Kharosthi script Languages translation jobs
Home More Articles Join as a Member! Post Your Job - Free! All Translation Agencies
Advertisements

Kharosthi script


Become a member of TranslationDirectory.com at just $8 per month (paid per year)




The Kharoṣṭhī script is an ancient Indic script used by the Gandhara culture of ancient Northwest India (primarily modern-day Afghanistan, Pakistan and North India) to write the Gāndhārī language (a dialect of Prakrit) and the Sanskrit language. An alphasyllabary, it was in use from the middle of the 3rd century BCE until it died out in its homeland around the 3rd century CE. It was also in use in Bactria, Gandhara (particularly in the period of the Kushan Empire), Sogdiana (see Issyk kurgan) and along the Silk Road, where there is some evidence it may have survived until the 7th century in the remote way stations of Khotan and Niya. Kharoṣṭhī is encoded in the Unicode range U+10A00–U+10A5F, from version 4.1.0.

Kharoṣṭhī
Type Alphasyllabary
Languages Gandhari
Prakrit
Time period 4th century BCE – 3rd century CE
Parent systems

Proto-Sinaitic alphabet

  • Phoenician alphabet
    • Aramaic alphabet
      • Kharoṣṭhī
Sister systems Brāhmī
Nabataean
Syriac
Palmyrenean
Mandaic
Pahlavi
Sogdian
ISO 15924 Khar, 305
Direction Right-to-left
Unicode alias Kharoshthi

Form

Kharoṣṭhī is mostly written right to left (type A), but some inscriptions (type B) already show the left to right direction that was to become universal for the later South Asian scripts.

Each syllable includes the short a sound by default, with other vowels being indicated by diacritic marks. Recent epigraphical evidence highlighted by Professor Richard Salomon of the University of Washington has shown that the order of letters in the Kharoṣṭhī script follows what has become known as the Arapacana Alphabet. As preserved in Sanskrit documents the alphabet runs:

a ra pa ca na la da ba ḍa ṣa va ta ya ṣṭa ka sa ma ga stha ja śva dha śa kha kṣa sta jñā rtha (or ha) bha cha sma hva tsa gha ṭha ṇa pha ska ysa śca ṭa ḍha

Some variations in both the number and order of syllables occur in extant texts.

Kharoṣṭhī includes only one standalone vowel sign which is used for initial vowels in words. Other initial vowels use the a character modified by diacritics. Using epigraphic evidence Salomon has established that the vowel order is a e i o u, rather than the usual vowel order for Indic scripts a i u e o. This is the same as the Semitic vowel order. Also, there is no differentiation between long and short vowels in kharoshti. Both are marked using the same vowel markers

The alphabet was used in Gandharan Buddhism as a mnemonic for remembering a series of verses relating to the nature of phenomena. In Tantric Buddhism this list was incorporated into ritual practices, and later became enshrined in mantras.

Alphabet

Kharosthi a.svg a Kharosthi i.svg i Kharosthi u.svg u Kharosthi e.svg e Kharosthi o.svg o Kharosthi ri.svg
Kharosthi k.svg k Kharosthi kh.svg kh Kharosthi g.svg g Kharosthi gh.svg gh
Kharosthi c1.svg c Kharosthi ch.svg ch Kharosthi j.svg j Kharosthi ny.svg ñ
Kharosthi tt.svg Kharosthi tth.svg ṭh Kharosthi dd.svg Kharosthi ddh.svg ḍh Kharosthi nn.svg
Kharosthi t.svg t Kharosthi th.svg th Kharosthi d.svg d Kharosthi dh.svg dh Kharosthi n.svg n
Kharosthi p.svg p Kharosthi ph.svg ph Kharosthi b.svg b Kharosthi bh.svg bh Kharosthi m.svg m
Kharosthi y.svg y Kharosthi r.svg r Kharosthi l.svg l Kharosthi v.svg v
Kharosthi sh.svg ś Kharosthi ss.svg Kharosthi s.svg s Kharosthi h.svg h
Kharosthi kk.svg Kharosthi ttth.svg ṭ́h

Numerals

Kharoṣṭhī included a set of numerals that are reminiscent of Roman numerals. The symbols were I for the unit, X for four (perhaps representative of four lines or directions), ੭ for ten (doubled for twenty), and ʎ for the hundreds multiplier. The system is based on an additive and a multiplicative principle, but does not have the subtractive feature used in the Roman number system.

 

Kharoṣṭhī numerals
۱ ۲ ۳ ۱ㄨ ۲ㄨ ۳ㄨ ㄨㄨ ۱ㄨㄨ
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Ȝ ੭Ȝ ȜȜ ੭ȜȜ ȜȜȜ ੭ȜȜȜ
10 20 30 40 50 60 70
ʎ۱ ʎ۲
100

 

Kharosthi 1a.svg 1 Kharosthi 2a.svg 2 Kharosthi 3a.svg 3 Kharosthi 4a.svg 4 Kharosthi 10.svg 10 Kharosthi 20.svg 20 Kharosthi 100.svg 100 Kharosthi 1000.svg 1000

Note that the table beside reads right-to-left, just like the Kharoṣṭhī abugida itself and the displayed numbers.

The numerals are encoded by Unicode at codepoints U+10A40 to U+10A47:

10A40
��
One
10A41
��
Two
10A42
��
Three
10A43
��
Four
10A44
��
Ten
10A45
��
Twenty
10A46
��
One Hundred
10A47
��
One Thousand

History

The Kharoṣṭhī script was deciphered by James Prinsep (1799–1840), using the bilingual coins of the Indo-Greeks (Obverse in Greek, reverse in Pāli, using the Kharoṣṭhī script). This in turn led to the reading of the Edicts of Ashoka, some of which, from the northwest of the Indian subcontinent, were written in the Kharoṣṭhī script.

The Indo-Greek Hashtnagar Pedestal symbolizes Bodhisattva

The Indo-Greek Hashtnagar Pedestal symbolizes Bodhisattva and ancient Kharoṣṭhī script. Dated to 384 of unknown era. Found near Rajar in Gandhara, Pakistan. Original is exhibited at the British Museum.

Wooden Tablet Inscribed with Kharosthi Characters

Wooden Tablet Inscribed with Kharosthi Characters(2nd - 3rd century AD), Excavated at the site of the Niya Ruins in the Xinjiang, Collection of the Xinjiang Museum

Paper strip with writing in Kharoshi

Paper strip with writing in Kharoṣṭhī. 2-5th century CE, Yingpan, Eastern Tarim Basin, Xinjiang Museum.

Coin of Gurgamoya, king of Khotan

Coin of Gurgamoya, king of Khotan. Khotan, 1st century CE. Obverse: Kharoshthi legend "Of the great king of kings, king of Khotan, Gurgamoya. Reverse: Chinese legend: "Twenty-four grain copper coin."

Scholars are not in agreement as to whether the Kharoṣṭhī script evolved gradually, or was the deliberate work of a single inventor. An analysis of the script forms shows a clear dependency on the Aramaic alphabet but with extensive modifications to support the sounds found in Indic languages. One model is that the Aramaic script arrived with the Achaemenid conquest of the region of northwest India in 500 BCE and evolved over the next 200+ years to reach its final form by the 3rd century BCE where it appears in some of the Edicts of Ashoka found in northwestern part of the Indian.However, no intermediate forms have yet been found to confirm this evolutionary model, and rock and coin inscriptions from the 3rd century BCE onward show a unified and standard form.

The study of the Kharoṣṭhī script was recently invigorated by the discovery of the Gandharan Buddhist Texts, a set of birch-bark manuscripts written in Kharoṣṭhī, discovered near the Afghan city of Hadda just west of the Khyber Pass in modern Pakistan. The manuscripts were donated to the British Library in 1994. The entire set of manuscripts are dated to the 1st century CE, making them the oldest Buddhist manuscripts yet discovered.

Unicode

Kharosthi was added to the Unicode Standard in March, 2005 with the release of version 4.1.

The Unicode block for Kharosthi is U+10A00–U+10A5F

References

1. Graham Flegg, Numbers: Their History and Meaning, Courier Dover Publications, 2002, ISBN 978-0-486-42165-0, p. 67f.

  • Dani, Ahmad Hassan. Kharoshthi Primer, Lahore Museum Publication Series – 16, Lahore, 1979
  • Falk, Harry. Schrift im alten Indien: Ein Forschungsbericht mit Anmerkungen, Gunter Narr Verlag, 1993 (in German)
  • Fussman’s, Gérard. Les premiers systèmes d’écriture en Inde, in Annuaire du Collège de France 1988-1989 (in French)
  • Hinüber, Oscar von. Der Beginn der Schrift und frühe Schriftlichkeit in Indien, Franz Steiner Verlag, 1990 (in German)
  • Nasim Khan, M.(1997). Ashokan Inscriptions: A Palaeographical Study. Atthariyyat (Archaeology), Vol. I, pp. 131-150. Peshawar
  • Nasim Khan, M.(1999). Two Dated Kharoshthi Inscriptions from Gandhara. Journal of Asian Civilizations (Journal of Central Asia), Vol. XXII, No.1, July 1999: 99-103.
  • Nasim Khan, M.(2000). An Inscribed Relic-Casket from Dir. The Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, Vol. V, No. 1, March 1997: 21-33. Peshawar
  • Nasim Khan, M.(2000). Kharoshthi Inscription from Swabi – Gandhara. The Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, Vol. V, No. 2. September 1997: 49-52. Peshawar.
  • Nasim Khan, M.(2004). Kharoshthi Manuscripts from Gandhara. Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences. Vol. XII, Nos. 1 & 2 (2004): 9-15. Peshawar
  • Nasim Khan, M.(2009). Kharoshthi Manuscripts from Gandhara (2nd ed.. First published in 2008.
  • Norman, Kenneth R. The Development of Writing in India and its Effect upon the Pâli Canon, in Wiener Zeitschrift für die Kunde Südasiens (36), 1993
  • Salomon, Richard. New evidence for a Ganghari origin of the arapacana syllabary. Journal of the American Oriental Society. Apr-Jun 1990, Vol.110 (2), p. 255-273.
  • Salomon, Richard. An additional note on arapacana. Journal of the American Oriental Society. 1993, Vol.113 (2), p. 275-6.
  • Salomon, Richard. Kharoṣṭhī syllables used as location markers in Gāndhāran stūpa architecture. Pierfrancesco Callieri, ed., Architetti, Capomastri, Artigiani: L’organizzazione dei cantieri e della produzione artistica nell’asia ellenistica. Studi offerti a Domenico Faccenna nel suo ottantesimo compleanno. (Serie Orientale Rome 100; Rome: Istituto Italiano per l’Africa e l’Oriente, 2006), pp. 181–224.




Published - September 2013













Submit your article!

Read more articles - free!

Read sense of life articles!

E-mail this article to your colleague!

Need more translation jobs? Click here!

Translation agencies are welcome to register here - Free!

Freelance translators are welcome to register here - Free!








Please see some ads as well as other content from TranslationDirectory.com:


Free Newsletter

Subscribe to our free newsletter to receive news from us:

 
Menu
Recommend This Article
Read More Articles
Search Article Index
Read Sense of Life Articles
Submit Your Article
Obtain Translation Jobs
Visit Language Job Board
Post Your Translation Job!
Register Translation Agency
Submit Your Resume
Find Freelance Translators
Buy Database of Translators
Buy Database of Agencies
Obtain Blacklisted Agencies
Advertise Here
Use Free Translators
Use Free Dictionaries
Use Free Glossaries
Use Free Software
Vote in Polls for Translators
Read Testimonials
Read More Testimonials
Read Even More Testimonials
Read Yet More Testimonials
And More Testimonials!
Admire God's Creations

christianity portal
translation jobs


 

 
Copyright © 2003-2019 by TranslationDirectory.com
Legal Disclaimer
Site Map