Steel Erection eTool: Glossary
U.S. Department of Labor,
Occupational Safety & Health Administration,
Constitution Avenue, NW,
Washington, DC 20210, U.S.A.
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Anchored bridging means that the steel joist
bridging is connected to a bridging terminus point.
Bolted diagonal bridging means diagonal bridging
that is bolted to a steel joist or joists.
Bridging clip means a device that is attached
to the steel joist to allow the bolting of the bridging
to the steel joist.
Bridging terminus point means a wall, beam,
tandem joists (with all bridging installed and a horizontal
truss in the plane of the top chord), or other element
at an end or intermediate point(s) of a line of bridging
that provides an anchor point for the steel joist
Choker means a wire rope or synthetic fiber
rigging assembly used to attach a load to a hoisting
Cold forming means the process of using press
brakes, rolls, or other methods to shape steel into
desired cross sections at room temperature.
Column means a load-carrying vertical member
that is part of the primary skeletal framing system.
Columns do not include posts.
Competent person (also defined in 1926.32)
means one who is capable of identifying existing and
predictable hazards in the surroundings or working
conditions that are unsanitary, hazardous, or dangerous
to employees, and who has authorization to take prompt
corrective measures to eliminate them.
Connector means an employee who, working with
hoisting equipment, is placing and connecting structural
members and/or components.
Constructibility means the ability to erect
structural steel members in accordance with Subpart
R without having to alter the overall structural design.
Construction load (for joist erection) means
any load other than the weight of the employee(s),
joists and bridging bundle.
Controlled Decking Zone (CDZ) means an area
in which certain work (for example, initial installation
and placement of metal decking) may take place without
the use of guardrail systems, personal fall-arrest
systems, fall-restraint systems, or safety-net systems
and where access to the zone is controlled.
Controlled load lowering means lowering a load
by means of a mechanical hoist drum device that allows
a hoisted load to be lowered with maximum control
using the gear train or hydraulic components of the
hoist mechanism. Controlled load lowering requires
the use of the hoist drive motor, rather than the
load hoist brake, to lower the load.
Controlling contractor means a prime contractor,
general contractor, construction manager or any other
legal entity that has the overall responsibility for
the construction of the projectits planning,
quality, and completion.
Critical lift means a lift that (1) exceeds
75 percent of the rated capacity of the crane or derrick,
or (2) requires the use of more than one crane or
Decking hole means a gap or void more than
2 inches (5.1 cm) in its least dimension and less
than 12 inches (30.5 cm) in its greatest dimension
in a floor, roof, or other walking/working surface.
Pre-engineered holes in cellular decking (for wires,
cables, etc.) are not included in this definition.
Derrick floor means an elevated floor of a
building or structure that has been designated to
receive hoisted pieces of steel before final placement.
Double connection means an attachment where
the connection point is intended for two pieces of
steel that share common bolts on either side of a
Double connection seat means a structural attachment
that, during the installation of a double connection,
supports the first member while the second member
Erection bridging means the bolted diagonal
bridging that is required to be installed before releasing
the hoisting cables from the steel joists.
Fall-restraint system means a fall-protection
system that prevents the user from falling any distance.
The system is comprised of either a body belt or body
harness, along with an anchorage, connectors, and
other necessary equipment. The other components typically
include a lanyard and also may include a lifeline
and other devices.
Final interior perimeter means the perimeter
of a large permanent open space within a building
such as an atrium or courtyard. This does not include
openings for stairways, elevator shafts, etc.
Girt (in systems-engineered
metal buildings) means a Z- or C-shaped member
formed from sheet steel spanning between primary framing
and supporting wall material.
Headache ball means a weighted hook that is
used to attach loads to the hoist load line of the
Hoisting equipment means commercially manufactured
lifting equipment designed to lift and position a
load of known weight to a location at some known elevation
and horizontal distance from the equipment's center
of rotation. "Hoisting equipment" includes,
but is not limited to, cranes, derricks, tower cranes,
barge-mounted derricks or cranes, gin poles, and gantry-hoist
systems. A "come-a-long" (a mechanical device,
usually consisting of a chain or cable attached at
each end, that is used to facilitate movement of materials
through leverage) is not considered "hoisting
Leading edge means the unprotected side and
edge of a floor, roof, or formwork for a floor or
other walking/working surface (such as deck) that
changes location as additional floor, roof, decking,
or formwork sections are placed, formed, or constructed.
Metal decking means a commercially manufactured,
structural-grade, cold-rolled metal panel formed into
a series of parallel ribs. For this subpart, this
includes metal floor and roof decks, standing seam
metal roofs, other metal roof systems, and other products
such as bar gratings, checker plate, expanded metal
panels, and similar products. After installation and
proper fastening, these decking materials serve a
combination of functions including, but not limited
to: a structural element designed in combination with
the structure to resist, distribute, and transfer
loads, stiffen the structure, and provide a diaphragm
action; a walking/working surface; a form for concrete
slabs; a support for roofing systems; and a finished
floor or roof.
Multiple-lift rigging means a rigging assembly
manufactured by wire-rope rigging suppliers that facilitates
the attachment of up to five independent loads to
the hoist rigging of a crane.
Opening means a gap or void 12 inches (30.5
cm) or more in its least dimension in a floor, roof
or other walking/working surface. For the purposes
of this subpart, skylights and smoke domes that do
not meet the strength requirements of 1926.754(e)(3)
shall be regarded as openings.
Permanent floor means a structurally completed
floor at any level or elevation (including slab on
Personal fall-arrest system means a system
used to stop an employee in a fall from a working
level. A personal fall-arrest system consists of an
anchorage, connectors, and a body harness and may
include a lanyard, deceleration device, lifeline,
or suitable combination of these. The use of a body
belt for fall arrest is prohibited.
Positioning-device system means a body belt
or body harness rigged to allow an employee to be
supported on an elevated, vertical surface such as
a wall or column and work with both hands free while
Post means a structural member with a longitudinal
axis that is essentially vertical, that: (1) weighs
300 pounds or less and is axially loaded (a load presses
down on the top end), or (2) is not axially loaded,
but is laterally restrained by the above member. Posts
typically support stair landings, wall framing, mezzanines,
and other substructures.
Project structural engineer of record means
the registered, licensed professional responsible
for the design of structural steel framing and whose
seal appears on the structural contract documents.
systems-engineered metal buildings) means a Z-
or C-shaped member formed from sheet steel spanning
between primary framing and supporting roof material.
Qualified person (also defined in 1926.32)
means one who, by possession of a recognized degree,
certificate, or professional standing, or who by extensive
knowledge, training, and experience, has successfully
demonstrated the ability to solve or resolve problems
relating to the subject matter, the work, or the project.
Safety deck attachment means an initial attachment
used to secure an initially placed sheet of decking
to keep proper alignment and bearing with structural
Shear connector means headed steel studs, steel
bars, steel lugs, and similar devices that are attached
to a structural to achieve composite action with concrete.
Steel erection means the construction, alteration
or repair of steel buildings, bridges, and other structures,
including the installation of metal decking and all
planking used during the process of erection.
Steel joist means an open web, secondary load-carrying
member of 144 feet (43.9 m) or less, designed by the
manufacturer, used for the support of floors and roofs.
This does not include structural steel trusses or
Steel joist girder means an open web, primary
load-carrying member, designed by the manufacturer,
used for the support of floors and roofs. This does
not include structural steel trusses.
Steel truss means an open web member designed
of structural steel components by the project structural
engineer of record. For the purposes of this subpart,
a steel truss is considered equivalent to a solid
web structural member.
Structural steel means a steel member, or a
member made of a substitute material (such as, but
not limited to, fiberglass, aluminum, or composite
members). These members include, but are not limited
to, steel joists, joist girders, purlins, columns,
beams, trusses, splices, seats, metal decking, girts,
and all bridging, and cold-formed metal framing that
is integrated with the structural steel framing of
Systems-engineered metal building
means a metal, field-assembled building system consisting
of framing, and roof and wall coverings. Typically,
many of these components are cold-formed shapes. These
individual parts are fabricated in one or more manufacturing
facilities and shipped to the job site for assembly
into the final structure. The engineering design of
the system is normally the responsibility of the systems-engineered
metal building manufacturer.
Tank means a container for holding gases, liquids,
Unprotected sides and edges means any side
or edge (except at entrances to points of access)
of a walking/working surface: for example, a floor,
roof, ramp or runway, where there is no wall or guardrail
system at least 39 inches (1.0 m) high.
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