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Linux adoption is new use of the Linux computer operating system by homes, organizations, companies, and governments, while Linux migration refers to the change from using other operating systems to using Linux.

Many factors have resulted in increased use of Linux systems by traditional desktop users as well as operators of server systems, including desire for decreased operating system cost, increased security and support for open source principles.[1] Several national governments have passed policies moving governmental computers to Linux from proprietary systems in the last few years.

The IBM RoadrunnerThe IBM Roadrunner, the world's fastest supercomputer operated by the US National Nuclear Security Administration, uses Red Hat Enterprise Linux and Fedora as its operating systems.



Main article: History of Linux

Linux-powered personal computers account for 4% of unit sales.[2] However, it has always been common for users to install Linux in addition to (dual boot) or in place of the pre-existing Microsoft Operating platform.


  • 1983 (September): GNU project was announced publicly
  • 1991 (September): first version of the Linux kernel was released to the Internet
  • 1999 EmperorLinux started shipping specially configured laptops running modified Linux distributions to ensure usability[3]
  • 2001 (second quarter): Linux server unit shipments recorded a 15% annual growth rate[4]
  • 2004: Linux shipped on approximately 50% of the worldwide server blade units, and 20% of all rack-optimized servers[4]
  • Dell announced it would begin shipping Ubuntu-based computers to Canada and Latin America[9]
  • Dell began shipping systems with Ubuntu pre-installed in China[10][11]
  • Acer launched the Linux-based Acer Aspire One[12]
  • In June 2008 the Electronics Corporation of Tamil Nadu (ELCOT) a bulk computer buyer for students in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu decided to switch entirely to supplying Linux after Microsoft attempted to use its monopoly position to sell the organization Windows bundled with Microsoft Office. ELCOT declined the offer stating "Any such bundling could result in serious exploitation of the consumer."[13]
  • In August 2008 IBM cited market disillusionment with Microsoft Vista in announcing a new partnership arrangement with Red Hat, Novell and Canonical to offer "Microsoft-free" personal computers with IBM application software, including Lotus Notes and Lotus Symphony.[14]
  • Microsoft denied paying a Nigerian contractor $400,000 to replace Linux on school computers with its own software[15]
  • In January 2009 the New York Times stated: "More than 10 million people are estimated to run Ubuntu today".[16]
  • In mid-2009 Asus stopped offering Linux as part of its It's better with Windows campaign, receiving strong criticism for it. The company claimed that competition from other netbook makers drove them to offer only Windows XP.[17][18][19][20]
  • In June 2009 ZDNet reported "Worldwide, there are 13 million active Ubuntu users with use growing faster than any other distribution."[21]

Types of adopters

Knoppix Linux desktop
Knoppix Linux desktop

Although Linux's status as mainstream operating system is relatively recent, it is in use in many different environments, including government, education, home, business and scientific institutions.


As local governments come under pressure from institutions such as the World Trade Organization and the International Intellectual Property Alliance, some have turned to open source Linux software as an affordable, legal alternative to both pirated material and expensive computer products from Microsoft, Apple and the like (see below). The spread of Linux affords some leverage for these countries when companies from the developed world bid for government contracts (since a low-cost option exists), while furnishing an alternative path to development for countries like India and Pakistan that have many citizens skilled in computer applications but cannot afford technological investment at "First World" prices.

  • In 2003, the Turkish government decided to create its own Linux distribution, Pardus, developed by UEKAE (National Research Institute of Electronics and Cryptology). The first version, Pardus 1.0, was officially announced in 27 December 2005.[42]


Edubuntu CD kit
Edubuntu CD kit.

Linux is often used in technical disciplines at universities and research centres. This is due to several factors, including that Linux is available free of charge and includes a large body of free/open source software. To some extent, technical competence of computer science and software engineering academics is also a contributor, as is stability, maintainability, and upgradability. IBM ran an advertising campaign entitled "Linux is Education" featuring a young boy who was supposed to be "Linux".[43]

Examples of large scale adoption of Linux in education include the following:

  • The OLPC XO-1 (previously called the MIT $100 laptop and The Children's Machine), is an inexpensive laptop running Linux, which will be distributed to millions of children as part of the One Laptop Per Child project, especially in developing countries.
  • Republic of Macedonia deployed 5,000 Linux desktops running Ubuntu across all 468 public schools and 182 computer labs (December 2005). Later in 2007, another 180,000 Ubuntu thin client computers were deployed. [44][45]
  • Schools in Bolzano, Italy, with a student population of 16,000, switched to a custom distribution of Linux, (FUSS Soledad GNU/Linux), in September 2005.[46]
  • Brazil has around 20,000 Linux desktops running in elementary and secondary public schools.[citation needed]
  • Government officials of Kerala, India announced they will use only free software, running on the Linux platform, for computer education, starting with the 2,650 government and government-aided high schools. [47]
  • 22,000 students in the US state of Indiana had access to Linux Workstations at their high schools in 2006.[48]
  • Germany has announced that 560,000 students in 33 universities will migrate to Linux. [49]
  • The Philippines has deployed 13,000 desktops running on Fedora, the first 10,000 where delivered in December 2007 by ASI. Another 10,000 desktops of Edubuntu and Kubuntu are planned.[50]
  • Russia announced in October 2007 that all its school computers will run on Linux.[51] This is to avoid cost of licensing currently unlicensed software.
  • In 2004 Georgia began running all its school computers and LTSP thin clients on Linux, mainly using Kubuntu, Ubuntu and stripped Fedora-based distros. [52]
  • 9,000 computers to be converted to Linux and in school district Geneva, Switzerland by September 2008[53]
  • The Indian state of Tamil Nadu plans to distribute 100,000 Linux laptops to its students.[13]


  • Sony's PlayStation 3 comes with a hard disk (20GB, 60GB or 80GB) and is specially designed to allow easy installation of Linux on the system.[54] However, Linux is prevented from accessing certain functions of the PlayStation such as 3D graphics.[citation needed] Sony also released a Linux kit for its PlayStation 2 console (see Linux for PlayStation 2).
  • In 2008 many netbook models were shipped with Linux installed, usually with a lightweight distribution, such as Xandros or Linpus, to reduce resource consumption on their limited resources.[55]
  • Through 2007 and 2008 Linux distributions with an emphasis on ease of use such as Ubuntu became increasingly popular as home desktop operating systems, with some OEMs, such as Dell, offering models with Ubuntu or other Linux distributions on desktop systems.[56]


Linux is also used in some corporate environments as the desktop platform for its employees, with commercially available solutions including Red Hat Enterprise Linux, SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop, and Linspire.

  • Ernie Ball, known for its famous Super Slinky guitar strings, has used Linux as its desktop operating system since 2000. [57]
  • Novell is undergoing a migration from Windows to Linux. Of its 5500 employees, 50% were successfully migrated as of April, 2006. This was expected to rise to 80% by November.[58]
  • Wotif, the Australian hotel booking website, migrated from Windows to Linux servers to keep up with the growth of its business.[59]
  • Union Bank of California announced in January 2007 that it would standardize its IT infrastructure on Red Hat Enterprise Linux in order to lower costs. [60]
  • Peugeot, the European car maker, announced plans to deploy up to 20,000 copies of Novell's Linux desktop, SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop, and 2,500 copies of SUSE Linux Enterprise Server, in 2007. [61]
  • Mindbridge, a software company, announced in September, 2007 that it had migrated a large number of Windows servers onto a smaller number of Linux servers and a few BSD servers. It claims to have saved "bunches of money."[62]
  • Virgin America, the low cost U.S. airline, uses Linux to power its in-flight entertainment system, RED.[63]
  •, the US based mail-order retailer, uses Linux "in nearly every corner of its business".[64]
  • Google uses a version of Ubuntu internally nicknamed Goobuntu.[65][66][67][68]
  • IBM does extensive development work for Linux and also uses it on desktops and servers internally.[69] The company also created a TV advertising campaign: IBM supports Linux 100%.[70]
  • Wikipedia moved to running its servers on Ubuntu in late 2008, after having previously used a combination of Red Hat and Fedora[71]
  • The Chicago Mercantile Exchange employs an all-Linux computing infrastructure and has used it to process over a quadrillion dollars worth of financial transactions[72][73]
  • The Chi-X pan-European equity exchange runs its MarketPrizm trading platform software on Linux.[73]
  • The New York Stock Exchange uses Linux to run its trading applications.[73]
  • Holiday rental company moved its whole business to Linux desktops and servers.[74]
  • American electronic music composer Kim Cascone migrated from Apple Mac to Ubuntu for his music studio, performance use and administration in 2009.[75]

Scientific institutions

Types of hardware platforms

Linux is used on desktop computers, servers and supercomputers, as well as a wide range of devices.

Desktop computers

See also: Desktop Linux
Debian running a KDE desktop Debian running a KDE desktop.

Measuring desktop adoption

Because Linux desktop distributions are not usually distributed by retail sale like other operating systems, there are no sales numbers that indicate the number of users. One downloaded file may be used to create many CDs and each CD may be used to install the operating system on multiple computers. Due to these factors many estimates of current Linux desktop often rely on webpage hits by computers identifying themselves as running Linux. The use of these statistics has been criticized as unreliable and as underestimating Linux use.[80][81]

Using webpage hits as a measure, until 2008 Linux accounted for only about 1% of desktop market share, while Microsoft Windows operating systems held more than 90%.[80][82][83][84][85][86][87] This might have been because Linux was not seen at that time as a direct replacement for Windows.[88]

According to W3Counter webpage hits the Linux desktop market share increased 62% from 1.32% to 2.13% between mid 2007 and the beginning of 2009, while Windows use fell from 95.52% to 88.77% in the same period, a drop of 7%.[89][90]

The Linux Counter uses an alternate method of estimating adoption, asking users to register and then using a mathematical model to estmate the total number of desktop users. In March 2009 this method estimated 29 million Linux users.[81][91]

In April 2009 Aaron Seigo of KDE indicated that most web-page counter methods produce Linux adoption numbers that are far too low given the system's extensive penetration into non-North American markets, especially China. He stated that the North American-based web-measurement methods produce high Windows numbers and ignore the widespread use of Linux in other parts of the world. In estimating true worldwide desktop adoption and accounting for the Windows-distorted environment in the USA and Canada he indicated that at least 8% of the world desktops run Linux distributions and possibly as high as 10-12% and that the numbers are rising quickly. Other commentators have echoed this same belief, noting that competitors are expending a lot of effort to discredit Linux, which is incongruent with a tiny market share:[92][93]

I don't believe that the desktop Linux market share is barely 1%. I think it is a lot higher. I have no good data to share; I base my assessment on experience and knowing the industry. There is something else that is even more persuasive, and that is how Microsoft behaves. If Linux is so insignificant, why do they pay so much attention to it?[93]

In May 2009 Preston Gralla, contributing editor to, in reacting to the Net Applications web hit numbers showing that Linux use was over 1% said that "Linux will never become an important desktop or notebook operating system". He reasons that the upsurge in Linux desktop use recently seen is due to Linux netbooks, a trend he says is already diminishing and will be further eroded when Windows 7 becomes available. He concludes: "As a desktop operating system, Linux isn't important enough to think about. For servers, it's top-notch, but you likely won't use it on your desktop -- even though it did finally manage to crack the 1% barrier after 18 years".[94]

Reasons for adoption

Reasons to change from other operating systems to Linux include better system stability, virus, trojan, adware and spyware protection, low or no cost, that most distributions come complete with application software and hardware drivers, simplified updates for all installed software, free software licencing, availability of application repositories and access to the source code. Linux also eliminates the need to defragment file systems as it doesn't store files in a fragmented manner. Linux desktop distributions also offer multiple desktop workspaces, greater customization, free and unlimited support though forums and an operating system that doesn't slow down over time. Environmental reasons are also cited, as Linux operating systems usually do not come in boxes and other retail packaging, but are downloaded via the internet. The lower system specifications also mean that older hardware can be kept in use instead of being recycled or discarded. Linux distributions also get security vulnerabilities patched much more quickly than non-free operating systems and improvements in Linux have been occurring at a faster rate than Windows has been improving.[1][95][96][97]

Investments have been made to improve desktop Linux usability since 2007. A report in The Economist in December 2007 said: "Linux has swiftly become popular in small businesses and the home. That’s largely the doing of Gutsy Gibbon, the code-name for the Ubuntu 7.10 from Canonical. Along with distributions such as Linspire, Mint, Xandros, OpenSUSE and gOS, Ubuntu (and its siblings Kubuntu, Edubuntu and Xubuntu) has smoothed most of Linux’s geeky edges while polishing it for the desktop. No question, Gutsy Gibbon is the sleekest, best integrated and most user-friendly Linux distribution yet. It’s now simpler to set up and configure than Windows."[98]

Indian bulk computer purchaser the Electronics Corporation of Tamil Nadu (ELCOT) started recommending only Linux in June 2008. Following testing they stated: "ELCOT has been using SUSE Linux and Ubuntu Linux operating systems on desktop and laptop computers numbering over 2,000 during the past two years and found them far superior as compared to other operating systems, notably the Microsoft Operating System."[13]

In many developing nations, such as China, where, due to widespread software piracy, Microsoft Windows can be easily obtained for free, Linux distributions are gaining a high level of adoption. In these countries there is essentially no cost barrier to obtaining commericial operating systems, but users are adopting Linux based on its merit, rather than on price.[21]

In January 2001 Microsoft CEO Bill Gates explained the attraction of adopting Linux, in an internal memo that was released in the Comes vs Microsoft case. He said:[99][100]

Our most potent Operating System competitor is Linux and the phenomena around Open Source and free software. The same phenomena fuels competitors to all of our products. The ease of picking up Linux to learn it or to modify some piece of it is very attractive. The academic community, start up companies, foreign governments and many other constituencies are putting their best work into Linux.[99][100]

Barriers to adoption

The greatest barrier to Linux desktop adoption is probably that few desktop PCs come with it from the factory. A.Y. Siu asserted in 2006 that most people use Windows simply because most PCs come with Windows pre-installed; they didn't choose it. Linux has much lower market penetration because in most cases users have to install it themselves, a task that is beyond the capabilities of the average PC user: "Most users won’t even use Windows restore CDs, let alone install Windows from scratch. Why would they install an unfamiliar operating system on their computers?"[95]

TechRepublic writer Jack Wallen expands on this barrier, saying in August 2008:[97]

Why would anyone choose Windows over Linux?...In my seriously biased opinion, I think this question is answered with a simple conspiracy theory: Microsoft is doing everything it can to keep the public blind to Linux. Think about it? Remember the whole Wintel conspiracy where MS and Intel played off of each other to continue their strangle-hold monopoly in the PC industry? That era played a huge part in the blinding of consumers. Top that with the business practices MS forces upon big box shops to insure (sic) their operating system is sold on nearly every PC sold and you can see that conspiracy is more of a reality than one might think.[97]

In an openSUSE survey conducted in 2007, 69.5% of respondents said they dual booted a Microsoft Windows operating system in addition to a Linux operating system.[101] In early 2007 Bill Whyman, an analyst at Precursor Advisors, noted that "there still isn't a compelling alternative to the Microsoft infrastructure on the desktop."[102]

Application support, the quality of peripheral support, and end user support were at one time seen as the biggest obstacles to desktop Linux adoption. According to a 2006 survey by The Linux Foundation, these factors were seen as a "major obstacle" for 56%, 49%, and 33% of respondents respectively at that time.[103][104][105][106][107][108][109][110][111]

Application support

See also: Virtual Machine (allows most Windows software to run "on top of" Linux)

The November 2006 Desktop Linux Client Survey identified the foremost barrier for deploying Linux desktops was that users were accustomed to Windows applications which had not been ported to Linux and which they "just can't live without". These included Microsoft Office, Adobe Photoshop, Autodesk AutoCAD, Microsoft Project, Visio and Intuit QuickBooks.[111][112] In a survey conducted in 2007, 72% of respondents said they used ways to run Windows applications on Linux.[113]

51% of respondents to the 2006 Linux Foundation survey believed that cross-distribution Linux desktop standards should be the top priority for the Linux desktop community, highlighting the fact that the fragmented Linux market is preventing application vendors from developing, distributing and supporting the operating system.[106][111] In May 2008, Gartner predicted that "version control and incompatibilities will continue to plague open-source OSs and associated middleware" in the 2013 timeframe.[114]

By 2008 the design of Linux applications and the porting of Windows and Apple applications had progressed to the point where it was difficult to find an application that did not have an equivalent for Linux, providing adequate or better capabilities.[115][116]

An example of application progress can be seen comparing the main productivity suite for Linux,, to Microsoft Office. With the release of 3.0 in October 2008 Ars Technica assessed the two:[117]

Although has not yet reached full parity with Microsoft Office, it is maturing at a rapid pace and is already capable of meeting the basic needs of many average computer users. It is an ideal choice for schools and is an increasingly viable choice for small businesses and home users that don't rely on the more advanced capabilities of Microsoft's office suite.[117]
Peripheral support

In the past the availability and quality of open source device drivers were issues for Linux desktops. Particular areas which were lacking drivers included printers as well as wireless and audio cards.[111][118] For example in early 2007, Dell did not sell certain hardware and software with Ubuntu 7.04 computers, including printers, projectors, Bluetooth keyboards and mice, TV tuners and remote controls, desktop modems and Blu-ray disc drives, due to incompatibilities at that time, as well as legal issues.[119]

By 2008 most Linux hardware support and driver issues had been adequately addressed. In September 2008 Jack Wallen's assessment was:

Years ago, if you wanted to install Linux on a machine you had to make sure you hand-picked each piece of hardware or your installation would not work 100 percent...This is not so much the case now. You can grab a PC (or laptop) and most likely get one or more Linux distributions to install and work nearly 100 percent. But there are still some exceptions; for instance, hibernate/suspend remains a problem with many laptops, although it has come a long way.[96]
End-user support

Some critics have stated that compared to Windows, Linux is lacking in end-user support. Linux has traditionally been seen as requiring much more technical expertise.[120][121] Dell's website describes open source software as requiring intermediate or advanced knowledge to use.[110] In September 2007, the founder of the Ubuntu project, Mark Shuttleworth, commented that "it would be reasonable to say that this is not ready for the mass market."[120]

In October 2004 Chief Technical Officer of Adeptiva Linux, Stephan February, noted at that time that Linux was a very technical software product, and few people outside the technical community were able to support consumers. Windows users are able to rely on friends and family for help, but Linux users generally use discussion boards, which can be uncomfortable for consumers.[122][123]

In 2005 Dominic Humphries summarized the difference in user tech support:[124]

Windows users are more or less in a customer-supplier relationship: They pay for software, for warranties, for support, and so on. They expect software to have a certain level of usability. They are therefore used to having rights with their software: They have paid for technical support and have every right to demand that they receive it. They are also used to dealing with entities rather than people: Their contracts are with a company, not with a person.

Linux users are in more of a community. They don't have to buy the software, they don't have to pay for technical support. They download software for free & use Instant Messaging and web-based forums to get help. They deal with people, not corporations.[124]

More recently critics have found that the Linux user support model, using community-based forum support, has greatly improved. In 2008 Jack Wallen stated:[96]

With Linux, you have the support of a huge community via forums, online search, and plenty of dedicated websites. And of course, if you feel the need, you can purchase support contracts from some of the bigger Linux companies (Red Hat and Novell, for instance).

However, when you use the peer support inherent in Linux, you do take a chance with time. You could have an issue with something, send out email to a mailing list or post on a forum, and within 10 minutes be flooded with suggestions. Or these suggestions could take hours or days to come in. It seems all up to chance sometimes.

Yet generally speaking, most problems with Linux have been encountered and documented, so the chances are good you'll find your solution fairly quickly.[96]

In addressing the question of user support, Manu Cornet said:

One of the great assets of the Open Source community (and Linux in particular), is that it's a real community. Users and developers really are out there, on web forums, on mailing lists, on IRC channels, helping out new users. They're all happy to see more and more people switch to Linux, and they're happy to help them get a grip on their new'll find literally thousands of places where nice people will answer you and walk you out of your problem most of the time[1]
Other factors

Linux's credibility has also been under attack at times, but as Ron Miller of LinuxPlanet points out:[125]

...the fact that Linux is being criticized is probably a good thing.

First of all, it shows that Linux is making headway in the enterprise and beginning to have an impact on competitors and they are reacting to that. Secondly, it's healthy to take a long look at any solution and analyze its strengths and weaknesses and the economic ramifications of one choice over another.

Ultimately, consumers and decision makers need to look carefully at the data including the sources of the data and the criticism and decide if Linux is the right decision, but as more people choose Linux and it finds its place in the market, it is bound to wear a target. That's simply the price you pay for success in the marketplace.[125]

There is continuing debate about the total cost of ownership of Linux,[126][127] with Gartner warning in 2005 that the costs of migration may exceed the cost benefits of Linux.[128] Gartner reiterated the warning in 2008, predicting that "by 2013, a majority of Linux deployments will have no real software total cost of ownership (TCO) advantage over other operating systems."[114] Organizations that have moved to Linux have disagreed with these warnings. Sterling Ball, CEO of Ernie Ball, the world's leading maker of premium guitar strings and a 2003 Linux adopter, said of total cost of ownership arguments: "I think that's propaganda...What about the cost of dealing with a virus? We don't have 'em...There's no doubt that what I'm doing is cheaper to operate. The analyst guys can say whatever they want."[57]

In the SCO-Linux controversies, the SCO Group had alleged that UNIX source code donated by IBM was illegally incorporated into Linux. The threat that SCO might be able to legally assert ownership of Linux initially caused some potential Linux adopters to delay that move. The court cases bankrupted SCO in 2007 after they lost their four-year court battle over the ownership of the UNIX copyrights. SCO's case had hinged on showing that Linux included intellectual property that had been misappropriated from UNIX, but the case failed when the court discovered that Novell and not SCO, was the rightful owner of the copyrights. During the legal process, it was revealed that SCO's claims about Linux were fraudulent and that SCO's internal source code audits had showed no evidence of infringement.[57][125][129]

A rival operating system vendor, Green Hills Software, has called the open source paradigm of Linux "fundamentally insecure".[130]

The US Army does not agree that Linux is a security problem. Brigadier General Nick Justice, the Deputy Program Officer for the Army's Program Executive Office, Command, Control and Communications Tactical (PEO C3T) said in April 2007:[23]

Our job is to provide accurate and timely information to the soldier in the field so they can perform their mission. Open source software is part of the integrated network fabric which connects and enables our command and control system to work effectively, as people's lives depend on it.

When we rolled into Baghdad, we did it using open source. It may come as a surprise to many of you, but the U.S. Army is "the" single largest install base for Red Hat Linux. I'm their largest customer.[23]


Servers designed for Linux
Servers designed for Linux

Linux became popular in the Internet server market particularly due to the LAMP software bundle. In September 2008 Steve Ballmer (Microsoft CEO) claimed 60% of servers run Linux and 40% run Windows Server [131]


Linux is the most popular operating system among supercomputers due to its superior performance and speed. In November 2008 Linux held an 87.8 percent share of the world's top 500 supercomputers.[132][133][134]

By June 2009 the operating systems used on the world's top 500 supercomputers were:[134]


See also: Linux devices

Linux is often used in various single- or multi-purpose computer appliances and embedded systems.[135]


Many organizations advocate for Linux adoption. The foremost of these is the Linux Foundation which hosts and sponsors the key kernel developers, manages the Linux trademark, manages the Open Source Developer Travel Fund, provides legal-aid to open source developers and companies through the Linux Legal Defense Fund, sponsors and also hosts the Patent Commons Project.

The International Free and Open Source Software Foundation (iFOSSF) is a nonprofit organization based in Michigan, USA dedicated to accelerating and promoting the adoption of FOSS worldwide through research and civil society partnership networks.

The Open Invention Network was formed to protect vendors and customers from patent royalty fees while using OSS.

Other advocates for Linux include:

See also


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Published - August 2009


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