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Glossary of Near-field Optical Microscopes

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AFM Atomic Force Microscopy or Scanning Force Microscopy is a high resolution microscopy based on an interaction between a very sharp probe and a sample. Resolution is typically on the nm length scale laterally, and sub-nm length scale vertically.
AFM Raman

Co-located confocal Raman microscope with an AFM tip enabling simultaneous acquisition of AFM and Raman spectroscopy images from the same location on the surface.

AFM Raman TERS Collective name for high resolution Raman measurements including Raman confocal microscope integrated with SPM microscope and metalized TERS probe.
Conventional TERS probes  typically Au or Ag metalized AFM probes or STM probes.
Graphene TERS TERS has been successful in measuring the spectral characteristics of graphene with very high spatial resolution.
NSOM Near-Field Scanning Optical Microscopy: The basic principle of NSOM near-field optics: Light passes through a sub-wavelength diameter aperture and illuminates a sample that is placed within its near field, at a distance much less than the wavelength of the light. The resolution achieved is far better than that which conventional optical microscopes can attain.
Raman

Raman microscopy is a form of vibrational spectroscopy for chemical characterization of materials.

Reflection TERS  TERS measurements on opaque sample, when the SPM integrated with upright confocal Raman microscope. 
SERS Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS).  A well-known Raman enhancing effect where a roughened metal surface can provide orders of magnitude increase in Raman signal intensity.
SFM

Scanning Force Microscopy or Atomic Force Microscopy is a very high-resolution type of scanning probe microscopy, with demonstrated resolution on the order of fractions of a nanometer, more than 1000 times better than the optical diffraction limit.

Side illumination TERS TERS measurements on opaque sample, when the SPM integrated with upright confocal Raman microscope, when the laser for Raman excitation  illuminates the sample by the 45˚-60˚ relatively to the axis of the TERS probe.    
SNOM Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscopy: The basic principle of SNOM near-field optics: Light passes through a sub-wavelength diameter aperture and illuminates a sample that is placed within its near field, at a distance much less than the wavelength of the light. The resolution achieved is far better than that which conventional optical microscopes can attain.
SPM Scanning Probe Microscopy is a microscopy family encompassing a very sharp probe getting close to, or in contact with, a sample. That probe is then kept close to the sample through a variety of feedback mechanisms, and various parameters of the probe-sample interaction can be measured including mechanical, optical, and electrical measurements. AFM, STM, NSOM, AFM-Raman, and TERS all belong to the scanning probe microscopy family.
SPP Surface Plasmon Polariton: infrared or visible-frequency electromagnetic waves, which travel along a metal-dielectric or metal-air interface. The term "surface plasmon polariton" explains that the wave involves both charge motion in the metal ("surface plasmon") and electromagnetic waves in the air or dielectric ("polariton")
Strained Silicon TERS 

TERS measurements on strained silicon substrate for TERS probes characterization in terms of the enhancement efficiency.

TERS Tip Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy is a technique that was developed to increase the lateral and axial resolution of Raman spectroscopy and thus to obtain chemical composition on the nanoscale.  
TERS AFM  Is the same as AFM Raman TERS
TERS Effect  Enhancement of the Raman signal using the metalized AFM tip as the source for enhancement. By using such a small diameter tip, enhancement occurs only in the immediate vicinity of the tip providing a high spatial resolution for the Raman measurement.  TERS provides significant improvement in resolution over conventional AFM-Raman methods.
TERS Microscope  A microscope fitted with TERS equipment, including a lens (optical microscope), AFM head, TERS probes, Raman spectrometer, and CCD camera.
TERS Probes  Specialized probes suitable for AFM/TERS measurements.  A gold or silver ball at a variety of diameters is embedded at the end of a glass cantilevered probe to generate the enhancement of the Raman signal near the probe apex.
TERS Raman  As TERS stands for “Tip-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy”, this term is redundant on its own, but used by searchers to specify this particular meaning of the term “TERS”.- It is the same as “TERS” or “TERS effect”
TERS Tips same as TERS probes.
Transmission TERS  TERS measurements on transparent or half transparent  samples, when the SPM integrated with inverted confocal Raman microscope. 



Published - September 2015






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