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Food Additives, Codex Alimentarius

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The following is a list of food additives as organized by the Codex Alimentarius Committee. The International Numbering System numbers below (INS #) are assigned by the committee to allow each food additive to be uniquely identified.

On packaging in the European Union, approved food additives are written with a prefix of 'E'. Australia and New Zealand do not use a prefix letter when listing additives in the ingredients.

In the table below, food additives approved for Europe are listed with an 'E', and those approved for Australia and New Zealand with an 'A'. See also the list of E numbers.

td>E <d>disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate td>E
INS #  Approvals  Names Type

100 A E turmeric, curcumin colour (yellow and orange)
101 A E riboflavin (vitamin B2) colour (yellow and orange)
102 A E tartrazine colour (yellow and orange) (FDA: FD&C Yellow #5)
103 A   alkanet, chrysoine resorcinol colour (red)
104 A E Quinoline Yellow WS colour (yellow and orange) (FDA: D&C Yellow #10)
107   E Yellow 2G colour (yellow and orange)
110 A E Sunset Yellow FCF colour (yellow and orange) (FDA: FD&C Yellow #6)
111 ? E Orange GGN colour (orange)
120 A E Cochineal, carmines colour (red)
121     Citrus red 2, Orcein, Orchil colour (red)
122 A E azorubine, carmoisine colour (red) (FDA: Ext D&C Red #10)
123   E amaranth colour (red) (FDA: [DELISTED] Red #2)
124 A E Brilliant Scarlet 4R, Ponceau 4R colour (FDA: Ext D&C Red #8)
125     Ponceau SX, Scarlet GN colour
126     Ponceau 6R colour
127   E erythrosine colour (red) (FDA: FD&C Red #3)
128   E Red 2G colour
129 A E Allura red AC colour (FDA: FD&C Red #40)
130     Indanthrene blue RS colour (blue)
131   E Patent blue V<a> colour (blue)
132 A E indigo carmine, indigotine colour (blue) (FDA: FD&C Blue #2)
133 A E Brilliant blue FCF colour (FDA: FD&C Blue #1)
140 A E chlorophylls and chlorophyllins colour (green)
141 A E copper complexes of chlorophylls colour (green)
142 A E Green S colour (green)
143 A E Fast green FCF colour (FDA: FD&C Green #3)
150a A E caramel I - plain colour (brown and black)
150b A E caramel II - caustic sulfite process colour (brown and black)
150c A E caramel III - ammonia process colour (brown and black)
150d A E caramel IV - ammonia sulfite process colour (brown and black)
151 A E Black PN, Brilliant Black BN colour (brown and black)
152 ? ? Black 7984 colour (brown and black)
153 A E Vegetable carbon, carbon black colour (brown and black)
154   E Brown FK colour (brown and black)
155 A E Chocolate Brown HT colour
160a A E carotenes - alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, colour
160b   E annatto, bixin, norbixin colour
160c A E paprika extract, capsanthin, capsorubin colour
160d A E lycopene colour
160e A E beta-apo-8'-carotenal (C 30) colour
160f A E beta-apo-8'-carotenic acid ethyl ester colour
161a A   flavoxanthin colour
161b A E lutein colour
161c A   cryptoxanthin colour
161d A   rubixanthin colour
161e A   violaxanthin colour
161f A   rhodoxanthin colour
161g   E canthaxanthin colour
161h ? ? zeaxanthin colour
161i ? ? citranaxanthin colour
161j ? ? astaxanthin colour
162 A E beet red, beetroot red, betanin colour
163 A E anthocyanins colour
164 A   Saffron, crocetin and crocin
165     gardenia blue colour
166     sandalwood colour
170   E calcium carbonates, chalk colour (white), anticaking agent, stabiliser
171 A E titanium dioxide colour (white)
172 A E iron oxides and hydroxides colour
173   E aluminium colour (silver)
174   E silver colour (silver)
175   E gold colour (gold)
180   E litholrubine, Lithol Rubine BK, Pigment Rubine, latolrubine colour
181   E tannins colour, emulsifier, stabiliser, thickener
182     orchil colour
200   E sorbic acid preservative
201     sodium sorbate preservative
202   E potassium sorbate preservative
203   E calcium sorbate preservative
209     heptyl p-hydroxybenzoate preservative
210   E benzoic acid preservative
211 A E sodium benzoate preservative
212 A E potassium benzoate preservative
213 A E alcium benzoate preservative
214   E ethyl para-hydroxybenzoate preservative
215   E sodium ethyl para-hydroxybenzoate preservative
216 A   propylparaben (propyl para-hydroxybenzoate) preservative
217     sodium propyl para-hydroxybenzoate preservative
218 A E methylparaben (methyl para-hydroxybenzoate) preservative
219   E sodium methyl para-hydroxybenzoate preservative
220 A E sulfur dioxide preservative, antioxidant
221 A E sodium sulfite preservative, antioxidant
222 A E sodium bisulfite (sodium hydrogen sulfite) preservative, antioxidant
223 A E sodium metabisulfite preservative, antioxidant, bleaching agent
224 A E potassium metabisulfite preservative, antioxidant
225 A   potassium sulfite, sodium sulfite preservative, antioxidant
226   E calcium sulfite preservative, antioxidant
227   E calcium bisulfite, calcium hydrogen sulfite preservative, antioxidant
228 A E potassium bisulfite, potassium hydrogen sulfite preservative, antioxidant
230   E biphenyl, diphenyl preservative
231   E orthophenyl phenol, 2-hydroxybiphenyl preservative
232   E sodium orthophenyl phenol preservative
233     thiabendazole preservative
234 A E nisin preservative
235 A E pimaricin, natamycin preservative
236     formic acid preservative
237     sodium formate preservative
238     calcium formate preservative
239   E hexamine (hexamethylene tetramine) preservative
240     formaldehyde preservative
241     gum guaicum preservative
242 A E dimethyl dicarbonate preservative
249 A E potassium nitrite preservative, colour fixative
250 A E sodium nitrite preservative, colour fixative
251 A E sodium nitrate preservative, colour fixative
252 A   potassium nitrate preservative, colour fixative
260 A E glacial acetic acid preservative, acidity regulator
261 A E potassium acetates preservative, acidity regulator
262 A E sodium acetate, sodium hyrogen acetate preservative, acidity regulator
263 A E calcium acetate preservative, acidity regulator
264 A   ammonium acetate preservative, acidity regulator
265     dehydroacetic acid preservative
266     sodium dehydroacetate preservative
270 A E lactic acid acidity regulator, preservative, antioxidant
280 A E propionic acid preservative
281 A E sodium propionate preservative
282 A E calcium propionate preservative
283 A E potassium propionate preservative
284   E boric acid preservative
285   E sodium tetraborate, borax preservative
290 A E carbon dioxide acidity regulator, propellant
296 A E malic acid acidity regulator
297 A E fumaric acid acidity regulator
300 A E ascorbic acid antioxidant (water soluble)
301 A E sodium ascorbate antioxidant (water soluble)
302 A E calcium ascorbate antioxidant (water soluble)
303 A   potassium ascorbate antioxidant (water soluble)
304 A E ascorbyl palmitate, ascorbyl stearate antioxidant (fat soluble)
306 A tocopherol concentrate (natural) antioxidant
307 A E dl-alpha-tocopherol (synthetic) antioxidant
308 A E gamma-tocopherol(synthetic) antioxidant
309 A E delta-tocopherol(synthetic) antioxidant
310 A E propyl gallate antioxidant
311 A E octyl gallate antioxidant
312 A E dodecyl gallate antioxidant
315 A E erythorbic acid antioxidant
316 A E sodium erythorbate antioxidant
317 ? ? erythorbin acid antioxidant
318 ? ? sodium erythorbin antioxidant
319 A   tert-butylhydroquinone antioxidant
320 A E butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) antioxidant (fat soluble)
321 A E butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) antioxidant (fat soluble)
322 A E lecithins antioxidant, emulsifier
325 A E sodium lactate food acid
326 A E potassium lactate food acid
327 A E calcium lactate food acid
328 A   ammonium lactate food acid
329 A   magnesium lactate food acid
330 A E citric acid food acid
331 A E sodium citrates food acid
332 A E potassium citrates food acid
333 A E calcium citrates food acid, firming agent
334 A E L(+)-tartaric acid food acid
335 A E sodium tartrates food acid
336 A E potassium tartrates food acid
337 A E potassium sodium tartrate food acid
338 A E phosphoric acid food acid
339 A E sodium phosphates mineral salt
340 A E potassium phosphates mineral salt
341 A E calcium phosphates mineral salt, anti-caking agent, firming agent
342 A   ammonium phosphates mineral salt
343 A E magnesium phosphates mineral salt, anti-caking agent
344     lecithin citrate preservative
345     magnesium citrate acidity regulator
349 A   ammonium malate food acid
350 A E sodium malates food acid
351 A E potassium malate food acid
352 A E calcium malates food acid
353 A E metatartaric acid food acid, emulsifier
354 A E calcium tartrate food acid, emulsifier
355 A E adipic acid food acid
356   E sodium adipate food acid
357 A E potassium adipate food acid
359     ammonium adipates acidity regulator
363   E succinic acid food acid
364     sodium succinates acidity regulator, flavour enhancer
365 A   sodium fumarate food acid
366 A   potassium fumarate food acid
367 A   calcium fumarate food acid
368 A   ammonium fumarate food acid
370     1,4-heptonolactone food acid
375 A   niacin (nicotinic acid), nicotinamide (vitamin B3) colour retention agent
380 A E triammonium citrate food acid
381 A   ferric ammonium citrate, ammonium ferrocitrate food acid
384     isopropyl citrates antioxidant, preservative
385 A E calcium disodium EDTA preservative
386     antioxidant, preservative
387     oxystearin antioxidant, sequestrant
388     thiodipropionic acid antioxidant
389     dilauryl thiodipropionate antioxidant
390     distearyl thiodipropionate antioxidant
391     phytic acid preservative
399     calcium lactobionate stabilizer
400 A E alginic acid thickener, vegetable gum, stabilizer, gelling agent, emulsifier
401 A E sodium alginate thickener, vegetable gum, stabilizer, gelling agent, emulsifier
402 A E potassium alginate thickener, vegetable gum, stabilizer, gelling agent, emulsifier
403 A E ammonium alginate thickener, vegetable gum, stabilizer, gelling agent, emulsifier
404 A E calcium alginate thickener, vegetable gum, stabilizer, gelling agent, emulsifier
405 A E propylene glycol alginate, propane-1,2-diol alginate thickener, vegetable gum, stabilizer, emulsifier
406 A E agar thickener, vegetable gum, stabilizer, gelling agent
407 A E carrageenan thickener, vegetable gum, stabilizer, gelling agent, emulsifier
407a A E processed eucheuma seaweed thikener, vegetable gum, stabilizer, gelling agent, emulsifier
409 A   arabinogalactan thickener, vegetable gum
410 A E locust bean gum thickener, vegetable gum, stabilizer, gelling agent, emulsifier
412 A E guar gum thickener, vegetable gum, stabilizer
413 A E tragacanth thickener, vegetable gum, stabilizer, emulsifier
414 A E gum acacia, gum arabic thickener, vegetable gum, stabilizer, emulsifier
415 A E xanthan gum thickener, vegetable gum, stabilizer
416 A E karaya gum thickener, vegetable gum, stabilizer, emulsifier
417   E tara gum thickener, vegetable gum, stabilizer
418 A E gellan gum thickener, vegetable gum, stabilizer, emulsifier
420 A E sorbitol humectant, emulsifier, sweetener
421 A E mannitol humectant, anti-caking agent, sweetener
422 A E glycerin humectant, sweetener
425   E konjac, konjac gum, konjac glucomannate thickener, vegetable gum
430   ? polyoxyethylene (8) stearate emulsifier, stabilizer
431   E polyoxyethylene (40) stearate emulsifier
432   E polysorbate 20 emulsifier
433 A E polysorbate 80 emulsifier
434   E polysorbate 40 emulsifier
435 A E polysorbate 60 emulsifier
436 A E polysorbate 65 emulsifier
440 A E pectin vegetable gum, emulsifier
441 A E gelatine (not classified as an additive) gelling agent, emulsifier
442 A E ammonium phosphatides emulsifier
443 ? ? brominated vegetable oil emulsifier, stabiliser
444 A E sucrose acetate isobutyrate emulsifier, stabiliser
445   E glycerol esters of wood rosin emulsifier
450 A E diphosphates mineral salt, emulsifier
451 A E triphosphates mineral salt, emulsifier
452 A E polyphosphates mineral salt, emulsifier
459   E beta-cyclodextrin emulsifier
460 A E powdered cellulose, microcrystalline cellulose anti-caking agent
461 A E methylcellulose thickener, emulsifier, vegetable gum
463   E hydroxypropyl cellulose thickener, vegetable gum, emulsifier
464 A E hydroxypropyl methylcellulose thickener, vegetable gum, emulsifier
465 A methyl ethyl cellulose, ethyl methyl cellulose thickener, vegetable gum, emulsifier
466 A E sodium carboxymethylcellulose emulsifier
468     crosslinked sodium carboxymethylcellulose emulsifier
469     enzymatically hydrolyzed carboxymethyl cellulose emulsifier
470 A   magnesium stearate emulsifier, stabiliser
470a   E sodium, potassium and calcium salts of fatty acids emulsifier, stabiliser, anti-caking agent
470b   E magnesium salts of fatty acids emulsifier, stabiliser, anti-caking agent
471 A E mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids - glyceryl monostearate, glyceryl distearate emulsifier
472a A E acetic acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids emulsifier
472b A E lactic acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids emulsifier
472c A E citric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids emulsifier
472d A E tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids emulsifier
472e A E diacetyltartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids emulsifier
472f   E mixed acetic and tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids emulsifier
473 A E sucrose esters of fatty acids emulsifier
474   E sucroglycerides emulsifier
475 A E polyglycerol esters of fatty acids emulsifier
476 A E polyglycerol polyricinoleate emulsifier
477 A E propylene glycol esters of fatty acids emulsifier
478 ? ? lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and propylene glycol emulsifier
479b   E thermally oxidised soya bean oil emulsifier
480 A   dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate emulsifier
481 A E sodium stearoyl lactylate emulsifier
482 A E calcium stearoyl lactylate emulsifier
483   E stearyl tartarate emulsifier
491 A E sorbitan monostearate emulsifier
492 A E sorbitan tristearate emulsifier
493     sorbitan monolaurate emulsifier
494   E sorbitan monooleate emulsifier
495   E sorbitan monopalmitate emulsifier
500 A E sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate mineral salt
501 AE potassium carbonate, potassium bicarbonate mineral salt
503 A E ammonium carbonate, ammonium bicarbonate mineral salt
504 A E magnesium carbonate anti-caking agent, mineral salt
507 A E hydrochloric acid acidity regulator
508 A E potassium chloride mineral salt
509 A E calcium chloride mineral salt
510 A   ammonium chloride mineral salt
511 A E magnesium chloride mineral salt
512 A E stannous chloride colour retention agent, antioxidant
513   E sulfuric acid acidity regulator
514 A E sodium sulfate mineral salt
515 A E potassium sulfate mineral salt, seasoning
516 A E calcium sulfate flour treatment agent, mineral salt, sequestrant, improving agent, firming agent
517   E ammonium sulfate mineral salt, improving agent
518 A   magnesium sulfate, Epsom salts mineral salt, acidity regulator, firming agent
519 A   cupric sulfate mineral salt
520   E aluminium sulfate mineral salt
521   E aluminium sodium sulfate mineral salt
522   E aluminium potassium sulfate mineral salt
523   E aluminium ammonium sulfate mineral salt
524   E sodium hydroxide mineral salt
525   E potassium hydroxide mineral salt
526 A E calcium hydroxide mineral salt
527   E ammonium hydroxide mineral salt
528   E magnesium hydroxide mineral salt
529 A E calcium oxide mineral salt
530   E magnesium oxide anti-caking agent
535 A E sodium ferrocyanide anti-caking agent
536 A E potassium ferrocyanide anti-caking agent
538   E calcium ferrocyanide anti-caking agent
540     dicalcium diphosphate anti-caking agent
541 A E sodium aluminium phosphate acidity regulator, emulsifier
542 A   bone phosphate anti-caking agent
544     calcium polyphosphates anti-caking agent
545     ammonium polyphosphates anti-caking agent
551 A E silicon dioxie anti-caking agent
552 A E calcium silicate anti-caking agent
553a   E magnesium silicate anti-caking agent
553b A E talc anti-caking agent
554 A E sodium aluminosilicate (sodium aluminium silicate) anti-caking agent
555   E potassium aluminium silicate anti-caking agent
556 A E calcium aluminosilicate (calcium aluminium silicate) anti-caking agent
558 A E bentonite anti-caking agent
559 A E kaolin, aluminium silicate anti-caking agent
570 A E stearic acid anti-caking agent
575 A E glucono-delta-lactone acidity regulator
576   E sodium gluconate stabiliser
577 A E potassium gluconate stabiliser
578 A E calcium gluconate acidity regulator
579 A E ferrous gluconate colour retention agent
585   E ferrous lactate
620 A E glutamic acid flavour enhancer
621 A E monosodium glutamate (MSG) flavour enhancer
622 A E monopotassium glutamate flavour enhancer
623 A E calcium diglutamate flavour enhancer
624 A E monoammonium glutamate flavour enhancer
625 A E magnesium diglutamate flavour enhancer
626     guanylic acid flavour enhancer
627 A E disodium guanylate flavour enhancer
628   E dipotassium guanylate flavour enhancer
629   E calcium guanylate flavour enhancer
630   E inosinic acid flavour enhancer
631 A E disodium inosinate flavour enhancer
632   E dipotassium inosinate flavour enhancer
633   E calcium inosinate flavour enhancer
634   E calcium 5'-ribonucleotides flavour enhancer
635 A E disodium 5'-ribonucleotides flavour enhancer
636 A   maltol flavour enhancer
637 A   ethyl maltol flavour enhancer
640 A E glycine flavour enhancer
641 A   leucine flavour enhancer
650   E zinc acetate flavour enhancer
900 A E dimethylpolysiloxane emulsifier, anti-caking agent
901 A E beeswax glazing agent
902   E candelilla wax glazing agent
903 A E carnauba wax glazing agent
904 A E shellac glazing agent
905 A E paraffins glazing agent
907     refined microcrystalline wax glazing agent
912   E montanic acid esters humectant
914 A E oxidised polyethylene wax humectant
920 A E L-cysteine flour treatment agent
924     potassium bromate flour treatment agent
925 A   chlorine flour treatment agent
926 A   chlorine dioxide flour treatment agent
927b   E carbamide flour treatment agent
928 A   benzoyl peroxide flour treatment agent
938   E argon propellant
939   E helium propellant
941 A E nitrogen propellant
942 A E nitrous oxide propellant
943a   E butane propellant
943b   E isobutane propellant
950 A E Acesulfame potassium artificial sweetener
951 A E aspartame artificial sweetener
952 A E cyclamic acid, cyclamates artificial sweetene
953 A E isomalt humectant
954 A E saccharin artificial sweetener
955 A   sucralose artificial sweetener
956 A   alitame artificial sweetener
957 A E thaumatin flavour enhancer, artificial sweetener
959   E neohesperidin dihydrochalcone artificial sweetener
965 A E maltitol humectant, stabiliser
966 A E lactitol humectant
967 A E xylitol humectant, stabiliser
999   E quillaia extract humectant
1001 A   choline salts and esters emulsifier
1100 A   amylases flour treatment agent
1102 A   glucose oxidase antioxidant
1103   E invertase ?
1104 A   lipases flavour enhancer
1105 A E lysozyme preservative
1200 A E polydextrose humectant
1201 A E poly vinyl pyrrolidone ?
1202 A E polyvinylpolypyrrolidone colour stabiliser
1400 A   dextrin roasted starch thickener, vegetable gum
1401 A   acid treated starch thickener, vegetable gum
1402 A   alkaline treated starch thickener, vegetable gum
1403 A   bleached starch thickener, vegetable gum
1404 A E oxidised starch thickener, vegetable gum
1405 A   enzyme treated starch thickener, vegetable gum
1410 A E monostarch phosphate thickener, vegetable gum
1412 A E distarch phosphate thickener, vegetable gum
1413 A E phosphated distarch phosphate thickener, vegetable gum
1414 A E acetylated distarch phosphate thickener, vegetable gum
1420 A E acetylated starch thickener, vegetable gum
1422 A E acetylated distarch adipate thickener, vegetable gum
1440 A E hydroxypropyl starch thickener, vegetable gum
1442 A E hydroxypropyl distarch phosphate thickener, vegetable gum
1450 A E starch sodium octenylsuccinate thickener, vegetable gum
1451   E acetylated oxidised starch thickener, vegetable gum
1505 A E triethyl citrate thickener, vegetable gu
1510     ethanol (not classified as an additive) alcohol
1518 A E triacetin humectant
1520 A E propylene glycol humectant
1521 A   Polyethylene glycol antifoaming agent

See also


Published - December 2008

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