english grammar, translation, translation agencies database, spanish english translation, french english translation, links for translators, translate your document, reference materials, translation jobs, german translation agencies, translation agencies directory, jobs in translation, translation agencies, jobs translator, arabic translation jobs, translation companies
Welcome to the world of language jobs!
 
Portal for Language Professionals and their Clients.  39,000+ Freelance Translators.  7,000+ Translation Agencies.
Translation Articles - English Grammar
Home Database of Translation Agencies Database of Translators Become a Member! Submit Your Article Hire Translators!

Menu

  Become a Member
  Edit Your Profile
  Find Translation Jobs
  Find Rare Translation Jobs
  Find Very Rare Language Jobs
  Find Jobs in Rarest Pairs
  Read Testimonials
  Read More Testimonials
  Read Even More Testimonials
  Read Still More Testimonials
  Read Yet More Testimonials
  Upload Your Resume
  Add Your Translation Agency
  Receive All Jobs by RSS
  Work for Translation Agencies
  Post Your Translation Job
  Hire Translators-Members
  Hire All Translators
  Easily Contact Translators
  Hire Translation Agencies Members
  Contact All Translation Agencies
  Obtain Blacklisted Employers
  Read Articles (By Category)
  Read Articles (By Index)
  Read Sense-of-Life Articles
  Read Work-at-Home Articles
  Use Free Dictionaries
  Use Free Glossaries
  Use Free Photographs
  Use Free File Sharing
  Use Free Software
  Use Free Translators
  Vote in Polls for Translators
  Subscribe to Free Newsletter
  Advertise Here
  Apply to Collection Agencies
  Buy Database of Translators
  Buy Translation Agencies List
  Watch Out for Scam E-mails
  Post Your Free Ad
  Use Resources for Translators
  Use Online Directory
  Ask Questions in Forum
  Admire God's Creations

Advertisements

Articles for Translators and Translation Companies
English Grammar






Become a member of TranslationDirectory.com at just $8 per month (paid per year)

Syntax - Who Owns the English Language?
When writing these blobs, a friend of mine made a comment, perhaps complaining, of my syntax. In fact, I occasionally get complaints about my English. In elementary school I was sent to some specialist who helped me read, like I had problems reading. I never really enjoyed reading because I found it extremely slow and tedious, but this has changed over the last ten years because of my full time job of either translating or responding to emails…
Read the full article…

English grammar
English grammar is a body of rules (grammar) specifying how phrases and sentences are constructed in the English language. Accounts of English grammar tend to fall into two groups: the descriptivist, which describes the grammatical system of English; and the prescriptivist, which does not describe English grammar but rather sets out a small list of social regulations that attempt to govern the linguistic behaviour of native speakers (see Linguistic prescription and Descriptive linguistics)…
Read the full article…

Pronouncing The "S", "Z", "T", "D" In English
You know that it is difficult to know when to pronounce the written letter "s" in English like "s", the sound of air escaping from your bicycle tire, and when to pronounce it as the letter "z", the sound of an angry bee. This problem shows up in the plural of nouns…
Read the full article…

Top Ten Grammar Errors that Haunt Web Pages
With all of this talk about content, don’t you think it’s time to have a frank discussion about grammar? Our Web sites are our online store fronts—our online images. If our sites are full of grammar errors, what does that say about the professionalism of our businesses?…
Read the full article…

Do we say "an historic" or "a historic"?
You probably know the grammar rule that says you use "an" before vowel sounds (e.g. AN accident, AN item, AN hour) and "a" otherwise; e.g. A book, A report, A hotel.
Following this rule, we would say "a historic", not "an historic"…

Read the full article…

"Which" or "that": Choosing between them made easy
Consider the following sentences. Both are acceptable, but they mean quite different things
- The books, which have red covers, are new
- The books that have red covers are new…

Read the full article…

Should I "boldly go" or "go boldly"?
Thus starts the famous voice-over to Star Trek. Quite apart from the 1960s sexism, it raises the burning question that has probably long been gnawing at you: should Captain Kirk have said "to boldly go" or "to go boldly"? …
Read the full article…

The American Accent: Pronunciation Of The Vowels
Many learners of English have a distinct accent because they pronounce English with the vowels of their language. They commit this error because the English vowels are "something like" the vowel sounds of their native language, but they are not the same! …
Read the full article…

Intonation In English: Nouns And Adjectives Are Stressed Differently Than Verbs
Listen and Learn: Nouns and Adjectives one way; Verbs another. A "ggod" accent is not only a question of good pronunciation. Many people think that pronunciation is what makes up an accent. It may be that pronunciation is very important for an understandable accent …
Read the full article…

Reading & Writing English: Words Ending In "D"
The different sounds that the letter"d" takes at the end of a verb in the past tense. The English language indicates that the action of the verb is in the past by having some form of the "d" or "t" sound end the word. We say some kind of "d" or "t" sound although the word is almost always written with a "d" …
Read the full article…

The American English Accent: The "Explosive" T And P Sounds
The "explosive consonants"
Earlier we said that the vowels are an important factor in hearing a "foreign" accent. But it is not only the vowels. The consonants also must be mastered

Read the full article…

"Less" or "fewer": Is there still a difference?
I can't wrap myself around using "less" when "fewer" seems so right to me. She asked me to comment
Read the full article…

Intonation In English: Expressions Of Two Words
Many people think that pronunciation is what makes up an accent. It may be that pronunciation is very important for an understandable accent. But it is intonation that gives the final touch that makes an accent correct or native
Read the full article…

The American English Accent : The Voiced And Unvoiced
The voiced and unvoiced consonants.
In this section we will try to clarify the difference between the voiced consonants and the unvoiced consonants

Read the full article…

Words We'd Love to do Without
Anne Connolly, a researcher for the State University of New York system, talked with me about words we have grown tired of hearing, especially since they mean almost nothing. (In fact, they take away impact, because they are annoying.)
Read the full article…

English Intonation: The Noun And Verb
Intonation, the "music" of a language, is perhaps the most important element of a correct accent. Many people think that pronunciation is what makes up an accent. It may be that pronunciation is very important for an understandable accent. But it is intonation that gives the final touch that makes an accent correct or native…
Read the full article…

Hyphens made easy
Your readers judge you on the way you write.
This applies whether you're writing advertising copy, a college or business report, a web site, or the next great novel; and it's these judgements that will determine the success or failure of your venture

Read the full article…

Do you "take" or "make" a decision?
A friend e-mailed me recently and asked why some people write (and say) "take a decision" instead of "make a decision".
Being a good friend, he researched his own answer before I got around to replying. :-) His investigation suggested that "take a decision" is primarily British usage, whereas "make a decision" is more common in the US

Read the full article…

Are full stops placed inside or outside quotation marks?
Should the full stop be inside the closing quotation mark or outside it?
Well, in US English, the full stop goes inside the closing quotation mark in this sentence. In British English, it is placed outside…
Read the full article…

"Affect" or "effect": it's harder than you think!
"Affect" and "effect" are commonly misused. Here are some simple examples to help you get them straight…
Read the full article…

"Active" and "passive" voices made simple
Open almost any book on grammar or writing skills, and you'll come across the advice "Use the active voice in preference to the passive voice".
Also, if you use Microsoft Word, you'll often get similar advice from its grammar checker.
Free of all the grammatical jargon, what does this mean?…
Read the full article…

Apostrophes: a gentle introduction
Apostrophes are a common source of confusion for many writers. They needn't be, though, and this easy-to-follow article will help you to use them properly.
Let's start with a very simple explanation of what a noun is…
Read the full article…

Grammatical Conversion in English: Some new trends in lexical evolution
English is a very productive language. Due to its versatile nature, it can undergo many different word formation processes to create new lexicon. Some of them are much lexicalised—such as derivation or compounding. However, new trends are pointing up in the productive field. This is the case of the minor methods of word-formation—i.e. clipping, blending—and conversion. As they are recent phenomena, they have not been much studied yet. Even scholars differ in their opinions about the way they should be treated …
Read the full article…

"Ought to" and "Should"
Ought to is a very useful verb which unfortunately is very often forgotten. Here, we will look at whether there are any differences between ought to and should, and whether they be used interchangeably …
Read the full article…

Lexicon and Terminology: Of Mesopotamia, cattle and interest (en anglais)
Pecuniary and impecunious (English), and pécuniaire, pécune and pécule (French) are just a few of the terms relating to money that can be traced back to a period when livestock was the standard currency. This is hardly surprising since financial activities, i.e. lending, borrowing and managing wealth, are thought to have originated among the pastoral societies of the Near East …
Read the full article…

British vs. American English (continued)
As well as the differences in vocabulary we looked at in an earlier article, it is also possible to spot differences in grammar and country-specific structures in 'British' and 'American' documents. Often there are no hard and fast rules, it is simply a question of usage and a result of how the language has developed in each country …
Read the full article…

British vs. American English
George Bernard Shaw famously said that the British and the Americans were "two nations separated by a common language".
Below are some examples of different usage in British and American English. You may already be aware of some of these differences, others may surprise you …
Read the full article…

Not and its position in the sentence
In this article we will be looking at the possible problems that may arise when using the negative 'not'. When 'not' is used in conjunction with all, every or because there may be some ambiguity as to the intended meaning …
Read the full article…

Word Division
We have been asked for some hints on word division in English documents. Basically, words should be divided according to syllables and on the basis of pronunciation.
The main rule is that the pronunciation of the first part of the word must be recognisable before the eye reaches the second part in the following line …
Read the full article…

Split Infinitives
A split infinitive is an infinitive with an adverb placed between "to" and the verb.
There is a long-standing rule that infinitives should not be split. However, many grammarians see no grammatical reason for the rule, considering it merely a question of style. The split infinitive has been described as "an ugly thing" (Fowler, The King's English) …
Read the full article…

Common mistakes in using one word for another when they are similar in spelling but different in meaning
When editing, or simply reading, business documents drafted in English I have noted that certain pairs of words that are pronounced or spelt similarly are frequently confused - even at times by native English writers! Some of the most common mistakes are discussed below …
Read the full article…

Confusion between To Lay and To Lie
Following on from our previous article, today we will be considering two more verbs that are frequently confused: to lay and to lie.
The Concise Oxford Dictionary gives no less than 16 different usages of the first verb …
Read the full article…

The Greengrocer's Apostrophe
How should you use the apostrophe?
A surprising number of people in the UK do not seem to know, as can be seen by the number of mistakes in shop signs and advertisements. Some of the worst culprits are allegedly greengrocers, hence the expression the "greengrocer's apostrophe". Signs can frequently be seen advertising tasty apple's , juicy pear's or the best banana's . However, they are not the only ones to get it wrong …
Read the full article…

Double Negatives
It is an established rule of English grammar that two negatives cancel each other out.
In other words, the proper meaning of "he did not do nothing" is "he did something".
As with all rules, there are exceptions. It is accepted that in some cases negatives can be multiplied to give added emphasis …
Read the full article…

How to use the verb "may"
Many people find the verbs “can”, “may”, “shall”, “will”, and “must” confusing, and are often unsure which to choose (may or can? shall or will?). In an earlier article we looked at the differences between shall and will. In this article we will be focusing on the verb may
Read the full article…

How to use "might"
After reading the recent article on the modal verb may, you may (!) be wondering how and when to use the associated word might …
Read the full article…

Numbers
After the summer holidays, I thought it appropriate to take a dive into figures right away … and below you will find the answer to a "number" of issues people have brought to my attention over the months…
Read the full article…

To ING or not to ING, that is the question!
"Are you finished cooking supper?" " I decided to order a pizza."
Why do we say "finished cooking" and "decided to order"? For some reason when two English verbs are used together in a sentence, the second verb will either be an "-ing" form or an infinitive form (to + verb) …
Read the full article…

Words that are often confused (a lesson)
There are many pairs of words in English that are frequently confused with each other because they are similar in appearance or in meaning. Your incorrect use of these words makes a glaring statement about you to well-educated people - that if you are sloppy or inaccurate in using language, how dependable will you be in other areas? Here is your chance to fix some of those errors…
Read the full article…

Currency Units
This article provides the appropriate English usage for the euro and the other currency units of the world, particularly appropriate now that Europe is about to switch over to the single currency. There seems to be a tendency in Belgium for non-native English speakers to use a variety of ways to spell out currency amounts. Well, here are the rules as far as English is concerned…
Read the full article…

On Capitalisation
The modern trend is to reduce the use of capitalisation. Proper nouns must begin with a capital letter, but many associated words may be written in lowercase without any loss of meaning. The important thing is to maintain consistency throughout a document…
Read the full article…

Slipping into a comma! Again????
There have been previous articles on the subject, but it seems to me certain items cannot be stressed enough…
Some people seem to think sprinkling commas every few words is a good rule, but it makes for difficult reading…
Read the full article…

The apostrophe (2)
We saw in the last article that one of the apostrophe's main functions is to denote possession. Today we are going to look at its other uses…
Read the full article…

The apostrophe (1)
Despite its size, the apostrophe is just as important as any other character used in the English language.
The apostrophe is often a misunderstood little fellow. Contrary to popular opinion, he is not there just to make our lives difficult; rather to serve two crucial functions. The first of these is discussed below. The second will be the subject of our next article…
Read the full article…

Double trouble
Spelling, here it comes around again. English is just one of those languages (not unlike French), where the spelling often has very little to do with the actual pronunciation of the word and where the few concrete rules that exist can be difficult to spot.
Read the full article…

You say eeither, and I say eiither
That age-old dispute about the pronunciation of the words 'either' and 'neither' as battled out in the famous song would perhaps be best left alone given that, at the end of the day, both are correct and it is merely a matter of regional accent. However, it is not always so easy to determine the usage of these two words together with their trusty friends or and nor
Read the full article…

What's in a Name?
Names of places
Often, the names of places in other countries remain the same in our own language or are recognisable beyond doubt (Londen/Londres = London). Nevertheless, we can still be caught out by the translations of place names and other such phenomena in texts written in other languages, or be unsure as to how to render them correctly when writing ourselves in a foreign language.
Read the full article…

'-ic' and '-al'
Spelling mistakes, as we know, are all too common in written English, a language with few rules and abundant oddities. Even native speakers often fall into the trap of mixing their '-ics' with their '-als'. But you don't want to be misunderstood. This essential guide highlights the most common areas of confusion.
Read the full article…

Hyphenation - some helpful hints
Something I have noticed whilst proof-reading translations sent by freelance partners over the last months has been the 'grey area' that sometimes crops up surrounding hyphenation in English. Hyphens (not the same as the dash) join two or three words together into a 'compound'. Guidelines on hyphenation can often be found in the dictionary, but not always, and many words lose their hyphens with time. Overuse of hyphens becomes ridiculous, but where they are omitted this can leave meaning ambiguous or may cause your text to strike a native speaker as having "something missing". In this article we will try to provide some rough guidelines for use.
Read the full article…

Transparent words or Faux-amis?
No language possesses 100% of its words that are free from any foreign influence. The English language is no exception to the rule and contains many words borrowed from many different languages worldwide.
Read the full article…

Unsolved mysteries: Web site or website?
The Internet is here to stay. There is no doubt about that. Many people see the Internet as a final frontier, where anything goes. This is certainly vividly expressed by the fact that consistent linguistic rules for the related vocabulary have yet to be established.
Read the full article…

Comma Controversies
Commas are like the salt we sprinkle throughout our writing adding clarity and the rhythms of speech. We could hardly live without them, and yet, tastes differ. Are there rules?
Read the full article…

Spelling Dilemmas
The English language is notorious for its inconsistent and irregular spelling. However, there are some minor rules which can guide you. In this article we will take a look at a few trouble spots in English spelling.
Read the full article…

Place Names in English
The names of cities or places may have a different spelling in English than in other languages. This article will present some examples which can cause confusion…
Read the full article…

"Ise" or "Ize"?
Freedom of choice can be a terrible responsibility. Faced with two acceptable alternative spellings in English, how do you make up your mind? Do you work for an organisation or an organization? Last year, did your company realise profits or realize them? Is it simply a matter of choosing between "British" English and "American" English? This article should help you the next time you find yourself agonising or agonizing over this question…
Read the full article…

Also, As Well and Too: Three Ways to Say More
There is an expression in English, "Less is more", which means that brevity is sometimes the most meaningful style of expression. However, in the professional world, we often need to communicate a lot of information at once without losing the reader's attention. Finding the right way to link ideas and phrases is a crucial factor in organising what you want to say. This article will focus on the use of also, as well and too, some little words which go a long way…
Read the full article…

Conversation Starters: The Correct Way to Use "Since"
Have you ever heard the expression "to make small talk"? Small talk is the kind of light social conversation people use to get to know each other. Like talking about the weather, it is meant to put people at ease. How good are you at starting up a conversation? At such moments, the last thing you need is to be unsure of your English…
Read the full article…

Understanding headlines
Many non-native English speakers wishing to practise their English comprehension will at some point pick up an English newspaper and read a few articles. Here are one or two pointers if you, too, decide to do this…
Read the full article…

Phrasal Verbs With "Get"
One of the grammar/vocabulary areas that causes most problems for students of English is phrasal verbs, and not surprisingly. Although discussed in previous columns, this difficult area (where the expression "you've just got to learn them" applies) is worthy of further attention. This time we turn the spotlight on phrasal verbs with the same base verb - "get"…
Read the full article…

Stuck for words? A rough guide to Conversational Fillers
Spoken English differs from written English in many ways, such as in the use of slang or "semi-slang" expressions and the shortening of words and elision of two words ("do not" becomes "don't", "donOt know" becomes "dunno", "going to" becomes "gonna", etc.). However, perhaps the most obvious difference lies in the way in which words and phrases are commonly used as "fillers" in conversational English, to give the speaker time to think or to modify what he/she is saying …
Read the full article…

Comparative structures in English
A review of comparative and superlative forms in English, and ways of expressing degree of comparison…
Read the full article…

An Englishman in New York. American and British English
There is an anecdote that tells of an Englishman who was spending a holiday in New York. The second day he was there, he was doing some sightseeing when he got talking to a girl from Chicago in the queue for the Empire State Building. In the course of the conversation the girl said: "That's a nice pair of pants you're wearing. Did you buy them here? ". The Englishman was lost for words for a moment. How did she know what pants he was wearing?
Read the full article…

What´s in a Name: Juliet´s Question Revisited
This article's aim is to take the treatment of proper names in translation a little further than where I left off in the previous article entitled "What´s in a Name: Juliet´s Question Revisited." I have here tried to red-flag some additional perils I've encountered in translating proper names—this time on toponymic terminology— from mere choppy waters to lethal tsunamis. And I certainly hope to throw an occasional lifeline to you, but I beg you not to expect anything other than rough sailing when reading it. In preparation, let's take a Dramamine before we leave shore…
Read the full article…

What´s in a Name: Juliet´s Question Revisited
During the American Translators Association's Spanish Division Conference in San Antonio earlier this year, I was browsing through my favorite bookseller's offerings when he took my arm and quietly led me to a 225-page book by Virgilio Moya entitled La traducción de los nombres propios (The Translation of Proper Names). He sat me in a chair and then went about his business, catching my eye every now and then to throw me a crooked smile. A friend wandered by and glanced over my shoulder. "Vero," he said, "you're not going to buy a book that should never have been written, are you?" He was referring, of course, to one of translation's coziest fortresses: 'Proper names are not translated; not ever.' "This book must be nonsense," he added. And in one sense, he was right: Moya's siege engine gave the fortress a tilt, and then its portcullis buckled and its mighty ramparts tumbled down into the sea…
Read the full article…





Submit your article!

Read more articles - Free!

Need translation jobs? Click here!

Translation agencies are welcome to register here - Free!

Freelance translators are welcome to register here - Free!

Subscribe to TranslationDirectory.com newsletter - Free!

Take part in TranslationDirectory.com poll - your voice counts!








 

Free Newsletter

Subscribe to our free newsletter to receive updates from us:

 

New at the Forum

Read Articles

# 2488
Rosetta Stone and Translation Rates

# 2467
Translation - an Ageless Profession

# 2466
Have Language, Will Travel

# 2486
Почему так мало хороших переводов и хороших переводчиков?

# 2479
Average monthly wage in different European countries

# 2487
Two New Chinese Translations of Hamlet Introduced and Compared

# 2475
Linguistic history of the Indian subcontinent

# 2474
Languages with official status in India

# 2251
The Database: Your Most Valuable Asset!

More articles
More articles for translators

Vote in Polls

All Polls:
Polls on all topics

Christian Polls:
Polls on Christian topics

Financial Polls:
Polls on Financial topics

Polls for Freelancers:

Poll # 104
Have you obtained at least one new client through your facebook account?

Poll # 100
What is the worst time-waster?

Poll # 099
If you work at a laptop, do you usually use touchpad or mouse?

Poll # 094
If you run a translation agency, do you ever outsource / subcontract your projects to other translation agencies?

Poll # 090
What do you like the most about TranslationDirectory.com?

Poll # 088
Which translation portal emails you the largest number of job notifications?

Poll # 087
Which one of the following sites has the most appealing color scheme?

Poll # 085
Do you charge a fine (interest) fee for every day of payment delay?

Poll # 083
Do you have licensed SDL Trados software installed at your computer?

Poll # 079
Have you always dreamt to become a translator?

Poll # 078
Do you plan to be a freelance translator for the rest of your life?

Poll # 077
Is it necessary to learn translation theory in order to become a good translator?

Poll # 076
Will human translation be entirely replaced by machine translation in the future?

Poll # 074
Do you have savings?

Poll # 065
Do you know that the Bible is the most popular book in the world?

Poll # 063
What is the purpose of your life?

Poll # 059
How many hours per night do you sleep (in average)?

More polls
More polls for freelancers


translation jobs
christianity portal


 

 
Copyright © 2003-2017 by TranslationDirectory.com
Legal Disclaimer
Site Map