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Glossary of Localization Terms

 

By Wordbank Ltd,
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Active Server Page (ASP)
An Active Server Page (ASP) is an HTML page that includes one or more scripts that are processed on a Microsoft web server before the page is sent to the user.

AP
Asia-Pacific

Application Service Provider (ASP)
An application service provider is a company that offers individuals or enterprises access via the Internet to applications and related services that would otherwise have to be located in their own personal or enterprise computers.

Author's Amends
Amendments made to the source text after the localization process has begun, which need to be reflected in the translations.

Bitmap
A type of graphic composed of pixels (picture element) in a grid. Each pixel or "bit" contains colour information for the image. Some common bitmap formats are GIF, JPG or JPEG, TIFF, PNG, PICT, PCX, and BMP.

Blended E-learning
An integrated programme with a blend of interactive online tuition, face-to-face classroom workshops, assignments, etc.

Browser
A generic category for software applications that allow users to view files such as web pages.

Cascading Style Sheet (CSS)
A format for specifying the presentation of HTML or XML content, based on tag and attribute names, positions, etc. It is called "cascading" because you can merge information from several different stylesheets and override more general rules with more specific ones.

CAT
Computer-Aided Translation

Central European (CE) Fonts
Fonts used for displaying Czech, Hungarian, Polish and other Central and Eastern European languages.

Chunk
The smallest possible piece of text to be stored in a CMS, dependent on the level it appears at. This may be a word, phrase, sentence or paragraph. The idea is that two or more of these chunks are then put together (with or without other text) to create a document.

CMS
See Content Management System.

ColdFusion (Macromedia)
ColdFusion is a set of products for building websites and serving pages to users.

Collateral
Document(s) intended for publication.

Colour Separations
On a printing press the different colours used in a document are printed one at a time. Each colour has its own separate printing plate, containing only the parts of the page that use that colour. Colour separations refers to artwork split into these component plates of cyan, magenta, yellow, and black in preparation for process printing (CMYK), or into the required number of plates for spot colour printing.

Condensed Type
A typeface designed to be thin and narrow. These are often used in headlines as they allow room for more information.

Conquest
Concept testing and copy adaptation service offered by Wordbank for a particularly creative source text that cannot be translated directly. Allows the client to test and develop alternative translations to ensure that the message in every country is the one that was intended.

Content Knowledge Management (CKM)
Content Knowledge Management (CKM) is a philosophy, technology, and methodology that helps companies manage their business by automating key information processes.

Content Management System (CMS)
Automates the process of creating, publishing, and updating content. Some content management systems can handle any kind of content for publishing to multiple formats/channels, but the most common application is for websites. Content management systems make maintaining and updating the content of a website easier, giving all content contributors (not just the web team) the means with which to manage their own content.

Corporate Culture
The philosophy and values of a company - such as quality, responsiveness, customer focus, etc.

Corporate Identity
The visual identity that a company seeks to establish for itself in the mind of the public. This will be reinforced by consistent use of logos, colours, typefaces, style of imagery, etc.

CREATE - Copy Review and Technical Evaluation
Wordbank service for clients and non-clients to assess the suitability of original English copy for localization from a linguistic, technical and process perspective.

Customer Relationship Management (CRM)
(a) The coherent management of contacts and interactions with customers/clients, whether service- or sales-related, to ensure customer loyalty, customer satisfaction, etc.
(b) Customer Relationship Management is an information industry term for methodologies, software, and usually Internet capabilities that help an enterprise manage customer relationships in an organised way.

Cut and Paste
Optional service offered by Wordbank as part of our localization process. Involves cutting and pasting text from previously translated material into a new translation.

Cyrillic Fonts
Fonts used for displaying Russian, Bulgarian, Serbian, Ukrainian and other Slavic, Altaic, Uralic and Caucasian languages.

Database
A database is a set of related files that is created and managed by a database management system (DBMS). Today, DBMSs can manage any form of data including text, images, sound and video. The most common type of database is a relational database. See also DBMS and RDBMS.

Database Marketing
The utilisation of customer information that is stored on an electronic database for targeted marketing activities.

DBMS
A database management system (DBMS) is sometimes just called a database manager. It is a program that lets one or more computer users create and access data in a database. The DBMS manages user requests (and requests from other programs) so that users and other programs are free from having to understand where the data is physically located on storage media and, in a multiuser system, who else may also be accessing the data.

De-duping
Part of the WordBase process. Involves extracting any duplicated text from a database that Wordbank is translating. The process creates a list of unique text segments, which are sent for translation. The translated segments are then inserted in all the appropriate places in the database (re-duping).

Diphthong
A single character combining two vowels. In typography, some diphthongs are represented by a single ligature character (joined letters). The most commonly used diphthong ligatures are æ, œ, Æ, Œ.

Director (Macromedia)
A multimedia authoring program for Windows and Macintosh from Macromedia. Runtime versions can be run, edited and switched between Windows and Mac platforms. Shockwave is a browser plug-in that lets output from Macromedia's Director, Authorware and FreeHand packages be viewed on the Web.

Direct Response Advertising (DRA)
Advertising that incorporates a contact method such as a phone number, address or enquiry form, website identifier or email address, with the intention of encouraging the recipient to respond directly to the advertiser by requesting further information, placing an order, etc.

Documentum
A CMS vendor.

Dots Per Inch (DPI)
A measure of the resolution of a printer is called DPI or dots per inch. It properly refers to the dots of ink or toner used by an imagesetter, laser printer, or other printing device to print your text and graphics. A printer can print a certain number of dots per inch horizontally and vertically. In general, the more dots, the better and sharper the image.

Dreamweaver (Macromedia)
Positioned as a "web development tool", Macromedia Dreamweaver allows the end-user to work in a single environment to create, build, and manage websites and Internet applications. Features include WYSIWYG ("what you see is what you get") editing, code editing support, advanced table editing, site management tools, built-in FTP client, support for animation, DHTML and third-party tags, including ASP, and ColdFusion. The latest version is Macromedia Dreamweaver MX.

DTP
Desktop Publishing

DTP Layout Check
Optional service offered by Wordbank as part of our localization process. Layout checks are carried out on the language files before delivery by a member of Wordbank's Desktop Publishing department.

Dynamic Content
On a dynamic web page, the user can make requests (often through a form) for data contained in a database on the server that will be assembled on the fly according to what is requested. For example, the user might want to find out information about a theatrical performance, such as theatre locations and ticket availability for particular dates.

E-commerce [OR] E-marketing
Marketing conducted electronically, usually over the Internet.

E-content
Content that is stored electronically.

Editing
Second stage in Wordbank's standard four-stage localization process. Involves amending the translated text where necessary so that it flows as if originally written in the language and does not repeat word for word everything that the English says, while ensuring that the general meaning is retained and that no important data is omitted. Editors also ensure consistency of the text with any reference material provided, correct any incorrect grammar, spelling and punctuation, and ensure that product names, product numbers etc. are consistent with the source text.

Editors
External suppliers who carry out the Editing stage of Wordbank's localization process.

E-learning
Interactive online tutorials, accessed via the Internet or company intranet.

Ellipsis
The character … is not three full stops in a row but a single character. Indicates the omission from a sentence of one or more words that would be needed to complete the sense or construction or which occur in the original; or the omission of a sentence at the end of a paragraph.

Embedded Image
An image or graphic that appears in a document by way of a file that has been created by the appropriate program. This object is stored as part of the document (adding to the file size of the document).

Em Dash
A dash equal to the width of the capital letter M in a given typeface e.g. —

EMEA
Europe, Middle East and Africa (region).

En Dash
A dash equal to the width of the capital letter N in a given typeface e.g. –

End-user
The person who uses a particular product, i.e. the ultimate customer as opposed to a reseller.

Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP)
Business management system that integrates all facets of the enterprise, including planning, manufacturing, sales, and marketing. As the ERP methodology has become more popular, software applications have emerged to help business managers implement ERP in business activities such as inventory control, order tracking, customer service, finance and human resources. Typically, an ERP system uses or is integrated with a relational database.

External Layout Check
Optional service offered by Wordbank as part of our localization process. Layout checks are carried out on the language files before delivery by an external person, usually a design agency.

External Proofreaders
External suppliers who carry out the Proofreading stage of Wordbank's localization process.

FIGS
Abbreviation for the language set: French, Italian, German and Spanish.

File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
A means of transferring files across the Internet that is more reliable and faster than e-mail. Files may be uploaded to or downloaded from a particular FTP site, normally using FTP software that provides an Explorer/Finder-like view of files and folders.

Flash (Macromedia)
Animation software for Windows and Mac. It is used to develop interactive graphics for websites as well as desktop presentations and games. Flash sequences on the Web are displayed by a web browser plug-in and offline presentations are run by a Flash player.

Four-stage Process
Standard Wordbank localization process, comprising: In-country translation, Editing, Internal Revision and Proofreading. Many projects also contain extra stages.

FTP Site
File transfer protocol site. Wordbank's FTP site is used to deposit and retrieve files for suppliers and clients. Access to the site is controlled by usernames and passwords.

Fuzzy Match
Translation inserted by a translation memory where the source segment in the file being translated is similar to, but not identical with, a source segment already existing in that memory. With TRADOS Workbench, the translation memory software used within Wordbank, the degree of similarity is expressed as a percentage value and is shown in the tag that is inserted between the source segment and the translation. Within Wordbank, the default fuzzy match values are 70% - 99%, and fuzzy matches are coloured green in the pretranslated file. They are then amended by the Editor to match the source exactly.

Glossarizer (The)
Internally developed tool to automatically highlight terms in a new source text that are available from client-specific glossaries, and suggest translations for suppliers to implement. Currently in testing phase.

Glossary (multilingual)
A collection of terms with translated equivalents; an online look-up facility.

Globalization Management System (GMS)
Variations on this term are Multilingual Content Management System (MCMS), Localization Management System (LMS) and Globalized Content Management System (GCMS). A capable GMS will automatically detect change in databases and CMS repositories, extract content, leverage earlier translations from translation memories/databases, notify translators and administrators and manage the project according to predefined workflow. GMSs are expensive and complex and they can require custom installation that may involve CMS interfacing, training, custom workflow definition, etc. Examples of GMS products are Uniscape, GlobalSight and IDIOM.

Hard Return
A line break created by pressing the Enter/Return key, as opposed to a soft return, which a program creates automatically at the end of a line. Unlike a soft return, a hard return stays in place when one inserts and deletes text.

HTML
HyperText Markup Language. The set of markup symbols or codes inserted in a file intended for display on a World Wide Web browser page, which tells the web browser how to display a web page's words and images for the user.

HTTP
HyperText Transfer Protocol. This is the underlying protocol used by the World Wide Web. HTTP defines how messages are formatted and transmitted, and what actions web servers and browsers should take in response to various commands.

Interactive Translation
Consulting and updating a translation memory while carrying out the translation; opposite of pretranslation. The only Wordbank team who translate interactively are the Multilingual Content Update (MCU) team.

Internal Revision (IR)
(a) Wordbank department that provides a critical quality review function for Wordbank's work by ensuring that client requirements are met, and that the knowledge Wordbank has built up of client-specific information is utilised. The Internal Revision team scrutinises the content and, in particular, the non-linguistic details in the source text and the translated document and checks for consistency across languages, within language files themselves, against the source text and with existing terminology lists and reference material. Internal Revision also monitors the quality of work delivered by Translators and Editors.
(b) Standard service offered by Wordbank as part of our four-stage localization process (see above).

ISO 9001
International Standards Organisation certification. An internationally recognised and respected quality assurance certification, registered and assessed by an independent auditor. Wordbank achieved ISO 9001 certification in October 2003, confirming that our quality management system for the delivery of localization services meets ISO 9001 standards.

Java
Java and JSP are interrelated technologies and have similar names, which can be confusing. Java is a full programming language (like Visual Basic or C++). It is generally used to write complete, standalone programs that can be run on Windows, UNIX or Mac - and not necessarily on a computer connected to the Internet.

JavaScript
JavaScript is a scripting language that is used within HTML pages to add interactivity and additional functionality, normally in a client-side environment.

JPEG
A graphics format capable of representing up to 16.7 million colours that is ideal for complex pictures of natural, realworld scenes, including photographs, realistic artwork, and paintings. JPEG stands for Joint Photographic Experts Group.

.jpg
The file extension for JPEG files.

JSP
JSP stands for Java Server Pages, and to all intents and purposes, they can be thought of as the Java alternative to Microsoft's ASP (Active Server Pages). These are HTML pages that include server-side code written in Java to create a "web application".

Kerning
The process of reducing spacing between certain combinations of two characters to enhance their visual appeal. Some commonly kerned pairs include Wa, To, and Ya.

KeyWorder
Internally developed tool to automatically eliminate duplication in term lists for localization. Typically used for translation projects of keywords for search facilities on websites.

Layout Check
Optional service offered by Wordbank as part of our localization process, in which the format of the final language files is checked before delivery. See also DTP Layout Check, External Layout Check and Project Manager Layout Check.

Leading Space
The space between lines of type, measured from baseline to baseline. Also known as line spacing.

LISA
Localization Industry Standards Association

Local Check
Optional service offered by Wordbank as part of our localization process. Also known as Local Approval. A locally-based management contact (sometimes known as the LC contact or the local office) who has been nominated by the client reviews the translation late in the process, to ensure that it is appropriate for their territory, both culturally and technically.

Local Check Amends
Optional service offered by Wordbank as part of our localization process. Involves the implementation of amendments to the translations made by the Local Check contacts.

Local Check Sign-off
Approval by Local Check of a file for delivery.

Localization
Localization is the cultural adaptation of a product or service to ensure that it is consistent with the specific socio-cultural and legal requirements of a target market. Localization involves tailoring a product to a specific market in a process that goes beyond translation to address the contemporary and colloquial use of language and cultural nuances, such as notational conventions and differences in symbols, colour associations and payment options.

Localization Issue Specialist (LIS)
Member of Wordbank's Multilingual Content Update (MCU) department. This team of native-speaker translators localizes online support content for HP.

Marcoms
See Marketing Communications.

Marketing Collateral
All the media used by a company to communicate with its customers and prospective customers - e.g. website, brochures, newsletters, information sheets, reports, etc.

Marketing Communications
All methods used by a company to communicate with its customers and prospective customers - e.g. collateral, advertising, seminars, events, sponsorship, editorial, etc.

Marketing Mix
The combination of marketing inputs that affect customer motivation and behaviour. These inputs traditionally encompass four controllable variables - product, price, promotion and place.

Metadata
Meta is a prefix that in most IT usage means "an underlying definition or description". Metadata is, therefore, a definition or description of data. See also Meta Tags.

Meta Tags
This is an HTML tag that identifies the contents of a web page. Meta tags contain such information as a general description of the page, keywords for search engines and copyright information. See also Metadata.

Multilingual Content Update (MCU)
Website maintenance service offered by Wordbank, involving the localization and updating of frequently changing online support content. This is carried out by our in-house team of Localization Issue Specialists, and is primarily used by clients providing call-centre support, help desks, etc., where a turnaround time of 24-48 hours is required.

Online Proofreading
Optional service offered by Wordbank as part of our localization process. See Proofreading.

Online QA
Online Quality Assurance. Optional service offered by Wordbank as part of our localization process, involving proofreading and assessment of the linguistic quality of online multilingual communication.

Oracle
The world's largest database and application development software vendor. The Oracle database was the first DBMS to incorporate the SQL language and to be ported to a wide variety of platforms. Oracle offers a variety of application development tools.

Orphan
The first line of a paragraph that appears at the bottom of a column or page, with the rest of the paragraph printed at the top of the next column or page. See also Widow.

PDF
Portable Document Format. File type that uses the PostScript printer description language and is highly portable across computer platforms. PDF documents are created with Adobe Acrobat or other programs and can be viewed with Adobe Acrobat Reader and other PDF reader programs.

Perl
Perl is a programming language. It is widely used to write web server programs for such tasks as automatically updating user accounts and newsgroup postings, processing removal requests, synchronising databases and generating reports. Perl was originally said to stand for "Practical Extraction and Reporting Language" but that name is no longer used.

Photoshop (Adobe)
An image editor for Macintosh and Windows. Although it contains a large variety of image-editing features, one of Photoshop's most powerful capabilities is layers, which allows images to be rearranged under and over each other for placement. Photoshop is designed to read and convert to a raft of graphics formats, but it provides its own native format for layers (PSD extension).

Point
Unit of font size, equal to 1/72 inch. For example, 12-point type means that all the upper-case letters of a font are 1/6 inch high.

Point of Purchase (POP)
See Point of Sale (POS).

Point of Sale (POS)
The location within a retail outlet where the customer decides whether or not to make a purchase. Also the promotional materials such as shelf wobblers, posters or stickers produced to induce the customer to make the purchase.

Populating (a database)
Adding entries to a database or filling in gaps.

Print on Demand (POD)
A type of high-resolution PDF file.

Project Manager
Member of a Wordbank Production Team who manages localization projects.

Project Manager Layout Check
Optional service offered by Wordbank as part of our localization process. Layout checks are carried out on the language files before delivery by a Wordbank Project Manager. See also DTP Layout Check and External Layout Check.

Proofcheckers
External suppliers who carry out the Proofchecking stage of Wordbank's localization process.

Proofchecking
Optional service offered by Wordbank as part of our localization process. Consists of two steps: Proofreading and Checking against the source text. The Proofchecker is briefed to check that there are no omissions in the translation, that all translated text is in the right place in relation to the equivalent in the source text, that terms in the translation are consistent with reference material and/or client glossaries, and that client guidelines are adhered to. Also known as Proof/Check, Proofcheck or Proof and Check.

Proofreading
Standard service offered by Wordbank as part of our four-stage localization process. The Proofreader is briefed to check for typos, misspellings, hyphenation breaks (on typeset copy), and other language-specific issues. They are not required to check against the source text. Editorial changes are usually not allowed when proofreading a file - in general, proofread files have been locally approved and the proofreading stage is designed to make sure that the language content of a file is without errors. However, when a grave error occurs it is up to the proofreader to point it out - this is normally the last stage where a native speaker checks the file before delivery.

Quality Management System (QMS)
Sets out the policies and procedures required to ensure that a company's services are of the requisite quality.

RDBMS
Relational Database Management System. A program that lets you create, update, and administer a relational database. An RDBMS takes Structured Query Language (SQL) statements entered by a user or contained in an application program and creates, updates, or provides access to the database. Some of the best-known RDBMSs include Oracle's database product line, Computer Associates' CA-OpenIngres, and IBM's DB2.

Re-duping
See De-duping.

Relational Database
A relational database is a collection of data items organised as a set of tables from which data can be accessed or reassembled in many different ways without having to reorganise the database tables. The standard user and application program interface to a relational database is the structured query language (SQL). In addition to being relatively easy to create and access, a relational database has the important advantage of being easy to extend.

Reversed Artwork
Artwork that reads from right to left rather than left to right.

Reversed Font
Any font in which the characters read from right to left, for example those used for Hebrew and Arabic.

RFP
Request for Proposal

RFQ
Request for Quote

RGB
Red, green, and blue; the primary colours that are mixed to control the colour of the pixels displayed on a computer monitor. Every colour of emitted light can be created by combining these three colours in varying levels.

RTF
Rich Text Format. Standard file format allowing text and graphics interchange between different applications and operating systems. RTF text files make it possible to transfer formatting such as font styles or paragraph indents from one program to another.

Sales Tools
Marketing material such as datasheets, leaflets, brochures, etc., which are produced for the use of salespeople/resellers.

Sans Serif
A typeface that lacks serifs, the ornamental straight or curved lines across the ends of the main strokes of a character. Helvetica and Arial are two readily available sans serif fonts. (Source: Webster's New World? Computer Dictionary (2003)).

SCAN
Abbreviation for the Scandinavian languages (Danish, Finnish, Norwegian and Swedish).

SDL WebFlow
SDL WebFlow is positioned as a multilingual content management product. Used for building and maintaining multilingual websites, it can be used in conjunction with the SDLX product suite. WorkFlow comprises SDL's content transfer API, which permits the customer to create rules and, therefore, maintain control over the extraction and management of amended content and its subsequent publication in the target languages.

SDLX
SDLX translation suite is a computer-aided translation (CAT) tool which promises to increase efficiency by allowing the re-use of previously translated phrases and terms. It includes a suite of tools for alignment, editing, analysis, etc. - i.e. there is no need to use separate applications during the translation process.

Seed
An initial value or piece of data which is used to initiate an algorithm or process. In the context of translation memories, this could be the translation memory or a representative sample of translation units to be used as the base for a project.

Seeding
The method or process of choosing a representative sample of data, populating or making global changes to a database.

Serif
The fine, ornamental cross-strokes across the ends of the main strokes of a character. (Source: Webster's New World? Computer Dictionary (2003)).

Service Level Agreement (SLA)
An agreement between the supplier of a service and the users of that service that sets out the levels of service that will be offered, preferably in quantitative terms, and the obligations on the user of the service.

SGML
Standard generalised markup language. A highly complex and flexible markup language, of which HTML and XML are effectively simplified subsets.

Small Caps
Printing style using capital letters that are the same height as the lower-case characters of a given typeface.

Soft Return
A line break inserted automatically by a word processor or DTP software when the cursor reaches the right margin. The location of soft returns changes automatically if the margins are changed or if text is inserted or deleted. See also Hard Return.

SpeedArt
Internally developed tool to automatically typeset regularly created or updated documents that appear in a standardised format, such as datasheets.

Spread
(a) In order to compensate for minor misalignments on the printing press, it is sometimes necessary to slightly overlap touching colours. Spread is one process where a lighter colour spreads out and overlaps a darker colour.
(b) A spread refers to facing or adjacent pages in a layout or adjacent pages laid out for printing.

SQL
Structured Query Language (pronounced "SQL" or "see qwill"). A language used to interrogate and process data in a relational database. All database systems designed for client/server environments support SQL. SQL commands can be used to interactively work with a database or can be embedded within a programming language to interface with a database. All major database management systems (DBMSs) support the language.

SQL Server
A relational DBMS from Sybase and from Microsoft. Sybase SQL Server and Microsoft SQL Server are two different database products. Sybase SQL Server evolved into Sybase Adaptive Server Enterprise and is no longer offered on Sybase's product menu.

Style Sheet
Template containing instructions to automatically set the style or layout of a document. Gives such specifications as margins, page size, fonts, and line spacing. Helps to ensure the consistent application of styles in large files.

TAT
TurnAround Time

Terminology Management Team (TMT)
Wordbank department that manages and maintains Wordbank's client-specific terminology databases (glossaries) and translation memories. Formerly known as the Glossary Team. Members of the team are known as Terminologists.

Termquest
Service offered by Wordbank involving terminology and glossary database creation, update management and distribution services.

Term Recognition
TRADOS translation tool allowing translations of terms stored in TRADOS MultiTerm to be automatically suggested during interactive translation in TRADOS Workbench, or inserted as footnotes in pretranslation.

Text Black Plate
A cost-effective method of printing, where only one colour plate (normally black) is printed instead of all plates.

Text Extraction
Extraction of the text that appears in a Quark or PDF file, which is then put into a Word file for localization purposes. This can be done manually or by using a text extraction script.

Text Insertion
Process in which text is inserted into the artwork file after translation. This can be done manually or by using a text insertion script.

.tif
The file extension for TIFF files.

TIFF
One of the most commonly used and versatile graphics formats in desktop publishing, TIFF or Tagged Image File Format is a bitmap graphics format that is ideal for high-resolution printing to PostScript printers and imagesetters. Originally created as a scanning format. Bitmap graphics software such as Adobe Photoshop and Corel Photo-Paint can create and edit TIFF.

TM
See Translation Memory.

TMT
See Terminology Management Team.

TMX
Translation memory exchange: an XML format for the interchange of translation memory information between various software providers. This standard is maintained by the Localization Industry Standards Association (LISA).

TMX Bandit
Internally developed tool that takes localized XML chunk files and processes them for import into our translation memories.

TNM
See Translator Network Management.

TRADOS
TRADOS is a language technology company providing content management, translation memory and terminology management solutions. Their recent merger with Uniscape has allowed them to expand into the GMS market.

TRADOS GXT
TRADOS GXT is a server application that connects an organisation's content to the managers and translators responsible for its localization. TRADOS GXT can be described in terms of three basic modules: Global Content Manager and Localization Manager run within the TRADOS GXT server, while TM Workbench is a standalone PC application used by translators and managers to access the server and perform translation of enterprise content.

Translation
Standard service offered by Wordbank as part of our four-stage localization process.

Translation Memory (TM)
A database in which old translations are stored for future re-use. Translated sentences (or segments) are stored with their source language equivalents. These language segment pairs are referred to as translation units. The translation memory uses database technology to automatically propose previous translations as a new source file is translated. As well as proposing identical matches, a technique known as "fuzzy matching" can find database entries that are similar, but not identical to the new source segment. New and updated translations are added to the database so that the translation memory grows dynamically during the translation process. Additional data, such as client and project information, can be assigned to each segment and used to identify and distinguish between different subsets of stored data. The translation memory software used within Wordbank is TRADOS Workbench.

Translation Unit (TU)
Source and target language segment pair stored in a Translation Memory (TM).

Translator Network Management (TNM)
Wordbank department that sources external suppliers for localization projects. Members of this department are known as Translator Network Managers.

Translators
(a) External suppliers who carry out the Translation stage of Wordbank's localization process.
(b) Also sometimes used in a broader sense to denote all Wordbank's linguistic suppliers (Translators, Editors and External Proofreaders).

Ts & Cs, Ts and Cs
Abbreviation for Terms and Conditions.

Unicode
A standard for a set of characters that is intended to support written texts expressed in a large number of languages from Europe, America, Asia, India, and the Pacific Rim. Can be read on both PCs and Macs.

Uniscape
Up until recently a leading provider of globalization software. Has now merged with TRADOS to form Trados Enterprise Solutions.

URL
Uniform Resource Locator. This is the address of a file (or resource) that is accessible on the Internet - e.g. http://www.wordbank.com.

USB
Universal Serial Bus. A plug-and-play interface between a computer and other devices such as printers, keyboards, cameras, etc. With USB, a new device can be added to your computer without having to reboot.

Webquest
Full website localization and multilingual integration service offered by Wordbank.

Widow
The last line of a paragraph that appears alone at the top of a new column or page. Most word processing and DTP programs suppress widows. See also Orphan.

WordBase
Internally developed tool that converts translatable text content from databases to Word files and back to the original format for final delivery.

WordPoint
Internally developed tool that extracts text from one or more PowerPoint presentations into a single Word file.

WordWeb
Internally developed tool that converts translatable text content from web/XML formats into a Word document, and vice versa.

WYSIWYG
What You See Is What You Get: refers to programs (typically word processors or HTML editors) in which the representation on screen is rendered using the fonts/colours/graphics you want, so that it displays exactly as it will appear when printed (in the case of word processors) or viewed in the browser (in the case of HTML editors). These days, Microsoft Word is an example of a WYSIWYG word processor.

XHTML
Extensible HTML. A reformulation of HTML as an XML format. This enforces strict XML-conforming rules such as mandatory closing tags and is typically the output when an XSL stylesheet is applied to an XML file. Most web browsers will display XHTML just like normal HTML because the differences are fairly slight.

XML
Extensible Markup Language. This format has borrowed a lot from SGML but is designed for a different purpose. Whereas HTML is essentially a display language - for formatting text content for visually relevant information like colours, font styles, borders, etc. - the aim of XML is to provide a framework for the storage or interchange of structure-rich content.

XSL
Extensible Stylesheet Language. An XML format that defines styles and presentational information that can be applied to an XML document. The resulting output could be anything, even a plain text file if wanted, though it is most commonly an XHTML document for display in a web browser.

Zipped Files
Files that are compressed into one file with the extension .zip. This is normally done in order to send the files as an email attachment. Wordbank uses the WinZip program to zip files, but other programs are available.

 





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