In the 1970s a literary approach to translation theory began to emerge, partly as a response to the prescriptive linguistic theories that had monopolized thinking for the previous two decades. Key elements of this new literary approach are the writings of the Manipulation School...
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Risk Management in Translation
Translation practice is a purposeful activity requiring constant decision making. The decision making process however, won’t ultimately lead to success unless accompanied by a proper management tool. This tool which has been rapidly developing and actively used in many disciplines, organizations and industries is Risk Management...
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Translation from Hallidayan Perspective
In this paper we are going to find a rational answer to the question of "What is a good translation?" You may have heard this question before and encountered cases when different students of translation have evaluated the same piece of translated text as high and low quality simultaneously. Problem is that criterion for quality assessment isn't determined by teacher in advance...
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Linguistic Approach to Translation Theory
Joseph F. Graham in his article Theory for Translation (p.24) asks the question if the time-honoured act of translation really is a subject that begs to be theorized. It seems to me that this is indeed the case if the wealth of literature on the subject available today is any indication...
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Is Translation a Rewriting of an Original Text?
Lefevere (1992a: xi) describes translation "a rewriting of an original text." This paper will reevaluate Lefevere's concept of translation through examining my chosen texts. In order to demonstrate how the translator of the example text transports the source text messages in the target language, some excerpts will be analyzed using a Systemic Functional Linguistics (systemic linguistics) approach which provides "a semantic account of the grammatical structures of the language" (White, 2001: 3)...
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Equivalence
Much ink has flown on discussing the term equivalence in translation. The proponents of this notion, as Nida (1964), Newmark (1981), Jacobson (1959-2000), Bayar (2007) and others, try hard to define its nature, types and also compare its degrees as a crucial subject of research in translation, whereas other opponents like Vander Broek (1978), Mehrach (1997) and Van Leuven (1990) consider it as an impossible point for the translator to reach, and a hindering matter in the development of translation theory...
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Meaning: The Translators’ Role in Clarifying Some Misconceptions
This paper has been encouraged by the publication of Maite Aragonés Lumeras: Meaning: The Philosopher's Stone of the Alchemist Translator? (Translation Journal, Volume 12, No. 3 July 2008). She seems to be brave enough to raise the issue of the definition of meaning in a context where even theoretical and applied linguists fail to provide a decent definition of the term. For instance, a prominent professor of Linguistics in Hungary has only this to say: „meaning (sense) is a relational term..."...
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Skopos in Practice: Building an Appealing Brand Image in the Translation of Soft News
The Skopos theory posits that translation is produced for particular recipients with specific purpose(s) in a given situation. The maturing of the Skopos theory results in the dethroning of the source text and the de-mystification of "equivalence," foregrounding the significance and implication of "purpose" that contributes to the translation as a sort of social construction...
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The Comparable Corpus-Based Chinese-English Translation - A Case Study of City Introduction
Since only a limited pool of qualified native English-speaking translators can do Chinese-English translation, it is inevitable for native Chinese-speaking translators to translate out of their native language. Influenced by their mother tongue, Chinese translators often use some awkward expressions, which do not exist in English, in the translated texts...
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Beyond Translation Theories
This article aims at depicting how most of translation theories that seem to be fairly linguistic are deeply influenced by ideological motives lying behind them. Trying not to address any theory specifically, the current article approaches the translation theories in a holistic way from a different perspectives...
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Word sense disambiguation
In computational linguistics, word sense disambiguation (WSD) is the process of identifying which sense of a word is used in any given sentence, when the word has a number of distinct senses. For example, consider two examples of the distinct senses that exist for the word bass...
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Meaning: The Philosopher's Stone of the Alchemist Translator?
This paper aims at analyzing the way technical translators construct the textual meaning. The methodological framework based on genre theory and its application is used to reveal the complex relationships between the semiotic, pragmatic, rhetorical, semantic and linguistic approaches. The understanding of meaning will depend on the interaction between textual and contextual factors...
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Wikipedia about dynamic and formal equivalence
Dynamic equivalence and formal equivalence are two approaches to translation. The dynamic (also known as functional equivalence) attempts to convey the thought expressed in a source text (if necessary, at the expense of literalness, original word order, the source text's grammatical voice, etc.), while formal attempts to render the text word-for-word (if necessary, at the expense of natural expression in the target language)...
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Pseudo-translation
Pseudo-translation is a technique needed for pseudolocalization that is used in software localization. In contrast to the usual translation process it is the process of creating text that mimics a foreign language without the goal of expressing the source text meaning in the target language. The intent is instead to ensure that there is enough room in the GUI to allow for a full string of localized text based on the size of the GUI in the original language...
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Translation procedures
Translation is a field of various procedures. In addition to word-for-word and sense-for-sense procedures, the translator may use a variety of procedures that differ in importance according to the contextual factors of both the ST and the TT. In the present research, we will try to define the most crucial and frequent procedures used by translators...
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Proper Names and Translation
Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, defines proper name in the following way: "Proper name is a word that answers the purpose of showing what thing it is that we are talking about, but not of telling anything about it."...
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A Use of Thematic Structure Theory in Translation
According to systematic functional grammar model; language is said to fulfill three functions: the ideational macrofunction, the interpersonal macrofunction, the textual macrofunction. The textual function is as it is the focus of this study, express the discoursal meaning by drawing on the system and network of THEME to create text in actual communicative event...
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Wikipedia about translation
Translation is the action of interpretation of the meaning of a text, and subsequent production of an equivalent text, also called a translation, that communicates the same message in another language. The text to be translated is called the source text, and the language it is to be translated into is called the target language; the final product is sometimes called the "target text." Translation must take into account constraints that include context, the rules of grammar of the two languages, their writing conventions, and their idioms...
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The Explicitation of the Implicit in English-Ukrainian-English Translation
Indeterminacy in translation has always been the cornerstone of numerous scientific works, and not without reason—translation implies an explicit conveying of things so far unknown to the addressee. There is plenty of "vague" information types in speech messages—preterition, irony, parody, intertextuality, etc.—all of these can be combined under a single term—implicit information...
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Hybrid texts, sources and translation
Since long, war and attempts to dominate a nation, colonialism, and more recently, advances in technology and globalization have made people communicate widely with each other. These phenomena, more strongly the more recent ones, have influenced the whole levels of the human life. Among such levels, the linguistic one is to be elaborated on in this paper...
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The Problems of Third Person Pronoun in Translation
Translation is an activity comprising the interpretation of the meaning of a text in one language –the source- and in the other language-the target. Translation must take into account a number of constraints, including context, the rules of grammar of the two languages, their writing conventions, and their idioms. In translation, both the source language and the target one are important...
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¿Es la traducción una ciencia o una tecnología?
A lo largo de este artículo se analiza si la traducción debe considerarse una ciencia o una tecnología. Para ello, se presentan las definiciones más aceptadas de lo que es la ciencia. Posteriormente, estudiaremos los autores que no aceptan el estatus de ciencia para esta disciplina y, en último lugar, los argumentos de los teóricos que otorgan a la traducción dicho estatus...
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The expanded system of the coordinated dictionaries and its using for universal semantic coding and translation of the polysemous source text
Semantic coding is based on supplementing the polysemantic words and word-combinations by components of dictionary entries that the author chooses in the basic explanatory dictionary of the source language (the native language for the author). The universality consists in subsequent machine translation into other languages using bilingual dictionaries coordinated with a basic explanatory dictionary. The process of coding takes into account not only the wide range of meanings of polysemantic words, but also the ambiguity or incompleteness in the expression of actions and states, where in one language such features as gender and number, character of action and state, etc., are determined only by the context, while in another language they may be reflected in concrete grammatical forms...
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Difference Between Marked and Unmarked Translation of English Thematized Sentences Regarding Their Effect on the Audience
The aim of this paper is to find cross-linguistic data, English vs. Persian, in examining markedness in relation to thematization. The question is “Is there any difference between marked and unmarked translation of English thematized sentences regarding their effect on the audience?...
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Good Translation: Art, Craft, or Science?
Throughout history, translation has made inter-linguistic communication between peoples possible. Theoretically, one can consider translation a science; practically, it seems rational to consider it an art. However, regardless of whether one considers translation as a science, art, or craft, one should bear in mind that a good translation should fulfill the same function in the TL as the original did in the SL...
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Compare and contrast two theoretical approaches to translation
During the course of this essay, two theoretical approaches to translation – Skopos and Polysystems – will be examined. They will be placed in historical context before the main features of each, accompanied by relevant critique, are discussed in some detail. Case studies will then help determine advantages and disadvantages before a final comparison is made to reveal similarities and differences between the two positions...
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Translation of Proper Names in Children’s Literature
Translation of Children's literature is a significant area of study, due to the fact that books for children have always been written by real authors at real places in different languages, and they have been and still are read, in translations into other languages, in all over the world. As a result of internationalism and multiculturalism, children's literature is translated into languages more increasingly, which means that the translated works need to be adapted to the young reader's language in every instance...
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Mentality and Language
It is well known that human culture, social behavior and thinking cannot exist without language. Being a social and national identity, and a means of human communication, language cannot help bearing imprints of ethnic and cultural values as well as the norms of behavior of a given language community. All is reflected in the vocabulary of a language. But it should be noted that the grammatical structure of a language more exactly reflects the mentality of a nation as it is closer to thinking...
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Why is translation into the mother tongue more successful than into a second language?
It is commonly believed that translators are better at translating into their native language than into a second language. The underlying reason for this assumption is that translators have a more profound linguistic and cultural background of their mother tongue than of a second language which they have to learn in order to be well-versed translators. By the same token, the translator who translates into his or her native language has a more natural...
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Blue Lines on Black Ink:
A Look at a New Book on Censorship and Translation

The TJ's editor asked if I would do a write up on a volume on censorship and translation edited and introduced by Francesca Billiani, a Lecturer in Italian Studies and member of the Centre for Translation and Intercultural Studies at the University of Manchester in the UK. I immediately agreed, for censorship is one of the things that have fascinated me for a number of years...
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Problems of dynamic equivalence in Translation
Formal Equivalence and Dynamic equivalence caused heated controversy. The concept of equivalence has been one of the key words in translation studies. Equivalence can be said to be the central issue in translation although its definition, relevance, and applicability within the field of translation theory have caused heated controversy, and many different theories of the concept of equivalence have been elaborated within this field in the past fifty years...
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Translation procedures, strategies and methods
Translating culture-specific concepts (CSCs) in general and allusions in particular seem to be one of the most challenging tasks to be performed by a translator; in other words, allusions are potential problems of the translation process due to the fact that allusions have particular connotations and implications in the source language (SL) and the foreign culture (FC) but not necessarily in the TL and the domestic culture...
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Formulating Strategies for the Translator
The ability to formulate strategies for translators lies at the heart of the tensions between translation studies (TS) and professional translators and between the applied and non-applied branches of TS. It also affects the relationship which TS has with neighboring disciplines such as linguistics...
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Global Translation: The Dream of a Translation Tower of Babel
After the destruction of the Tower of Babel sons of Adam are restoring their talents to reconstruct and pose a symbol of power with the same ramifications. But the stature of a unified language in the form of English language, the World Wide Web, Global Economy and other cultural strategies are not enough to overpower the divinely established human diversity...
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GILT-Internationalization, a right-brainer approach
In GILT literature, you will encounter the following: G11n, I18n, and L10n. They simply mean Globalization, Internationalization, and Localization respectively, taking the first and last letters of these words with the number of letters tucked in between. This is a way of making these long words short...
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Theta Theory in English and French
As the title of this paper indicates, I am going to focus on Theta Theory in English and French. In this way, the first chapter will be concerned with Theta Theory in English. In the first section, I am going to discus Universal Grammar and its sub-theories, such as X-bar theory, Case theory, Government theory, Binding theory, Bounding theory, Control theory and a brief introduction to Theta theory...
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Domesticating the Theorists: A Plea for Plain Language
Throughout the history of translation, those who we now call theorists expressed their views in respect to the translation process and the desired results to be achieved by translation. They formulated their views by advocating translation ad verbum or translation ad sensum and, more recently, by defending or opposing the theory that a translation must read like an original text...
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Translation of Proper Names in Non-fiction Texts
The present article deals with the translation of proper names in non-fiction texts. Starting with the delimitation of the category of proper names on a linguistic basis, it examines the various strategies of translating proper names. The effect of the communicative situation is an important factor in the choice of the appropriate translation strategy...
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Translation And Interpreting Methods And Approaches
The disciplines of language translation and interpreting serve the purpose of making communication possible between speakers of different languages.
In the past there has been a tendency to perceive interpreting as an area of translation, but from the second half of the 20th century differentiation between the two areas has become necessary...
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Dynamic Equivalence (D.E.) and Idioms Translation
The meaning of the word equivalence can be described as "equal in value, measure, force, effect, significance." Based on the word's etymology, however, its first half can also be taken to mean "like."
Throughout the history of translation, equivalence has revealed itself both as a phenomenon that can be located on different levels and as a concept eventually so riddled with contradictions ...
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Translation as a Psycho-Semiotic Phenomenon
The article sketches the outlines of a theoretical framework for the analysis of translation of literary texts, viewed as psycho-semiotic phenomenon and based on evaluation of earlier attempts in this direction, and on the results of a psycholinguistic empirical study of translations. Central to this framework is the recent insight that the human cerebral hemisphere functional asymmetry somehow plays a role in structuring the fictional text by its author and in its processing by the interpreter...
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“Heads I Win, Tails You Lose”: Logical Fallacies and Ethics in Everyday Language
Throughout our daily oral and written communications with others, we rely on basic rules of reasoning which guide our arguments. Whether a particular argument is valid or not—logically speaking—is not always evident. Indeed fallacious arguments can point to seemingly compelling conclusions that are, however, invalid and often misaligned with ethical principles. By focusing on the inextricable link between ethics and language, this article reviews some of the most common logical fallacies to help in detecting (and avoiding) them...
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Maxim of Manner and Metaphoric Address in Translation
Neither Grice, nor any other speech act theorist has ever opened the scope of monolingual communication, - during which speech acts arise and work, - to cross -cultural communication.
However, this cross-examination would actually make sense for pragmatic theorists, and what is more, would benefit a lot translation theorists and practitioners...
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The Importance of Adequacy in Translation
There are both linguistic and extralinguistic aspects that hinder to reach adequacy in fiction translation. Semantic information of the text differs essentially from the expressive-emotional information of the text but they have one common trait: both can bear and render extralinguistic information. Extralinguistic information often becomes a stone to stumble over by a translator, as it is a lingvoethnic barrier for a fiction translator; Misunderstanding or misinterpretation of the extralinguistic information means to misrepresent...
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Translation of Vietnamese Terms of Address and Reference
This paper resulted from the author's study of the translation into English of the Vietnamese terms of address and reference used in four short stories, "A Marker on the Side of the Boat," "A Very Late Afternoon," "The General Retires," "Without a King," and selected chapters of two novels, "The Sorrow of War" and "A Novel Without a Name." The study investigates the strategies adopted in the translation of the terms and the degree to which these strategies are effective in conveying...
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Translating Abbreviations
Translation is a complex process where fragile balance is achieved between the equivalence of the text translated and the linguistic means chosen. Abbreviations can cause many difficulties during the translation. First of all despite the history of translation originates since ancient times when people needed to communicate with people from different communities, abbreviation is a comparatively new linguistic phenomenon and thus its translating isn’t well studied yet...
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Same questions - different continent
Translating documents into any language requires using the appropriate terminology and a clear and concise writing style. Terminological accuracy and effective prose must blend seamlessly; otherwise, the message will lack quality, efficacy and reliability needed in documents destined to the target market...
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La traduction français-espagnol des titres journalistiques du Monde Diplomatique : un exemple de tension entre adéquation et acceptabilité
Press headlines are short and multi-functional textual segments strongly influenced by the discourse genre and the journalistic tradition in which they are produced. Their interpretation requires a complex construction of meaning on the part of the translator. The aim of this paper is to study the translation strategies applied in a corpus made up of press headlines taken from the French newspaper Le Monde Diplomatique and their Spanish versions. The study shows the «tension» between adequacy and acceptability brought to bear by the translation process, as well as the important role of the source culture to determine the global translational behaviour...
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Back Translating Some Collective Nouns From English into Arabic
This paper deals with backtranslating some of the collective nouns and analysis of the results of the test. It also explains what is meant by back translation as little research has been done about it in the literature of translation. It also sheds light on the grammatical and semantic treatment of collective nouns in English...
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Narrowing the Gap between Theory and Practice of Translation
Since its inception, translation has not ceased to play its indispensable role of transferring messages across languages and cultural barriers. By so doing it continuously weakens the fences between languages, exposing their similarities, getting a consensus on their differences and easing interactions that will assist in developing cross-cultural integrative skills useful in an interdependent world. Several theories have been suggested to explain the concept of translation...
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Translation in Context
Translation, seen as a mode of being in the world, should not be regarded per se but should be contextualized as a social system. Infidelity is built in translation because it inevitably describes domestic scenes that are loaded not only linguistically and culturally, but also socially and politically. Translation is simultaneous decontextualization and recontextualization, hence is productive rather than reproductive...
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Equivalence in Translation
The main purpose of this paper is to explain the concept of equivalence in translation. To this end, first language and translation are defined. Later, examples are provided to develop the discussion. Each example indicates an area of standards in English and Persian. In fact, the process of finding equivalents in the two languages is that the translator should first decode the source text (ST), that is, to figure out the meaning / message/ intention of the original speaker or writer and then ask himself or herself how the same decoded meaning/ message/ intention is encoded in the target text (TT)...
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A few words on translations
Hum. I ain't gonna make a course, but here are a few basic data you should know if you ever get to deal with translations.
Well, translation is a rather codified science. And that is one of the first things to know about it...
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Aesthetics & Translation
What is translation? As a most nontechnical definition the Webster's New World dictionary define" to translate" as follows:
1. to move from one place or condition to another; transfer; specif., a) Theol. to convey directly to heaven without death b) Eccles. to transfer (a bishop) from one see to another; also, to move (a saint's body or remains) from one place of interment to another...
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Gender and Translation
In recent years, a considerable volume of academic literature and researches in the field of translation are being focused on the concept of gender in translation (e.g. von Flotow 2001, Simon 1996, and Chamberlain 1998). According to Chamberlain (1998: 96), “the issues relating to gender in the practice of translation are myriad, varying widely according to the type of text being translated, the language involved, cultural practices and countless other factors”...
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Japanese and Korean: testing the links
I think the classification of Japanese and Korean is the biggest remaining puzzle in philology. There are two issues: are these two languages related to each other, and are they part of any known family? The Japanese and Koreans call each other ‘close but distant neighbours,’ and this phrase also roughly sums up the relationship of their languages...
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Inttranews Special Report: The end of the written word
The ways in which we use language are currently undergoing faster change than ever before, principally due to technology. But if language is the defining characteristic not only of who, but of what we are, as human beings, how will those changes affect us, and the societies we live in? One of the pioneers in this realm of research is William Crossman, a philosopher, futurist, professor, and the author of a new book, “VIVO [Voice-In/Voice-Out]: The Coming Age of Talking Computers”...
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¿Qué traducción?
Los métodos de traducción en el análisis contemporáneo

Todavía no existe uniformidad por indicar un método universal ni una explicación al fenómeno de la entropía, la fatal pérdida de significado que ocurre siempre que pasamos de un texto a otro. Tradicionalmente, para superar este obstáculo, se ha intentado encontrar aquella equivalencia dinámica de la que habla Nida, guardando el mensaje y no la forma del original ...
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Foreignization / Domestication and Yihua / Guihua: A Contrastive Study
The debate on foreignization or domestication is still heated in Chinese translation circles. Analysis reveals that the terms used by Chinese scholars and Venuti look the same, but actually have different origins and meanings and are used in different contexts for different purposes. They are simply not discussing the same thing ...
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What Localization Models Can Learn From Translation Theory
Translation theory may have a lot to learn from localization models, but the latter may have just as much to learn from the former. With that in mind, Anthony Pym invites us to pause in our dismissal of translation theory as academic clap-trap long enough to discover what it has to offer ...
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Writing and Translation
Writing plays a very important role in any translation. Since a translation happens in a context and implies the transposition of a source text into a target text, this must fulfill the same constraints of an original text written in the target language ...
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Translation Theory
The study of proper principle of translation is termed as translation theory. This theory, based on a solid foundation on understanding of how languages work, translation theory recognizes that different languages encode meaning in differing forms, yet guides translators to find appropriate ways of preserving meaning, while using the most appropriate forms of each language ...
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Some Images and Analogies about Translation
Over several decades I have sometimes reflected that writings about the theory of translation can be too theoretical. By which, I probably mean I have found them too wordy, too complex, too unreadable for my taste. Others may choose to differ, but it has always seemed to me that writing about language or linguistics or translation ought by its very nature to qualify as an absolute model of good and clear writing ...
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The Language Contest
Fifty contestants enter a large hall. Inside the hall are fifty desks. Each contestant sits down at oneof the desks. On each desk is a large weirdly shaped package. All the packages on all the desks have the same size and shape. They all jut out and scoop inwards in strange ways, and they all have a large number of surfaces at odd angles to each other. Some of the surfaces are very hard to the touch, some very soft ...
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1536—1546: Ten Years that Changed The Perception of the Translator
Those who suppose translators lead hard lives today might want to consider the fate of their Sixteenth Century colleagues. During the ten years between 1536 and 1546, three famous translators met their death. One was tortured first and then burned at the stake in that great center of civilization, Paris. The second was strangled and then burnt in the city of Antwerp. And even though our third colleague died more naturally, it wasn't because half of Europe didn't long to see him hanged, drawn, quartered, and impaled in pieces ...
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Translators and Interpreters: The Binding Force of World Civilization
The following summary of displays, along with the "map" showing one possible plan for installation, comes from the extended text of a proposed multi-media museum exhibit on the subject of Translators and Interpreters, which might in the ripeness of time be mounted at major American institutions ...
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Hermes - God of Translators and Interpreters
The case for Hermes as the god of translators and interpreters is a clear and compelling one. While some European translators have campaigned for St. Jerome as the patron saint of translation, there are probably some good reasons, with all due respect to the translator of the Vulgate, for having a god of translation rather than a saint ...
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Mediation as translation or translation as mediation?
Widening the translator's role in a new multicultural society

Contrary to expectations, globalization is not accompanied by the use of a single language. It is obvious that the constant influx of people from other countries and cultures is producing changes in the way society is structured as well as in how relationships are established in the European Union (EU). These changes also affect interlingual mediation and the role that translators and interpreters (T&I) have to perform ...
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What Makes a Translator?
The "prison of language is only temporary...someday a merciful guard ? the perfect translator ? will come along with his keys and let us out," Wendy Lesser wrote in an article, "The Mysteries of Translation," in the Chronicle of Higher Education in 2002. The following questions remain, however: Who is this translator? What does he do? And what skills should he possess? ...
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These Embarrassing, Costly, Terrible Typos
Typo n. pl. -os. Informal. A typographical error.
Typographical error. A mistake in printing, typing or writing.
That's what it says in the New College Edition of The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. But it does not begin to tell the story of these mistakes - these embarrassing, costly, terrible typos. I know -- from collecting them, and from personal experience ...
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Translation Misconceptions
Translation is occassionally taken too lightly by some. However, translation is in fact a serious business that should be approched sensibly in order to avoid poor results. Before starting a project that invloves translation bear in mind the following misconceptions regarding translation ...
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Lost in Translation?
How to get your marketing message to an international audience

Did you know that only 28% of the entire European population can read English? This percentage is even lower in South America and Asia. Even the growing Hispanic community in the U.S. still prefers to read in Spanish for the most part. This means that if you want to sell your products and services to these markets, you will need to be able to communicate effectively in their languages ...
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The Moving Text
Texts of every kind are produced in the source language (SL) and they get translated into the target language (TL). If the process were as simple as that, Pym would not have written The Moving Text (further referred to as Text) ...
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Frame-based interpretation of readers reception of the parallel translations of Ady Endre, On Elijahs Chariot (Az Ills szekern)
Frame theory is intended to serve as a tool for linguistic and psychological investigations. The latter two constitute what we call cognitive linguistics, where the psychological processes, which take place in the mind mainly in comprehension are explained within linguistic boundaries, and vice versa, where the linguistic utterances are observed as physical manifestations of brain work ...
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Why is English the international lingua franca?
As a means of expression of an insular population with specific political and social behaviour, English has become an international communication tool, in the wake of the economic and scientific expansion of Great Britain, and later the United States...
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Causes of Failure in Translation and Strategies
Translation is communication. When the translation causes trouble in understanding or results in zero communication, it is a failure. This paper makes an analytical study on what causes such failure: one is a misconception that translation is a word-for-word process whereas the other is the translators blindness to cultural differences...
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Style and Stylistic Accommodation in Translation
Accommodation in translation emerges in perspectives such as cultural accommodation, collocation accommodation, ideological accommodation and aesthetic accommodation. This article focuses specifically on stylistic accommodation in translation, proposing that accommodation should be oriented to style which includes writers style, genre style and historical style...
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Hermeneutics and Translation Theory
Translation theory was once strictly confined within the scope of linguistics for translation was merely referred to as a conversion of languages, from the source language into the target language. Nevertheless, when research is carried further and deeper, meaning is found not only associated with the language or the text but also with the author and the reader, which form the tripartite in understanding of the appropriate meaning of any text. This paper starts with the discussion of the relationship of hermeneutics and literary translation and then goes on to propose that a perfect theory of translation should be an overall concern of all the three aforementioned factors...

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Book Review: Science in Translation
Scott L Montgomery, Science in Translation. Movements of Knowledge through Cultures and Time. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press... The author set himself two major targets in writing this volume...

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Accommodation in Translation
Faithfulness was once considered the iron rule in translation in the history of translation in China as well as in the West. Yet when we take a closer look, accommodation, or adaptation, is found in most published translations. This article attempts to investigate the reasons why accommodation is frequently needed and enumerates the following types of accommodation translators or interpreters make in their work: cultural accommodation; collocation accommodation; ideological accommodation; aesthetic accommodation...
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How to Choose a Translator Wisely
Translation clients are often buying blind. They seldom know what they are paying for, especially when buying a translation into a language other than their own. Translations are definitely not all born equal, a fact to which anyone who has experienced the pain, amusement or confusion of reading a bad one will attest...
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The Invisible in Translation: The Role of Text Structure
It is conventionally believed that familiarity with the source and target languages, as well as the subject matter on the part of the translator is enough for a good translation. However, due to the findings in the field of text analysis, the role of text structure in translation now seems crucial. Therefore, the present paper sets out with an introduction on different types of translation followed by some historical reviews on text analysis, and will then describe different approaches to text analysis…
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Constructing a Model for Shift Analysis in Translation
The occurrence of shifts in any translational activity is an unavoidable phenomenon. Unfortunately, the bulk of research carried out in this regard has not perceived the urgent need for a model to analyze or shown interest in identifying these shifts. In this paper, the researchers attempt to construct a workable eclectic model for shift analysis whose major aim is to provide a sound machinery to analyze various types of shifts in translation at various levels of linguistic and paralinguistic description…
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Language Ambiguity: A Curse and a Blessing
Despite the fact that ambiguity in language is an essential part of language, it is often an obstacle to be ignored or a problem to be solved for people to understand each other. I will examine this fact and attempt to show that even when perceived as a problem, ambiguity provides value. In any case, language ambiguity can be understood as an illustration of the complexity of language itself…
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