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The tradition of Translating the Rubaiyat of Khayyam - An Approach to Culture Specific Terms


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Abstract

As the linguists and the translators argue, there are some words- calling culture specific terms which are rooted in the culture of any nation and country. Since there are often so many culture specific terms in poems, translating these terms and transferring them from one language to another one having two different cultures is a difficult process. Transferring of culture specific terms from one culture to another and understanding them by the target audience in the target culture is dependent on having familiarity with the source culture and traditions.

Customs and tradition are part of a culture. Beliefs and feelings change from culture to culture. Religious elements, myths, legends, and the like are major components of any culture. They present major hurdles in translating a text. This sensitive issue demands the translator's full attention.

Translation of literature interrelates with the characteristics and representation of a nation or a special group. Post colonialists believe that the image created by the translation would gradually take the position of reality in the mind of its recipients, although it might be in spite of reality. It means that, those nation or special group comprehend themselves as it has been imaged by the translations. Consequently, they would own the same characteristics that the translation has created.

Key Terms: Translation of Poetry, the Rubaiyat of Khayyam, Culture Specific Terms, Culture-Bound Translation

Introduction

Omar Khayyam (1053-1123) was a Persian poet, astronomer, and mathematician whose poems are more widely known to English readers through Edward Fitzgerald's brilliant nineteenth century translations (1859). In fact, Fitzgerald's work is a totally free translation which can hardly be corresponded to its original one. However, it may be argued, his translation is fully known in the western world like Shakespeare's works.

As a work of English literature, Fitzgerald's poetic version is a high point of the 19th century. As a work of accurate line-by-line translation of Omar Khayyam's quatrains, it is noted more for freedom than fidelity. Many verses are paraphrased, and some of them cannot be confidently traced to any one of Khayyam's quatrains at all. Some critics informally refer to the English versions of Fitzgerald as "The Rubaiyat of FitzOmar", a practice that recognizes both the liberties Fitzgerald inflicted on his purported source and also credits Fitzgerald for the considerable portion of the "translation" that is his own creation.

Fitzgerald has combined a few of the Rubaiyat to compose one, and sometimes it is difficult to trace and correspond the original to the translated version. However, he has tried his utmost to adhere to the spirit of the original poetry.

It seems that Fitzgerald's translation of Khayyam might be done in due to his limited knowledge of the Persian language, ignorance of the tradition of Persian poetry, the marginal position he assigned to Persian literature, and restoring to translation as a mode of writing and composing in disguise (see Farahzad 2006a: 47).

Translation of poetry is probably the subject in translation studies that triggers the strongest polemics. Many translation scholars have studied the issues of "literary translation" and expressed their ideas about the problems that confront translators in the act of translating literary texts. Even those not specialized in translation often have an opinion on the subject. The problems often originate from the multiplicity of meaning in a literary text and also from the integration of from and meaning in it.

Since the style of poetry is very imaginative and complex, it is very difficult, sometimes impossible, to transfer all the linguistic features of a poem from one language into another. The style contains part of the meaning so that a loss in transferring the style leads to a loss in transferring the total meaning. For poetry, the translation dilemma is either creating a text enabling reader to access the original, or creating a beautiful poetic text inspired by the original.

Lazim (2007) in his article considers poetry translation and points that poetry arouses doubts and queries on the possibility of its translatability. The opponents of poetic translation propose their reasons: when poems, especially philosophical ones, satires, lyrics, etc, are translated into another language, they become not only flabby poems, but rather new ones in a new language. They stress that poetry in translation surely loses its basic elements. Such views go with the belief that poetry is wholly lost in translation. Should we, then, refrain from translating poetry, or should we attempt at translating it irrespective of all precautions? The second view is advocated here for if poetry is left inaccessible to translation, mankind would be deprived of a huge number of poetic works which are masterpieces themselves.

Thriveni (2001) in her article 'Cultural Elements in Translation, the Indian  Perspective' writes that awareness of history is an essential requirement for the translator of a work coming from an alien culture. Thorough knowledge of a foreign language, its vocabulary, and grammar is not sufficient to make one competent as a translator. One should be familiar with one's own culture and be aware of the source-language culture before attempting to build any bridge between them.

Nida (1964:55) classifies the cultural references in five groups:

Material, related to everyday objects

Ecological, related to differences in the places, weather…

Social, related to social organization and its artistic manifestations in the Arts or literature and history

Religious, which include ritualized and ideological manifestations

Linguistic, the tool which is needed to express the previous types of reference…

(Cited in Gonzalez Davies (2004:89))

Farahzad (2004) points to the Rubaiyat of Khayyam translated into English by Edward Fitzgerald and writes that one of the extremely interesting examples of poetry translation is that of the Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam, the Persian astronomer-poet of the 11th century AD, which became known to the West through Edward Fitzgerald's so-called translation in 1859. It is interesting because it seems to have lost almost every connection with its Persian source in the process of its appropriation, and one wonders how English readers could appreciate it as non-English, oriental poetry, and what would happen if they had been better informed of what Khayyam presented in his quatrains.

Review of literature

The translation of poem

Newmark (1988:94) defines culture as "the way of life and its manifestation that is peculiar to a community that uses a particular language as it means of expression".

So, a good and natural translation of the literary texts especially the poetries which are representations of our wealthy culture is very important and effective in protecting our culture and national identity.

According to Manafi (2005:85):

If we classify a translation with regard to its linguistic form, it will be classed as "literal" or "idiomatic" .Beekman, John and John Callow (1989: 21) say: "If its form corresponds more to the form of the original text, it is classed as literal; if its form corresponds more to the form of the receptor language (RL), then it is classed as idiomatic." According to Beekman and Callow these two basic approaches to translation give rise to four main types of translations: 1) Highly literal, 2) modified literal, 3) idiomatic, 4) unduly free. Of these four the two middle ones are acceptable, but the first and the last, which are two extreme sides, are unacceptable.

The highly literal translation, as they say, is that in which the obligatory grammatical rules of the RL are set aside and the translation follows the order of the original word for word and with high consistency. This type of translation mostly results in ambiguity, awkwardness and unnaturalness .The unduly free translation is on the extreme side of the highly literal one. As Beekman and Callow (1989: 23) point out , in the unduly free translation "the purpose is to make the message as relevant and clear as possible .There are , therefore , no distortions of the message arising from literalisms ,but there are , nevertheless , distortions of content, with the translation clearly saying what the original neither says nor implies. Thus, although the highly literal and the unduly free translations are at opposite extremes, they share the same unacceptable characteristic of failing to communicate what the original communicated".

The modified literal translation occurs when the translator makes some lexical or grammatical adjustment to correct the errors arising from literalism, and produce something which is equivalent to the original.

An idiomatic translation is that which conveys the meaning of the original in the natural lexical and grammatical forms of the RL. In this kind of translation the focus is on the meaning, conveyed in the linguistic form of the RL. (ibid: 86) 

Larson (1984:482) states that the second thing the translator will need to do is to check for accuracy of meaning. She can only do this by a careful comparison with the source text and the semantic analysis .Some of the problems she may find are 1)something omitted , 2) something added , 3) a different meaning , or 4) a zero meaning , that is , the form used just doesn't communicate any meaning at all.

Hindly (1800), in a preface to his Persian Lyrics, discusses many problems of translating Persian poetry .The specific meter, the frequent use of compound words, says Hindly, is "impossible to reproduce in elegant and idiomatic English ".In Hendy's preface, the problems of translating habitual use of Sufi imagery and the repetitive mono-rhyme which are suited to English language are discussed (qtd. In Arberry, 1958: 335).

Nida (1964) believes that "the translation of poetry obviously involves more adjustments in literary form than does prose, for rhythmic forms differ far more radically in form, and hence in aesthetic appeal (qtd .in Venuti, 2000:139)

According to Newmark's definition (1988:70) the translation of poetry is the field where most emphasis is normally put on the creation of a new independent poem, and where literal translation is usually condemned.

Nicholson (1962: viii) states that " the poetry has usually been turned into verse which can give the artistic effect better than prose, though it cannot render the meaning so exactly ". In his view, while any poem can be reproduced in meter, few Arabic or Persian Poetry is wholly suitable for English verse.

Hatim and Mason (1990:2) argue that "poetry is essentially an act of self expression and not of communication ". According to them "there may be all kinds of constraints which make the translation of poetry a special case with its own concerns and problems ".

Manafi (2005:110) states: A literary work has its own formal and stylistic beauties, as well as its semantic richness and potential meaning. When the translator chooses a particular reading of the original text, and translates his own understanding or interpretation of it into the target language, much is lost from both those formal beauties and semantic richness of the original text .That is why no English translation of, say, Sa, di's poems, or any other Persian classical poetry, call allow, among the receptors, all those responses allowed among the SL readers.

According to Beaugrande and Dressler's (1981) model the effectiveness of textual communication is related to the extent to which a text upholds the following standards of textuality: Cohesion, Coherence, Situationality, Intertextuality, Intentionality, Informativity and Acceptability which refers to the text receiver's response. (Qtd. In Hatim, 2001:117)

Newmark (1988:26) states that Naturalness is easily defined not so easy to be concrete about. Natural usage comprises a variety of idioms or styles or registers determined primarily by the "setting" of the text, i.e. where it is typically published or found, secondarily by the author, topic and readership, all of whom are usually dependent on the setting.

A merely '' adequate '' translation states Newmark (1988:192) maybe useful to explain what the text is about.

According to Newmark's viewpoint (1988:163), Poetry is the most personal and concentrated of the four forms, no redundancy, no phatic language, where, as a unit, the word has greater importance than in any other type of text. A word is a symbol which represents an area of experience or part of one's environment.

The translations of Rubaiyat of Khayyam

The nature of a translation depends very much on what interpretation one places on Khayyam's philosophy. The fact that the Rubaiyat is a collection of quatrains - and may be selected and rearranged subjectively to support one interpretation or another - has led to widely differing versions. Nicolas took the view that Khayyam himself clearly was a Sufi. Others have seen signs of mysticism, even atheism, or conversely devout and orthodox Islam. Fitzgerald gave the Rubaiyat a distinct fatalistic spin, although it has been claimed that he softened the impact of Khayyam's nihilism and his preoccupation with the mortality and transience of all things. Even such a question as to whether Khayyam was pro- or anti-alcohol gives rise to more discussion than might at first glance have seemed plausible.

As a work of English literature Fitzgerald's poetic version is a high point of the 19th century and as a work of accurate line-by-line translation of Omar Khayyam's quatrains, it is noted more for freedom than fidelity. Many verses are paraphrased, and some of them cannot be confidently traced to any one of Khayyam's quatrains at all.

Two English editions by Whinfield (1836-?) consisted of 253 quatrains in 1882 and 500 in 1883.

Quatrain 84 (equivalent of Fitzgerald's quatrain XI in his first edition, as above):

In the sweet spring a grassy bank I sought
And thither wine and a fair Houri brought;
And, though the people called me graceless dog,
Gave not to Paradise another thought!

 An English translation of 152 quatrains, published in 1888.

Quatrain I. 20 (equivalent of Fitzgerald's quatrain XI in his first edition, as above):

Yes, Loved One, when the Laughing Spring is blowing,
With Thee beside me and the Cup o’erflowing,
I pass the day upon this Waving Meadow,
And dream the while, no thought on Heaven bestowing.

Justin Huntly McCarthy (1859-1936) (MP for Athlone) published prose translations of 466 quatrains in 1888.

Quatrain 177 (equivalent of Fitzgerald's quatrain XI in his first edition, as above):

In Spring time I love to sit in the meadow with a paramour perfect as a Houri and a goodly jar of wine, and though I may be blamed for this, yet hold me lower than a dog if ever I dream of Paradise.

Richard Le Gallienne (1866-1947) produced a verse translation, subtitled "a paraphrase from several literal translations", in 1897. In his introductory note to the reader, Le Gallienne cites McCarthy's "charming prose" as the chief influence on his version. Some example quatrains follow:

Look not above; there is no answer there;
Pray not, for no one listens to your prayer;
Near is as near to God as any Far,
And Here is just the same deceit as There.

[...]

And do you think that unto such as you;
A maggot-minded, starved, fanatic crew:
God gave the secret, and denied it me?--
Well, well, what matters it! Believe that, too.

[...]

"Did God set grapes a-growing, do you think,
And at the same time make it sin to drink?
Give thanks to Him who foreordained it thus--
Surely He loves to hear the glasses clink!"

Edward Heron-Allen (1861-1943) published a prose translation in 1898. He also wrote an introduction to an edition of Frederick Rolfe (Baron Corvo)’s translation into English of Nicolas’s French translation.

Example quatrain (equivalent of Fitzgerald's quatrain XI in his first edition, as above):

I desire a little ruby wine and a book of verses,
Just enough to keep me alive and half a loaf is needful;
And then, that I and thou should sit in a desolate place
Is better than the kingdom of a sultan.

"In 1959, the distinguished scholar of Persian and Arabic, Professor A. J. Arberry, attempted to make a scholarly edition of Khayyam, relying on thirteenth-century manuscripts. However, those manuscripts were soon to be exposed as twentieth-century forgeries."

"Arberry’s work, though misguided, had been published in good faith. The alleged translation in 1967 of the Rubáiyat by Robert Graves and Omar Ali-Shah was something more scandalous. This purported to be a translation of a twelfth-century manuscript located somewhere in Afghanistan, where it was allegedly used as a Sufi teaching document. But it proved impossible to produce the manuscript, and British experts in Persian literature had no difficulty in proving that the translation was in fact based on a study of the possible sources of FitzGerald’s work by Edward Heron Allen."

Quatrain 12 (equivalent of Fitzgerald's quatrain XI in his first edition, as above):

A gourd of red wine and a sheaf of poems -
A bare subsistence, half a loaf, not more -
Supplied us two alone in the free desert:
What Sultan could we envy on his throne?

A modern version of 235 quatrains, claiming to be "as literal an English version of the Persian originals as readability and intelligibility permit", published in 1979.

In 1988, for the very first time the Rubaiyat were translated by a Persian translator. Karim Emami translated the Rubaiyat in his title "The Wine of Nishapour" which was published in Paris. The Wine of Nishapour is the collection of Khayyam's poetry by Shahrokh Golestan; it includes Golestan's pictures in front of each poem. Emami was an outstanding translator of English in Iran, who had also translated many of the contemporary Persian poetry along with his translation of the rubaiyat of Ommar Khayyam. Emami died in 2005 at his home in Tehran, due to cancer, his death has been a huge loss to the society of translators and writers in Iran.

Example from Emami's work:

It's early dawn, my love, open your eyes and arise
Gently imbibing and playing the lyre;
For those who are here will not tarry long,
And those who are gone will not return.

Example quatrain 160 (equivalent of Fitzgerald's quatrain XI in his first edition, as above):

In spring if a houri-like sweetheart
Gives me a cup of wine on the edge of a green cornfield,
Though to the vulgar this would be blasphemy,
If I mentioned any other Paradise, I'd be worse than a dog.

Ahmed Rami, a famous late Egyptian poet, translated the work into Arabic. His translation is considered to be a most fascinating work of modern Arabic literature, and was sung by Umm kalthoum.

The problem

Translation of poetry, being a very complicated and challenging procedure requires different knowledge areas the most important of which are considered as syntactic, semantic, stylistic, and lexical. Translators and translation scholars unanimously agree that efficient translators must have a good knowledge of the SL, the TL, and the content.

Customs and tradition are part of a culture. Beliefs and feelings change from culture to culture. Religious elements, myths, legends, and the like are major components of any culture. They present major hurdles in translating a text. This sensitive issue demands the translator's full attention.

The translation of literature interrelates with the characteristics and representation of a nation or a special group. Post colonialists believe that the image created by the translation would gradually take the position of reality in the mind of its recipients, although it might be in spite of reality. It means that, those nation or special group comprehend themselves as it has been imaged by the translations. Consequently, they would own the same characteristics that the translation has created.

The eastern literature translated into western languages has somewhat been shaped differently. It might be done intentionally or unintentionally. In any case, the images of Easter's noble literature represented in the western's mind are somewhat different of the reality. They know Khayyam, Hafez, Sadi, Rumi, etc. as they like to be not as they are really. The task of translation in this field is significant. 

It seems that there is just one solution to this problem; we, Easters, translate our own noble literature ourselves. 

The model of criticism

Based on Farahzad's model (forthcoming), the analysis of metatext takes place at two levels: micro and macro. At both levels, lexical choices, word combination, ideological values, etc, are checked. Following Popovic, she uses the terms " the prototext" and " the metatext" instead of  " source text" and " target text". She, however, adds that Popovic's attempt to be the first to define the source text and target text within an intertextual framework. However, Farahzad emphasizes that Popovic's understanding of this intertextual relation is different from hers.

We tried to analyze the present study at both micro and macro levels. At micro level, the word level was analyzed through asking questions as:

 Are any of the words/terms used in the metatext ideologically significant? If so, how? What metaphors are used? What social issues do they represent?

At the macro level, we basically looked for the translator's judgments, representation of identity; how he reflected or altered identities; power relations; ideologies; position for or against things, implications…

Discussion

At micro level

Transferring of culture specific terms from one culture to another and understanding them by the target audience in the target culture is dependent on having familiarity with the source culture and traditions. Although more and more concepts are shared and understood between different cultures, there are still many culture specific terms and expressions which reflect the morals and values of a particular culture and have no true equivalent in the TL.

There are some examples from Khayyam's poem among so many ones from various poets; 

آنان که زپیش رفته اند ای ساقی 

Those who have gone before us, oh saki 

این کوزه چو من عاشق زاری بوده است 

Like me this jug has been one a forlorn lover

گویند بهشت و حورعین خواهد بود

There will be a Paradise with lovely houris some say,

ازآمدنم نبود گردون را سود

My entrance has been of no benefit to this world,

گر ما می و معشوق گزیدیم چه باک

Why should it matter if we have chosen wine and woman?

ما لعبتکانیم و فلک لعبت باز

We are puppets, and the Heavenly Master is our puppeteer;

ساقي غم فرداي حريفان چه خوري پيش آر پياله را كه شب مي گذرد

And Lo! The phantom Caravan has reach’d The Nothing it set out from Oh, make haste!

(Edward J. Fitzgerald)

آمد سحری ندا زمیخانه ی ما کای رند خراباتی دیوانه ی ما

برخیز که پر کنیم پیمانه زمی  زآن پیش که پر کنند پیمانه ی ما

Before the phantom of False morning died,

Methought a Voice within the

Tavern cried, "when all the

Temple is prepared within,

Why nods the drowsy Worshipper outside?"

گویند کسان بهشت با حور خوش است من می گویم که آب انگور خوش است

این نقد بگیر و دست از آن نسیه بشوی کاواز دهل شنیدن از دور خوش است

Some for the Glories of This World; and some

Sigh for the Prophet's Paradise to come;

Ah, take the Cash, and let the Credit go,

Nor heed the rumble of a distant Drum!

روزی است خوش وهوانه گرم است ونه سرد ابر از رخ گلزار همی شوید گرد

بلبل به زبان پهلوی با گل زرد فریاد همی کند که می باید خورد

And David's lips are lockt; but in divine

High-piping Pehlevi, with "wine! wine! wine!

Red wine!"- the Nightingale cries to the Rose

That swallow cheek of hers t' incarnadine.

این قافله عمر عجب می گذرد  دریاب دمی که با طرب می گذرد

ساقی غم فردای حریفان چه خوری پیش آر پیاله را که شب می گذرد

A Moment's Halt- a momentary taste Of Being from the Well amid the waste-

And Lo! - the phantom Caravan has reach'd The Nothing it set out from- Oh, make haste!

گر بر فلکم دست بدی چون یزدان  برداشتمی من این فلک را زمیان

از نو فلک دگر چنان ساختمی کازاده به کام دل رسیدی آسان

Ah Love! Could you and I with Him conspire To grasp this story Scheme of Things entire,

Would not we shatter it to bits- and then Remould it nearer to the Heart's Desire!

Are actually the real equivalences of the terms such as ،معشوقwoman, فلک Heavenly Master, کوزهjug, حورعین lovely houris, گردونworld, and ساقیLo? In fact these are some words that are rooted in culture and religion of eastern life or especially Iranians culture. These terms need strategies for transferring from one language to another having two different cultures in order to be understood by target audiences.

At the macro level

Fitzgerald's translation is interesting because it seems to have lost almost every connection with its Persian source in the process of its appropriation, and one wonders how English readers could appreciate it as non-English, oriental poetry, and what would happen if they were better informed of what Khayyam presented in his quatrains.

The translation of literature interrelates with the characteristics and representation of a nation or a special group. Post colonialists believe that the image created by the translation would gradually take the position of reality in the mind of its recipients, although it might be in spite of reality. It means that, those nation or special group comprehend themselves as it has been imaged by the translations. Consequently, they would own the same characteristics that the translation has created.

The eastern literature translated into western languages has somewhat been shaped differently. It might be done intentionally or unintentionally. In any case, the images of eastern noble literature represented in the western's mind are somewhat different from reality. They know Khayyam, Hafez, Sadi, Rumi, etc. as they like to be not as they are really. The Western world's knowledge of Omar is boiled down to "wine, women and song." This is a far cry from Omar's real character that was and still can be a role model for a healthy, happy and moderate lifestyle. The task of translation in this field is significant.

The equivalences such as woman, Heavenly Master, jug, lovely houris, world, and Lo are not the total and real equivalents for the terms of معشوق, فلک , کوزه, حورعین, گردون, and .ساقی

In fact these are some words that are rooted in culture and religion of eastern life or especially Iranians culture. In other words these are culture specific terms and need strategies for transferring from one language to another having two different cultures in order to be understood by target audiences.

Conclusion

Fitzgerald's translation of the rubaiyat of Khayyam is interesting because it seems to have lost almost every connection with its Persian source in the process of its appropriation, and one wonders how English readers could appreciate it as non-English, oriental poetry, and what would happen if they had been better informed of what Khayyam presented in his quatrains.

Fitzgerald's so-called translation of the rubaiyat of Khayyam, his attempts to alteration of symbols and images, adding new verses and quatrains of his own, and exclusion of significant cultural elements have transformed Khayyam into a western poet-philosopher ( see Farahzad 2006a: 44).

Farahzad (2006:205) writes that the translation of literature interrelates with the characteristics and representation of a nation or a special group. Post colonialists believe that the image created by the translation would gradually take the position of reality in the mind of its recipients, although it might be in spite of reality. It means that, those nation or special group comprehend themselves as it has been imaged by the translations. Consequently, they would own the same characteristics that the translation has created.

The eastern literature translated into western languages has somewhat been shaped differently. It might be done intentionally or unintentionally. In any case, the images of eastern noble literature represented in the western's mind are somewhat different from reality. They know Khayyam, Hafez, Sadi, Rumi, etc. as they like to be not as they really are. The Western world's knowledge of Omar is boiled down to "wine, women and song." This is a far cry from Omar's real character that was and still can be a role model for a healthy, happy and moderate lifestyle. The task of translation in this field is significant.

It seems that there is just one solution to this problem; we, eastern people, translate our own noble literature ourselves. 

List of References

امامی، کریم(1375)از پست و بلند ترجمه،انتشارات نیلوفر، صفحات134-170

فرح زاد، فرزانه(1384)ترجمه آثار تصوف از دیدگاه شرق شناسی، مجموعه مقالات نخستین همایش انجمن زبان شناسی ایران،تهران: انجمن زبان شناسی ایران، صفحات 205-213

Arberry, A.J; classical Persian Literature; London: George Allen and Unwin Ltd, 1958.

Beek man, J. and callow, J; Translating the Word of God; 4th ed., Grand Rapids, Mich: Zondervan, 1989.

Farahzad, F. (1992) 'Testing Achievement in Translation Classes' Amsterdam/Philadelphia. John Benjamins Publishing Co.

Farahzad, F. (2006) ' Strategies of Appropriation: Khayyam and Rumi', in Translation Studies 4 (15):44-52.

Gonzalez Davies, M. (2004) ' Multiple voices in the Translation Classroom, Activities, tasks and projects' Amsterdam/Philadelphia, John Benjamins publishing company.

Hatim, B and I. Mason; Discourse and the Translator; London and NewYork: Longman, 1990.

Hatim, B; Teaching and Researching Translation; England: British Library Catalogoing, 2001.

Larson, Mildred L; Meaning- based Translation; London: University Press of America, 1984.

Lazim, H. G. (2007) ' Poetry Translation' Available in; www.translationdirectory.com/article1362.htm

Manafi Anari, S; an Approach to the English Translation of Literary and Islamic Texts (II) (Bustan, Gulistan, Nahjal- Balaghah); Tehran: SAMT, 2005.

Newmark, P; A Textbook of Translation; Singapore: Prenticehall, 1988.

Newmark, P; About Translation; UK. Multilingual Matters, 1991.

Nicholson, R-A; Translations of Eastern Poetry and Prose; Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1962.

Nida, E. A. (1964), ' Principles of Correspondence ' in L. Venuti, 2000 ' the Translation Studies Reader' Routledge, London and New York. pp. 126-140.

Venuti, L; the Translation Studies Reader; London and New York: Routledge, 2000.

Reiss, K. (2000), ' Translation Criticism – the Potentials and Limitations' St. Jerome publishing, Manchester, UK.

Schwarz, B. (2003), ' Translation in a Confined Space—Film Sub-titling with special reference to Dennis Potter’s “Lipstick on Your Collar” Part 2. Available in;

http://accurapid.com/journal/23subtitles.htm

Thriveni, C. (2001), 'Cultural Elements in Translation, the Indian Perspective', Available at: http://accurapid.com/journal/19culture.htm









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