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The expanded system of the coordinated dictionaries and its using for universal semantic coding and translation of the polysemous source text

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Universal semantic coding

Universal semantic coding (continuation)

Universal semantic coding (Appendices)

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Panich Iuli photo Annotation. Semantic coding is based on supplementing the polysemantic words and word-combinations by components of dictionary entries that the author chooses in the basic explanatory dictionary of the source language (the native language for the author). The universality consists in subsequent machine translation into other languages using bilingual dictionaries coordinated with a basic explanatory dictionary. The process of coding takes into account not only the wide range of meanings of polysemantic words, but also the ambiguity or incompleteness in the expression of actions and states, where in one language such features as gender and number, character of action and state, etc., are determined only by the context, while in another language they may be reflected in concrete grammatical forms.


The presuppositions.

Essence of the proposed method. A preliminary identification of the source text.

Characteristics of the expanded system of the coordinated dictionaries. 

The special sections of differentiated (morphological and syntactic) meanings in the coordinated dictionary entries.

The semantic coding of the source text.


The translation of the encoded source text into target languages.

Some characteristic examples explaining operations of semantic coding and translating

Some considerations of general character.


(examples of coding and translation, fragments of coordinated dictionary entries).

App. 1. The phrases containing polysemantic words.

App. 2. The phrases containing polysemantic set expressionsand set expressions characterized by the structural formula with variable lexical components.

App. 3. The coding and translation with using the differentiated (morphological) meanings of the verbal forms.

App. 4. The coding and translation with using the differentiated (morphological) meanings of the pronouns.


The presuppositions.As a rule, polysemantic words and expressions inevitably exist in source texts. Translation of these words and expressions depends on the context. Analysis of the sense and form of a wide context is impractical with traditional machine translation programs.

Many source texts published in the world require translation into other languages. Among these are articles in national scientific magazines, descriptions of inventions published in the regional funds of patents etc. All are of interest for users speaking other languages.

Therefore, the source text which can be potentially translated into many target languages should contain certain

additions which, in a universal form, would indicate polysemantic words’ and expressions’ actual semantic meanings.

Such additions should also reflect the grammatical (morphological and syntactic) features of the wider context. During translating into target languages these additions allow to choose the corresponding grammatical forms of words or words' groups and also to choose syntactic links between words.

Such semantic additions eliminate both the polysemy of the source language, and the mutual ambiguity arising during translation; it will allow to receive correct over the sense and over the form the machine translation into any target language.

Some rather abstract methods of semantic coding of source text are known [1-3, 3*].

One of the early methods, based on semantic analysis of polysemantic words and their semantic coding, is described in US Patent 5,285,386 “Machine translation apparatus having means for translating polysemous words using dominated codes”.

This method of semantic analysis is universal in that it does not depend on the target language of the translation.

Some codes of "philosophical" nature are offered. This method uses four classification categories to present all information on a word: the great category (it is designated by the first numeral), middle, small and thin categories of classifications.

All words in a thesaurus are classified in ten great classifications, including "character / nature", "property", "change", "action", "feeling", "person", "propensity", "society", "culture", "subject".

Each great classification is divided into ten middle classifications. In this embodiment a code with a symbol S is given by the following form:

S0 belongs to "character/nature"

S02 belongs to "weather" in "nature"

S028 belongs to "wind" in "weather"

S028a belongs to "pressure" in "wind" ….

The given codes of classification have hierarchical character: the range of meanings for the upper semantic code is wider than for the lower semantic code.

As has been noted, the method described in this patent can have a universal character; however the offered hierarchical system of the codes describing semantic meanings of words and dependences between words has too abstract character, i.e. it is far from the real problems of translation of expressions and word-combinations with their various usage and complex syntactic structures, etc.

Elements of semantic coding of similar abstract character are offered in US Patent 5,523,946 “Compact encoding of multi-lingual translation dictionaries”.

Each word is a file containing information codes pertinent to some base abstract language; this information is based on the concepts of type - part of speech, gender, number, punctuation mark, area of meaning of a given word (for example, a field of knowledge, actions, …).

For example, the code for the verb “to know” may include the attribute (sth) which limits the field of knowledge.

The coding is done by an editor of the source text.

The following source phrase is given as an example: "to have down pat, be an expert"; this phrase is divided into the following symbols: "to" "have" "down" "pat" "," "be" "an" "expert".

The codes for each symbol and its concept have the following form:

1991 "to" 872 "have"  501 "down" 18005 "pat" 17 ","

427 "be" 95 "an" 2407 "expert".

The string, representing this phrase, contains the following numeric sequence: 1991 872 501 18005 17 427 95 2407.

As stated in the description, the given translation file consists of about 6700 groups of concepts.

In sum, this method contains elements of semantic coding in the form of concepts of an abstract basic language.

This coding, however, is also very superficial inasmuch as it is not concerned the concrete semantic meanings of words, but is based on general attributes (part of speech, gender, field of knowledge, etc.).

Finally, there is the Universal Networking Language project (UNL) [3,3*], which has being in development for a long time. This project aims to create a universal artificial language by developing codes, which, in some abstract form, would reflect the set of semantic and grammatical features of a source language, and, at the same time, reflect translational specifics of a set of target languages.

In other words, these artificial semantic codes would have to be refined and coordinated as much as possible, i.e. they would need to simultaneously reflect the intra-language polysemy and the mutual ambiguity, arising in translation[16, 16 *].

A special apparatus of coding of semantic meanings is elaborated for this purpose. The UNL has its own dictionary UW (universal word) made up on the basis of English, which is an input. Specifically, it is English words that are used to determine semantic and syntactic constraints or restrictions.

The text on UNL is universal words with additional symbols of type:

icl (inclusion), 

aoj a thing which is in a state or has an attribute: aoj(red (aoj >thing), ball(icl > thing))… “ball is red”,


Each meaning can have also a set of particular meanings, for example:

seq (occur, occur) / seq (occur, do) / seq (do, occur) / seq (do, do) / seq (occur, (aoj>thing))...

Example of designation:

“because Mary arrived, John is happy” … agt: 01 (arrive (icl > occur), Mary (icl > person) agt: 02 (happy (icl > do), John (icl > person) rsn (:02, :01);

“horse”… horse (icl > animal) horse (icl >male)  horse (icl > apparatus).

Codes of attributes are added to a universal word and they specify variants of use:

category of tense @future,… /  modality @obligation, … / character of expression @emphasis, @focus, …, @begin-soon, @begin-just… @progress… @complete, @state, @repeat … @generic, @indef … @affirmative, @confirmation, @exclamation, … etc.

The sentence “The dog caught a wild cat” will have following UNL-representation:

[S] agt(catch(icl>#event).@past.@pred.@entry, dog(icl>animal).@def)
obj(catch(icl>#event).@past.@pred.@entry, cat(icl>animal).@indef)
mod(cat(icl>animal).@indef,wild(icl>#state, ant>domestic)) [/S]

These examples indicate that artificial language has the special dictionary structure, special forms of representation of semantic meanings and also has own morphology and syntax; all these features are expressed as complex chains of restrictions and attributes.

The UNL is based on double machine translation (see the scheme): (I) from the source language into an artificial language (Enconventer) and (II) from an artificial language into target language (Deconventer). On the first stage the author can make the interactive changes directly in the text of an artificial language by means of operations of the direct translations and the reversed translations (Author / Editor).

It is possible to point out the following properties of system UNL:

a) as already noted above, the analysis of sense and the form of a wide context is practically impracticable by means of programs of machine translation.

The double machine translation stipulated in system UNL will lead to inevitable summation of mistakes in transfer of sense of the text and to mutual influence of ambiguities, arising on each of stages; in other words, the mistakes arising at the first stage, can generate a circuit of mistakes at the second stage;

b) the author has an possibility to make some changes in the text in an artificial language as it is stipulated in system UNL; but for this purpose the author should know professionally this language, i.e. should be able to indicate the real deviations which have arisen between the source text and its reversed translation by means of combinations of symbols;

с) it is known, the operations of direct and reversed translations are carried out a phrase by a phrase and they demand a multiple recurrence; these operations can be applied only at translations of short texts and may have extremely unstable character (similarly to a control system containing elements with unpredictable reactions).In others words, if the basic programs of the machine translation (Enconventer, Deconventer) make the distortions of sense of the text, then the essential increase of a level of accuracy due to the interactive sanction (Author / Editor) will not occur.

UNL system

Probably, the universal language UNL can be used for transfer of the sufficiently short and "monosemantic, unequivocal" texts.

To sum up: one can assume that the abstract methods based on artificial codes allow to solve a problem of universality, but they do not contain the elements allowing to raise accuracy of machine translation.

Essence of the proposed method. A preliminary identification of the source text.

Proceeding from the general reasons, a source polysemy (or a source ambiguity) leading to wrong interpretations of words and word-combinations should be eliminated prior to the beginning of machine translation.

The information necessary for a very precise semantic coding of the source texts is already present in the existing explanatory dictionaries and bilingualdictionaries. The detailed presentation of semantic meanings in an explanatory dictionary characterizes the internal polysemy of the source language. The illustrative examples... below we use ill.e.(s), included in the dictionaries, are important in that they reflect the various forms of usage of word and word-combinations; the translations of the specified examples in the bilingual dictionaries reflect the mutual ambiguities of the source and target languages.

The basic idea is to use the elements of the explanatory dictionary of the source language instead of some artificial codes; these elements can naturally reflect the sense of a wide context.

An author would need to carefully examine the meaning of a given word in its context, compare that to the available dictionary entries, and, then, key in the actual meaning of the word, or a corresponding illustrative example, as a supplement to the word, thus insuring a proper translation into target languages.

In other words, this is a preliminary identification of semantic meanings, forms of use, etc., by means of an explanatory dictionary of the source language.

The question is how to transform the various elements of dictionary entries, including the aforementioned ill.e.(s), into universal semantic codes. In other words, the problem is how to coordinate these elements with the translations contained in the bilingual dictionaries. To resolve this problem we propose a system consisting of a basic explanatory dictionary of the source, native language, which we shall call further a Coordinated Explanatory Dictionary (c.e.d.), and a set of special dictionaries of source language - target languages, which we shall call further the Coordinated Bilingual Dictionaries (c.b.d.) [19, 19*].

Characteristics of the expanded system of the coordinated dictionaries. 

The following elements of each c.b.d. shall exactly match the c.e.d.:

- the vocabulary of source language, a sequence of the vocabulary entries,

- the sequences of semantic meanings, each identified by the same digital, alphabetic and symbolic designations; this also concerns the particular and closely related sub-meanings of each semantic meaning,
- the ill.e.(s) reflecting different word usage at concrete semantic meaning,

- all expressions, their semantic meanings and their own illustrative examples,

- all grammar/usage commentaries on the headword, derivative words, compound words, etc.

The specialized and thematic sections of the dictionaries shall similarly match.

For illustration let us present some fragments of the coordinated dictionary entries.

Russian c.e.d.

прилагать 1 присоединять

2 направлять действия на …, применять; ~ усилия~ все усилия~ старания


Russian - English c.b.d.

прил... 1 add 

2 apply; ~ усилия  make efforts; ~ все усилия  make/ exert every effort; ~ старания take pains

Russisch-Deutsch c.b.d.

прил.. 1 beilegen 

2 anwenden; ~ усилия sich anstrengen; ~ все усилия alle Kräfte aufbieten,  sich alle Mühe geben; ~ старания sich bemühen

Russe - Français c.b.d.

прил.. 1 joindre 2 appliquer; employer; ~ усилия faire des efforts; ~ все усилия faire tout son effort (pour); ~ старания apporter des soins a qch


English c.e.d. [6]

bed n 1 thing to sleep or rest on 2 bottom of the sea, a river: Explore the ocean ~ 3 layer of clay, rock; stratum  4a flat base on which sth rests; foundation 4b layer of stone as a foundation for a road 5 garden plot


pull v…(idm) pull strings/wires for sb use influential friends;indirect pressure in order to obtain an advantage for sb… pull the wool over sb’s eyes  hide one’s real actions or intentions; deceive

(phr v) … pull sb in (a) detain sb (b) attract (audiences, supporters)

English - Russian c.b.d.

bedn1 кровать, постель, ложе

2 дно, русло: Explore…Исслед.дноокеана 3 слой (песка...); пласт 4a основание; фундамент 4b слой камней (в основан. дороги) 5 грядка


pull v…(idm) pullstrings… использовать влиятельных друзей; косвенно влиять на ход дела... pullthewooloversbseyes скрывать; обманывать


(phrv) … pullsbin (a) задерживать (b) привлекать, прельщать, притягивать


The expanded system of the coordinated dictionaries and its using for universal semantic coding and translation of the polysemous source text

Thec.e.d. thuscombinesthefunctionofanexplanatorydictionarywiththoseofatranslationdictionary. Thatis, thec.e.d. must reflect those elements of the source language, which have special meaning at least in one of the target languages belonging the system of coordinated dictionaries of this source language. Really, if ambiguities of one type do not depend on target language, then the ambiguities of other type will arise only in translating into the certain language.

Thus, together with the multitude of semantic and grammatical features of the source language, the c.e.d. should reflect the translation - specific features of all target languages.

Therefore, the entries should be “maximally differentiated”, i.e. they should simultaneously reflect both the intra-language polysemy and the mutual ambiguity,namely:

-the c.e.d. entries should contain the non-phraseological expressions having the especial translation (the non-word-for-word translation) at least into one of the target languages out;

- the c.e.d. entries should reflect the meanings of morphological nature, due to the presence in any of the target languages of separate grammatical forms, which are absent in the source language;

- the c.e.d. entries should also reflect the meanings of syntactic nature, for example those indicating possible syntactical links, clarifying syntactical ambiguities in the source language, etc.With this purpose, the differentiated (morphological, syntactic) meanings are entered into dictionary entries in the form of the special (additional) section that follows those semantic word meanings to which this section is general. These sections have a symbolic designation (morphm) (an abbreviation of morphological meanings) and (syntaxm) (from words syntax, meanings).

The following example reflects a polysemy of pronoun you and also reflects the coordination of entries when in one of the languages semantic word meanings are defined by a context, however in other languages these meanings have the separate grammatical forms:

The expanded system of the coordinated dictionaries and its using for universal semantic coding and translation of the polysemous source text

In the given example the pronoun you replaces the person or group of persons of masculine gender or feminine gender (what depends on sense of the text). In translation into Russian a pronoun you correspond two forms - ты, вы. At last, in translation into a Hebrew  a pronoun you corresponds to four forms expressing a masculine gender and a feminine gender both in a singular and in plural:אַתֶן  / אַתֶם/ אַת/ אַתָה

How we see, the specified features of target languages are reflected in English c.e.d. where the meaning of a pronoun you is presented in the form of four private meanings (a)…(d) - it takes into account the specified features of two target languages – Russian and Hebrew.

An expanded fragment of coordinated entries showing the differentiated nature of dictionary entries is presented below:

English c.e.d.  [6,7]

take Iv 1 carry sb/sth, accompany sb from  one place to another… 4 gain possession of sth.; capture or with sth… 17 need or require:

English - Russian c.b.d.  

take Iv1 брать к.-л./ч.-л., сопровождать к.-л. … 

4 овладевать чем-л.; покорять…  

17 нуждаться, требовать:

That cut is taking a long time to heat. It’ll ~ time for her to recover from the illness. It ~s stamina to run a marathon. She didn’t  ~ much persuading.  It took three hours for her to mend…  How long does it ~ to get there?  ...

ThatЭтот процесс резания требует  ItllЕй потребуется время... It ~s … Нужна выносливость ... She Её не нужно уговаривать.  Ittook … Ей нужно 3 часа… Howlong…Ск. врем. добираться?...

37 used with ns to show that the action is being carried out:

37 действия, смысл которых определяется дополнением:

~ a break; ~ a deep breath~ a flyer; ~ exercise; ~ a look; ~ notice~ offence;~ shelter; ~ a walk


~ a breakпрервать; ~ a deepвздохнуть;  ~ a flyer упасть вниз головой; ~ exer делать моцион; ~ a look взглянуть~ notice замечать; ~ offence обижаться; ~ shукрыться; ~ a walk прогуляться; …

(idm) ~ account of consider along with other factors; ~ care of look after; ~ it easy  proceed gently or carefully; ~ it (that) assume or suppose; …

(idm) ~ accountof принимать в расчёт; ~ careof заботиться;

~ iteasy не спешить, не напрягаться; ~ it(that) допускать, предполагать; …

(phr v) ~ sb aback shock sb; ~ after sb resemble in appearance; ~ sb/sth away (from sb/sth)remove sb/sth;subtract; ~ oneself off (to…) leave a place; ~ up with sb begin to be friendly with sb

(phr v)  ~ sb aback произвести впечатление на кого-л.; ~ after sb походить на кого-л.; ~ sb/sth  away (from sb/sth)удалять; вычитать; ~ oneself off (to…)уходить, уезжать; ~ up with sb сближаться с к.-л.

(morphm) 1. Inf., Indef. T. (a) (imper-ve) (b) (per-ve)

2. passive form (a) (state) (b) (action) (c) (imperf-ve)

(d) (perf-ve)

3. should+Indef. Inf., Perf. Inf. (a) (indic-ve) (b) (subjunc-ve)

4. participle in verb phrase (a) (simult.) (b) (preced.)

(c) (imperf-ve) (d) (perf-ve)

(morphm) 1. (a) (несоверш.) (b) (соверш.)

2. страдат. (a) (состояние) (b) (действие) (c) (несоверш.)

(d) (соверш.)

3. (a) (изъявит) (b) (сослагат)

4. при|частный, дее- оборот(a) (одновр. c действием сказ-го) (b) (предш. действию сказ-го) (c) (несоверш.) (d) (соверш.)

(syntaxm)(a) tak|ing, -en a separated attribute/ apposition (its part) to c.w.* (b) tak|ing, having been taken a separated adverbial modifier (its part) to c.w.*expressing action

(syntaxm) (a) обособл. определение/ приложение к к.с.*

(b) обособл. обстоятельство к к.с.*


(comp) take-off n  

(comp) take-off n …


semantic meanings of the headword


sections of illustrative examples (by different meanings) 


sections of non-phraseological word-combinations (by different meanings)


section of phraseological word-combinations (set expressions, idioms)

(phr v)

section of grammatical word-combinations (phrasal verbs in English)


section of differented (morphological) meanings


section of differented (syntactic) meanings 

(deriv, comp)

section of derivatives, compounds …

As follows from the table, the sections of illustrative examples and of the non-phraseological word-combinations are coordinated and as much as possible expanded; the use of elements of these sections at semantic coding allows to take into account the features of the use of words.

Some explanations, concerning the section of differentiated (morphological, syntactic) meanings, will be presented below.

The structure of systems of coordinated dictionaries is presented on Fig.1.

The structure of systems of coordinated dictionaries

As it has noted been above, the entries should be “maximally differentiated”, i.e. they should simultaneously reflect both the intra-language polysemy and the mutual ambiguity.

The account of the all types of the ambiguities somewhat expands volume of dictionary entries. In this connection a system of coordinated dictionaries of given source language may consist of several subsystems of the coordinated dictionaries - for related groups of target languages (Fig. 2).

The subsystems of English c.d(s)

In the some cases, the subsystem can  include only two languages - source and target; it means, that the bilingual dictionary, only one in this subsystem, should be coordinated with an explanatory dictionary.

The coordinated dictionary entries are in details described below.

Let's explain in more detail the sense of mentioned special (additional) sectionсs.

1. The differentiated (morphological) meanings.

We are concerned here with words, which can express, depending on context, different grammatical attributes (i.e. the meanings having grammatical nature), but they have no corresponding grammatical forms in the source language. However in the some target languages there are the separate grammatical forms of a word and / or connected words for the expressing these meanings.

These groups of words may include the following:

1) personal and reflexive pronouns, which, in a given source language, have no separate forms to denote the person of masculine or feminine gender / the person or a group of persons / a group of persons of masculine or feminine gender / the person or an inanimate object, and also possessive pronouns, which, in a given source language, have no separate forms to indicate the gender and / or grammatical number of the belonging object, or the separate forms specifying a gender of the person to which it belongs (i.e. when the meaning depends on who or what is being described in context); at the same time those or other target languages can have the pronouns (and / or words, contextually associated with them) which have the concrete grammatical forms to express above mentioned attributes.

Let’s illustrate this with other characteristic example of the possessive pronoun-noun yours. This pronoun does not have any other grammatical forms, but in a combination with a context may express:

- masculine / feminine / neuter gender of belonging object or plural of this object; this must be taken into account when translating into Russian, where one of next pronouns may correspond, depending on a context, to the pronoun yoursтво|й, -я, -ё, -и …;

-a person or a group of persons to whom the belonging is expressed; this, too, must be taken into account when translating into Russian, where one of next pronouns may correspond, depending on a context, to the pronoun yours: тво|й, -я, -ё, -и; ваш, -а, -е, -и

- masculine / feminine gender of person or persons to whom the belonging is expressed; this must be taken into account when translating into Hebrew, where one of next pronouns may correspond, depending on a context, to the pronoun yours:  שֶלךָ -belongs to a male, שֶלָך - belongs to a female, שֶלָכֶם - belongs to a males group, שֶלָכֶן -belongs to a females group.

The described polysemy of the pronoun yours, having a grammatical nature, is reflected in the following dictionary entry:

The expanded system of the coordinated dictionaries and its using for universal semantic coding and translation of the polysemous source text

As we see, in Hebrew the dependence of personal pronouns on the gender and number of the subject is even greater than in Russian or English.

2) verbs, participles, verbal adverbs, which in the source language have no separate forms unambiguously expressing the character of an action and /or a state, reached as a result of the action (i.e. it is possible to judge the character of the action and / or the state only from context);

at the same time, the specific grammatical forms of some verbs, participles and verbal adverbs are used in some target languages to express the shades of the meanings of the actions and / or the states required by the source text;

below are some characteristic examples of grammatical meanings in English and Russian:

a) in Russian a verb, in context, may express one of the following meanings, which correspond to a specific grammatical form in English ([12], p. 113-162):

- (неопр.)… (the separate group of the Indefinite Tenses is used for this purpose in English);

- (длит.)… (in English this is expressed by the separate group of Continuous Tenses);

- (к опред. м-ту) (in English this is expressed by the separate group of Perfect Tenses);

- (изв. дл-ти)(in English this is expressed by the separate group of Perfect Continuous Tenses);

- (состояние),(действие, неопред.),(действие, длит.), (действие, к опред. м-ту)… a Perfective verb in the verbal form of the Passive Voice may express an action or a state, achieved as a result of the action (in English this is expressed by separate group of Passive VoiceTenses, [12], p.166-184);

- (в наст.-будущ.), (в прошл.)… a verb expresses an unlikely or improbable action in a conditional sentence in a Subjunctive Mood with the particle “бы”; the time of fulfillment of the condition depends on the context (and possibly the time is pointed in a sentence previous to or subsequent to the present one).

Also in Russian, a participle (in context) may express one of following meanings to which the separate grammatical forms conform in English ([12], p.113-162):

- (одновр.), (ранее) … a participial form in the Active Voice expresses simultaneous actions or actions preceding the action expressed by the predicate;

- (реальн.)… a participial form in the Passive Voice of the Imperfective indicates the real action expressed by the participle;

- (вообще) … the same as above, but the action happening irrespective of time.

The following table shows differentiated (morphological) meanings in a coordinated dictionary entry of the verb заканчивать:

Russian c.e.d.

зак|анчивать,-ончить довести до к.

(morphm) 1. (a)(неопред.): действ. без указания на его длит., законченность и безотносит. к другому действ., м-ту: Я закончил работу и ушел домой.

(b) (длит.): незаконч. длит. действ., к-ое началось до опред. м-та в наст., прош., будущ.: Я уже заканчивал работу, когда вы зашли ко мне.

(c) (к опред. м-ту): действ. совершённое (заверш.) к опред. м-ту в наст., прош., будущ.: Я закончил работу и сейчас иду домой.

(d) (изв. дл-ти): действ., начавшееся до опред. м-та в наст., прош., будущ. и длившееся известный период времени, включ. этот м-т: Я закончил два факультета за последние 5 лет и сейчас нашел работу.

2. страдат. (a)(состояние): Работы закончены. Техники могут отдохнуть.

(b) (действие, неопред.): Работы обычно заканчиваются в полночь.

(c)(действие, длит.): Работа сейчас заканчивается. Инспектору придется подождать.  

(d)(действие, к опред. м-ту): Работы только что закончены техниками.

3. действ. (маловероятное) в условном предлож. в сослагат. наклонении с частицей бы; время выполн. условия зависит от контекста

(a)(в наст.-будущ.): Если бы вы закончили исследования, мы начали бы проект. Но вы не закончите их скоро.

(b) (в прошл.): Если бы вы закончили исследования, мы начали бы ... Но вы их до сих пор не закончили.

4. действит. причастн. оборот; действ. одноврем. или предшеств. действию сказуемого (a)(одновр.), (b) (ранее)

5. страдат. причастн. оборот несоверш. вида (a)реальное действие (реальн.) (b) действие, происходящее безотносит. ко времени (вообще)

Russian – English c.b.d.

зак|анч… to finish, to end 
1. (a) Indef. T.: I finished a work and went home.

(b) Contin. T.: I was already finishing a work when you called on me.

(c) Perf. T.: I have finished a work and am going home now.

(d) Perf. Contin. T.: I had been finishing two faculties for last 5 years and I have now found work.

2. passive form (a)(state) Compound Predicate: The works are ended. The technicians can have a rest.

(b) (action): Indef. Passive T.: The works are usually ended at midnight.

(c)(action) Contin. Passive T.: The work is being ended. The inspektor will have to wait.

  (d)(action) Perf. Passive T.: The works have just been ended by the technicians.

3. Conditional Sentence

(a) If you ended (should end, were to end) investigations, we should start the project. But we shall not end them soon.

(b) If we have ended investigations, we should have started the ... But we have not ended them till now. 4. participle in verb phrase, active v. (a) (simult.(b) (preced.)

5. participle in verb phrase, passive v., imperf-ve

(a)(real)(b) (irrelative)

b) in English a verb, in context, may express one of the following meanings to which at Russian the separate grammatical forms conform ([12]):

- (imperf-ve), (perf-ve) … a verb in the Infinitive or Indefinite Tense form, not having special grammatical forms of the imperfective or the perfective, expresses, in context, an action of imperfective or of perfective; this should be considered during translation, for example, into Russian, in which verbs have separate imperfective and perfective forms;

- (action) the fact or process of doing, (state) the existing condition in which an object is …a phrase in the Passive Voice expresses an action performed on an object or a state of an object, except when some other meaning characterizing an action is not indicated, for example, (imperf-ve)  or (perf-ve);

- (indicative), (subjunctive) … the verb in the form of Indefinite Infinitive or Perfect Infinitive in combination with the verb "should" expresses an action in the form of Indicative or Subjunctive Mood.

Also in English the participle (in a combination with a context) may express one of the following meanings to which in Russian the separate grammatical forms conform ([12].p. 279-287):

- (simult.) the participial form expresses an action, which is simultaneous with the action of a predicate;

- (preced.) … the participial form expresses an action, which precedes the action of a predicate;

- (imperf-ve), (perf-ve)the participial form expresses an action of Imperfective or of Perfective.

Examples of differentiated (morphological) meanings are presented below in a coordinated dictionary entry of the verb to ask:

English c.e.d.

ask v.i 1 make enquiries … 2 make a request; ~ for help4 ~ sb (to sth) invite sb: ask them to dinner(morphm) 1.Inf., Indef. T. (a) (imperf-ve):I don’t know him well enough to ask him for disinterested help. (b) (perf-ve): … to ask to speak at a seminar.

2. passive form (a) (state):Guests are asked to a meeting.

(b) (action): Guests are asked to a meeting by collaborators. (c) (imperf-ve) (d) (perf-ve)

3. should+Indef. Inf., Perf. Inf. (a) (indicative): You should have asked her. (b) (subjunctive): You should have at first asked her.

4. participle in verb phrase (a) (simult.(b) (preced.) (c) (imperf-ve) (d) (perf-ve)


English-Russian c.b.d.

askv.i. 1 спр|ашивать, -осить  2 просить, по-; ~ forhelp ~ о помощи … 4 пригла|шать,-сить: …их на ...

morphm) 1. (a) (несоверш): Я знаю его недостат. хорошо, чтобы просить его о бескорыстной помощи. (b) (соверш): …чтобы попросить выступить на семинаре.

2. страдат. (a) (состояние): Гости приглашены на встр. (b) (действ.): Гостей приглашают на встр. сотр. (-ся … сотр.) (c) (несоверш.) (d) (соверш.)

3. (a) (изъявит): Вам следовало спросить её. (b) (сослагат): Вам следовало бы снач. спросить её.

4. при|частный, дее- оборот(a) (одноврем. с действием сказуемого) (b) (предшеств. действию сказуемого) (c) (несоверш.) (d) (соверш.)


3) the some nouns which in the source language have no forms of a singular and a plural, while in translation to those or other target languages they acquire, depending on a context, separate forms of a singular and a plural.

In the all cases, mentioned above, the author should carefully examine the context so as to add to the word the actual differentiated (morphological) meaning - it will provide a true translation into target languages

2. The differentiated (syntactic) meanings.

The meanings which express possible syntactic links of a given word with other words in a sentence are also presented in the dictionary entries.

The specified syntactic links characterize some of the predicative relations (regarding a predicate) and non-predicative syntactic relations (attributive, objective, adverbial).

Use of the differentiated (syntactic) meanings in semantic coding allows to exclude syntactic errors in machine translation of such source sentences that have syntactic ambiguity or syntactical incompleteness; in particular, such source sentences that contain remote or isolated explanatory appendices (attributive, adverbial), which, in turn, contain their own additions.

Examples of such appendices may be: isolated attributes removed from an object (a noun, a pronoun), isolated adverbial modifiers, removed from a predicate (as opposed to uniform members of a sentence which are in identical syntactic attitudes with one member of sentence, they act as one syntactic function and are united with each other by enumeration or by means of coordinative conjunctions [12*]).

For example,in Russian the syntactic relations are often based on the fact that words – an removed, isolated attributes (adjectives, participles) of some contextual word - have grammatical characteristics reflecting the gender and / or grammatical number of the word being defined (it concerns also the additional attributive sentences and nominal parts of compound predicates etc.); meanwhile, the translations of these words into target languages may not have the specified attributes , i.e. the syntactical relations entirely depend on word order.

Such differences in languages may lead to syntactical ambiguity or incompleteness of the translated phrases.

Known programs of machine translation in many cases distort the meanings in translating phrases containing syntactically complex forms.

The differentiated (syntactic) meanings are presented in the dictionary entries in the form of separate sections (syntaxm) that follow those semantic word meanings to which they are general. These sections may deal with syntactic links of the following types of words:

- an adjective which may be a removed, isolated attribute/ apposition (its part) to some contextual word (c.w.);

- an adjectival participle, which may be part of a participial phrase, acting the part of the removed, isolated attribute/ apposition to some c.w.;

- a verbal adverb which may be part of a dangling participle acting the part of the removed, isolated adverbial modifier to the c.w. expressing the action.

The following designations are hereinafter accepted in the sections of differentiated (syntactic) meanings: c.w.* / к.с.* - the concrete contextual word which the author should mark in the source text (in all cases, concerning the identification of syntactic links of words).

Some characteristic examples of dictionary entries are presented below:

English c.e.d. (with using [6])
refer v.t. pass on, direct   v.i. 1 have recourse  2 allude; cite
(morphm) …

(syntaxm)(a) referr|ing, -ed a separated attribute/ apposition (its part) to c.w.*
(b) referr|ing, having been -ed a separated adverbial modifier (its part) to c.w.*expressing action

English-Russian c.b.d.

referv.t. от|сылать,-ослать v.i.

1 справ|ляться,-иться 2 упом|инать,-януть; ссылаться, сослаться на
morphm) …

(syntaxm) (a) часть обособл. определения/ приложения к к.с.*

(b) часть обособл. обстоятельства к к.с.*

rough adj. 1 opp. smooth… 2 opp. calm… 4 of sounds 

5 crude … 7 inexact, approximate
~ a separated attribute/ apposition (its part) to c.w.*

rough adj. 1 opp. шероховатый   2 opp. бурный4 резкий 5 грубый… 7 приблизительный
syntaxm) ~ часть обособл. определ./ приложения к к.с.*

Russian c.e.d. 

реш|ать, -ить 1 прийти к выводу … 2 найти ответ
morphm) …

(syntaxm) (a) реша|ющий,-емый,-вший, решнный,-ивший часть обособл. определ./ приложения к к.с.(b) реш|ая, -ив часть обособл. обстоят. к к.с.*, выражающему действие

Russian – English c.b.d. 

реш... 1 to decide  2 to solve, to settle

(syntaxm)(a) a separated attribute/ apposition (its part) to c.w.*

(b) a separated adverbial modifier (its part) to c.w.*

All that’s required is for the author to carefully examine the context and to include, in addition to the given word, the actual differentiated (syntactic) meaning, and to mark the proper contextual word / контекстное слово (c.w.*/ к.с.*).  During translation this will guarantee true syntactic link between words.

An expanded example of coordinated dictionary entries of the verb to take was presented above.

Examples of the various fragments of the dictionary entries are presented in the second part of given article.

The following describes the sequences of operations of semantic coding and translation.

The semantic coding of the source text.

This process is performed on the computer of the author of the source text, using a service program containing the coordinated explanatory dictionary of the source language.

The author analyzes the source text and marks the next word, using a particular font in those cases where, in the opinion of the author, (or, sometimes, of the service program), a given word possesses at least one of following characteristics:

a) the given word is polysemous word; its combination with  the neighbouring words does not provide enough information for selecting the semantic meaning closest to the source text;

b) its grammatical form, together with connected words, does not reflect a particular nuance/shade of actual sense of the source text, though in translation into those or other target languages the given word and /or the connected words may have specific grammatical forms; their choice strictly depends on the context (as seen in the above examples of the differentiated (morphological) meanings);

c) it may, the given word, together with its some neighbouring words, represents a word-combination. In order to translate such word-combination it is necessary to search the known word-combinations related to the given word. It is also possible that there are lexical or structural differences, which, although do not influence the allegorical meaning of a word-combination, but complicate or do impossible a machine search. For example:

- some attributes or adverbial modifiers may have been wedged into the word-combination, giving it a more specific meaning as a whole,

- or parenthetical words may have been added,

- variable components may have been added at the beginning or at the end of the word-combination,

- those either other own words or their sequence have been changed, etc. [4];

in this connection, it is necessary to define which words belong to the word-combination, to find the borders inside the phrase, to define the key word and, at last, to choose the meaning corresponding to the context;

d) it may, the given word, together with some neighbouring words, represents a polysemous word-combination;

e) it may, the given word has several closely-related semantic meanings which may have the inadequate translations or translations with inadequate forms of the use (with respect to the general orientation of the source text or the character of actions and circumstances).

In many cases the correct translation of a part of a phrase, or the whole phrase, may only be achievable by selecting the most suitable ill.e. Use of this ill.e. may, in the subsequent translation of the source phrase into the target languages, allow to select the correct variant of the translation of the given word, as well as properly reflect the specifics of the use of the word, and also to reflect features of use of a word, for example, features of the syntactic structure specific to phrases of similar type in this target language, or feature of verbal forms, etc.

f) it may, the given word, together with some neighbouring words, may contain the removed / separated apposition (attributive, adverbial), which may inside have their own additions.

Further the service program finds in c.e.d. the dictionary entry corresponding to the word which was marked by author; then author fixes  meaning of this word, comparing the source text with those or other elements of dictionary entry; for this purpose he carries out following operations:

a) in case the given word together with the neighboring words coincides with one of word-combinations of phraseological character (set expression, idiom, in English language it can be as well a phrasal verb) or corresponds to the structural formula characterizing lexical variability, the author marks one of the next elements of dictionary entry :

- the concrete word-combination,

- or the structural formula,

- or the concrete semantic meaning, closest to the source text,

- or the ill.e. in which the using of the word-combination coincides with the source text, corresponds to character of the described actions and the adverbial modifiers.

The author also marks the specified elements when there are a lexical or structural distinctions between a word-combination in the source text and in the dictionary entry.

Then author by means of the service program places as the addition to the given word: the headword, the word-combination or its structural formula, the its semantic meaning or the ill.e. at this semantic meaning.

Author also marks in the source text by special (bold) font the given word and other words which are a part of the word-combination (except for the wedged words), and, besides, by means of special boundary symbols designates the left and right bounds of the word-combination in the given sentence (for example, by angular brackets);

b) but in case the given word does not belong to any of a phraseological word-combinations (set expressions, idioms), author marks the concrete semantic meaning of the word, closest to the source text, on condition that the grammatical features characterizing changeable forms and forms of the government in other words, do not contradict the source text (it is a question of the following grammatical features: form of verb's using - in Imperfective or in Perfective; form of verb's government, including the prepositions, declensional endings; form of noun's using- attributive, predicative, etc.);

c) if the given word together with the neighboring words coincides with one of non-phraseological word-combinations at this meaning of word, author marks this word-combination; then author marks these words in the source text by a special font and boundary symbols, as it is described above;

d) if the given word not figures in one of these word-combinations, but in the group of the ill.e.(s) at this meaning of word it is possible to find the concrete ill.e. with the analogous using of the word and with the analogous character of the described actions and adverbial modifiers, author marks this ill.e.;

e) if in the dictionary entry there is a section of differentiated (morphological) meanings (morphm), author may mark the meaning corresponding to a gender and/or a number, a person or an inanimate object, a character of action or a state, etc., etc.; in case it is necessary to identify the concrete pronoun, author also marks c.w. which replace this pronoun;

f)at last, if in the dictionary entry there is a section of the differentiated (syntactic) meanings (syntaxm), author may mark the meaningspecifying that this word is a part of attribute or adverbial modifier isolated / removed from c.w. with which it is connected syntactically, and marks this c.w.

In some cases author marks the concrete ill.e. in the dictionary entry of one of the neighboring words connected with the given word, provided that the specified ill.e. corresponds to the semantic meaning and all grammatical features mentioned above.

Then the service program transfers into the source text the headword and those elements which are marked in the dictionary entry, placing all in the form of the semantic additions to the given word.

In case the c.w. was marked, the service program places this c.w. in the semantic addition (or the service program counts up an ordinal number of this word in the given sentence and places this number in the semantic addition).

If some group of the contextual words was marked, the service program places this group of words in the addition.

Then author marks in the source text the next word possessing one of described above features, etc. – up to the end of the text.

In the end, the received coded text is ready to translation into other languages.

The scheme reflecting the process of universal semantic coding is presented on Fig.3.

The scheme reflecting the process of universal semantic coding

 further see: continuation



Special sources:

1. US Patent 5,285,386 Machine translation apparatus having means for translating polysemous words using
dominated codes.
2. US Patent 5,845,306 Context based system for accessing dictionary entries.
3. Universal Networking Language (UNL) Specifications. Version 2005.  Universal Networking Digital Language Foundation,  
3*. UNL home page 
Explanatory Dictionaries:
Большой толковый словарь русского языка  (2000), НОРИНТ, С.-Петербург 
 Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of current English (1989), Oxford University Press
7. The Concise Oxford Dictionary of current  English (1995), Clarendon Press Oxford
Langenscheidts Großwörterbuch Deutsch als Fremdsprache (1998), Neubearbeitung
The Concise Sapphire Dictionary, Editor in Chief: Eitan Avneyon,  (1997), Israel
Bilingual Dictionaries:
8. Oxford Russian Dictionary, Russian-English, English-Russian (2000), Oxford University Press
Рымашевская Э.Л., Немецко-русский и русско-немецкий словарь // Русский язык, М.:1990.
9* Langenscheidts Taschenwörterbuch Russisch (Russisch - Deutsch, Deutsch – Russisch), Langenscheidt                                       
Смирницкий А.И. и др. (2002) Большой русско-английский словарь, Русский язык, М. / Comprehensive RussianEnglish Dictionary, A. I. Smirnitsky (2002), Russky Yazyk Publishers, Moscow
 Русско – Ивритский словарь под редакцией Подольского Б. (1992), Русский язык, М.   
11***. The Сomplete Hebrew – English Dictionary by Reuben Alcalay,  Massada Publishing Co. Ramat-Gan-Jerusalem
15. Мюллер В.К. (2000) Англо – русский словарь, Золотой век, Диамант, С.-П. / English – Russian Dictionary, V.K. Müller (2000), “Zolotoi Vek”, “Diamant” St.-Petersburg

The others sources:

4. Кунин А. В. (1967), Англо-русский фразеологический словарь,  Советская энциклопедия, М.,  1233 – 1264
13. Циммерман М., Веденеева К. (1999) Русско – английский научно – технический словарь переводчика, Наука, М.
 / Mikhail Zimmerman, Claudia Vedeneeva (1999), Russian - English Translators Dictionary (A Guide to Scientific and Technical Usage), John Wiley & Sons, 50, 340, 509
Склонение предлогов и др. частей речи с помощью местоименных суффиксов (1992), Дфус Эфи, Израиль, Т.-А.  
12. Качалова К. Н., Израилевич Е. Е. (1999), Практическая грамматика английского языка, ЮНВЕСТ ЛИСТ, М., 72-76, 113-162, 166-184, 214-216, § 131, 279-287, 439-445
12* Современный русский язык, под ред. Д.Е. Розенталя (1979), Часть 2, Синтаксис. М., Высшая школа, 123-135
16. И.М. Богуславский, Л.Л. Иомдин, А.В. Лазурский, Л.Г. Митюшин, А.С. Бердичевский
  (2005): Интерактивное разрешение неоднозначности различных типов в машинном переводе, труды конференции Диалог 2005, Секция Разрешение неоднозначностей
16*. Интерактивное разрешение лексической и синтаксической неоднозначности в системах автоматической обработки естественного языка. Лазурский А.В., Бердичевский А.С. ., Крейдлин Л.Г., МитюшинЛ.Г. ., Сизов В.Г. Институт проблем передачи информации РАН,
17. Панич Ю.В. Предварительная идентификация смысловых значений слов и словосочетаний и основанный на ней машинный перевод исходного текста с родного языка на конкретный целевой язык (8-я конференц. «Творческие поиски учёных Израиля», Ашкел., 2004)
18. Панич Ю.В. Метод машинного перевода и система согласованных словарей (9-я конференц. «Творческие поиски учёных Израиля», Ашкел., 2005)
19. Панич Ю.В. Универсальное смысловое кодирование исходного текста и его перевод с использованием системы согласованных словарей (
I,II), 2007.

Panich Iuli
Academic Degrees: Engineer-mechanic specializing in the automation of chemical Industry, Technological Institute, Leningrad
Ph. D., Technical cybernetics, Institute of Control Problems, Moscow

Research Institute of Automation, Leningrad, head of laboratory – senior researcher.
Ashqelon, Israel, Technological Industry, head of laboratory - manager of project

Fields of interest:
Adaptive control systems. Identification of objects, an increase of stability of a control system.

New Fields of interest:
Linguistics and Translation. Identification of semantic meanings, an increase of accuracy of translations from one language into others.

The articles in different scientific Journals, 32 patents.

He can be reached at:

Published - July 2008

See also: "Experience of preliminary identification and translation of the text's fragments with use of the system of coordinated dictionaries" by Panich Iuli

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