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List of constructed languages

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This list of constructed languages is in alphabetical order, and divided into auxiliary, engineered, and artistic (including fictional) languages, and their respective subgenres.


Auxiliary languages

Spoken (major)

The following are languages that have generated significant followings, or which have been of significance in the history of auxiliary languages.

Language name ISO Year of first
Creator Comments
Volapük vo, vol 1879–1880 Johann Martin Schleyer First to generate international interest in International auxiliary languagess (IALs))
Esperanto eo, epo 1887 L. L. Zamenhof Fluent speakers: between 30,000 and 300,000[1]; Casual users: est. 100,000 to 2 million; native: 200 to 2000 (1996, est.)[2]. The most popular constructed language.
Idiom Neutral   1902 Waldemar Rosenberger A naturalistic IAL by a former advocate of Volapük
Latino sine Flexione   1903 Giuseppe Peano "Latin without inflections," it replaced Idiom Neutral in 1908
Ido io, ido 1907 A group of reformist Esperanto speakers The most successful offspring of Esperanto
Occidental ie, ile 1922 Edgar de Wahl A sophisticated naturalistic IAL (Interlingue)
Novial nov 1928 Otto Jespersen Another sophisticated naturalistic IAL
Glosa igs 1943 Lancelot Hogben, et al. Originally called Interglossa, has a strong Greco-Latin vocabulary
Interlingua ia, ina 1951 International Auxiliary Language Association A large project to discover common European vocabulary

Spoken (minor)

There have been literally hundreds of proposals for auxiliary languages, and more continue to be created. The following are languages with some notability, either historically or because of unusual characteristics.

Language name ISO Year of first
Creator Comments
Adjuvilo   1908 Claudius Colas an esperantido created to cause dissent among Idoists
Afrihili afh 1970 K. A. Kumi Attobrah a pan-African language
Arcaicam Esperantom   1969 Manuel Halvelik 'Archaic Esperanto', an archaizing 'Old Esperanto' for literature
Babm   1962 Rikichi Okamoto noted for using Latin letters as an abjad
Communicationssprache   1839 Joseph Schipfer based on French
Esperanto II   1937 René de Saussure last of Saussure's many esperantidos
Europanto eur 1996 Diego Marani a "linguistic jest"
Kotava avk 1978 Staren Fetcey a sophisticated a priori IAL
Lingua Franca Nova lfn 1998 Dr. C. George Boeree and others Romance vocabulary with creole-like grammar
Lingua sistemfrater   1957 Pham Xuan Thai Greco-Latin vocabulary with southeast Asian grammar
Modern Indo-European   2006 Carlos Quiles and María Teresa Batalla modernized Proto-Indo-European
Mondial   1940s Dr. Helge Heimer naturalistic European language
Mundolinco   1888 J. Braakman the first esperantido
Neo   1961 Arturo Alfandari a very terse European language
Noxilo   1997 Mizta Sentaro a language trying to avoid any regional or ethinic bias
Nuwaubic   1970s? Malachi Z. York the language of a black supremacist religious group
Poliespo   1990s? Nvwtohiyada Idehesdi Sequoyah Esperanto grammar with significant Cherokee vocabulary
Solresol   1827 François Sudre the famous "musical language"
Sona   1935 Kenneth Searight best known attempt at universality of vocabulary
Spokil   1887 or 1890 Adolph Nicolas an a priori language by a former Volapük advocate
Toki Pona   2001 Sonja Elen Kisa highly simplified language with restricted vocabulary
Universalglot   1868 Jean Pirro arguably the first IAL, predating even Volapük
Vendergood   1906 William James Sidis invented when he was eight years old

Controlled languages

Controlled languages are natural languages that have in some way been altered to make them simpler, easier to use, or more acceptable to those who do not speak the original language well. Most of these have been based on English.

Visual languages

Visual languages use symbols or movements in place of the spoken word.

Engineered languages


Knowledge representation

Artistic languages

Languages used in fiction


Comic books

Movies and television

Unnamed languages



  • Grammelot (Cirquish) is a "gibberish" that goes back to the 16th century, used by performers, including those of Cirque du Soleil




Alternative languages

Micronational languages

Personal languages

Language games

References and notes

  1. ^
  2. ^ Ethnologue report for language code:epo

See also


Published - December 2008

Information from Wikipedia is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License

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