Shipyard Employment eTool: Glossary
U.S. Department of Labor,
Occupational Safety & Health Administration,
Constitution Avenue, NW,
Washington, DC 20210, U.S.A.
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Spacesmeans those spaces bordering a subject
space in all directions, including all points of contact,
corners, diagonals, decks, tank tops, and bulkheads.
Alarm means a signal or message from a
person or device that indicates that there is a fire, medical emergency,
or other situation that requires emergency response or evacuation. At some
shipyards, this may be called an "incident" or a "call for service."
Alarm System means a system that warns employees at the
worksite of danger.
Barge means an unpowered, flat bottom, shallow draft
vessel including scows, carfloats and lighters. For
purposes of this section, the term does not include
ship shaped or deep draft barges.
is a horizontal member of a scaffold upon which the platform rest and
which may be supported by ledgers.
Body Harness means a system of straps that may be secured about
the employee in a manner that will distribute the fall arrest forces over
at least the thighs, shoulders, chest, and pelvis, with means for
attaching it to other components of a personal fall arrest system.
Certified Industrial Hygienist (CIH) means an industrial
hygienist who is certified by the American Board of
Class II standpipe system means a 1 1/2 inch (3.8 cm) hose
system which provides a means for the control or extinguishment of
incipient stage fires.
Coast Guard Authorized Person means an individual
who meets the requirement of Appendix B to Subpart B
of this part 1915 for tank vessels, for passenger vessels,
and for cargo and miscellaneous vessels.
Cold Work means any work that does not involve riveting,
welding, burning, or other fire or spark producing operations.
Competent Person for purposes of this part means
a person who is capable of recognizing and evaluating
employee exposure to hazardous substances or to other
unsafe conditions and is capable of specifying the necessary
protection and precautions to be taken to ensure the
safety of employees as required by the particular regulation
under the condition to which it applies. For the purposes
of Subparts B, C, and D of this part, except for 1915.35(b)(8)
and 1915.36(a)(5), to which the above definition applies,
the competent person must also meet the additional requirements
Confined Space means a compartment of small size
and limited access such as a double bottom tank, cofferdam,
or other space which by its small size and confined
nature can readily create or aggravate a hazardous exposure.
Contract Employer means an employer, such as a painter, joiner,
carpenter, or scaffolding sub-contractor, who performs work under contract
to the host employer or to another employer under contract to the host
employer at the host employer's worksite. This excludes employers who
provide incidental services that do not influence shipyard employment
(such as mail delivery or office supply services).
Dangerous Atmosphere means an atmosphere that may
expose employees to the risk of death, incapacitation,
impairment of ability to self-rescue (i.e., escape unaided
from a confined or enclosed space), injury, or acute
Dangerous Atmosphere means an atmosphere that may expose
employees to the risk of death, incapacitation, injury, acute illness, or
impairment of ability to self-rescue (i.e., escape unaided from a confined
or enclosed space).
Designated Area means an area established for hot work after an
inspection that is free of fire hazards.
means a form of exposure control that involves providing enough air in the
workplace to dilute the concentration of airborne contaminants to
Drop Test means a method utilizing gauges to ensure the
integrity of an oxygen fuel gas burning system. The method requires that
the burning torch is installed to one end of the oxygen and fuel gas lines
and then the gauges are attached to the other end of the hoses. The
manifold or cylinder supply valve is opened and the system is pressurized.
The manifold or cylinder supply valve is then closed and the gauges are
watched for at least sixty (60) seconds. Any drop in pressure indicates a
Emergency Operations means activities performed by fire
response organizations that are related to: rescue, fire suppression,
emergency medical care, and special operations or activities that include
responding to the scene of an incident and all activities performed at
Employee means any person engaged in ship repairing,
shipbuilding, ship breaking, or related employments
on the navigable waters of the United States, including
dry docks, graving docks, and marine railways, other
than the master, ship's officers, crew of the vessel,
or any person engaged by the master to repair any vessel
over 18 net tons.
Employer means an employer, any of whose employees
are employed, in whole or in part, in ship repairing,
shipbuilding, ship breaking or related employments as
defined in this section on the navigable waters of the
United States, including dry docks, graving docks, and
Enclosed Space means any space, other than a confined
space, which is enclosed by bulkheads and overhead.
It includes cargo holds, tanks, quarters, and machinery
and boiler spaces.
Enter with Restrictions denotes a space where entry
for work is permitted only if engineering controls,
personal protective equipment, clothing, and time limitations
are as specified by the Marine Chemist, Certified Industrial
Hygienist, or the shipyard competent person.
Entry means the action by which a person passes
through an opening into a space. Entry includes ensuing
work activities in that space and is considered to have
occurred as soon as any part of the entrant's body breaks
the plane of an opening into the space.
Explosion-Proof Lights is an apparatus
enclosed in a case that is capable of withstanding an explosion of a
specified gas or vapor that may occur within it and of preventing the
ignition of a specified gas or vapor surrounding the enclosure by sparks,
flashes, or explosion of the gas or vapor within, and that operates at
such an external temperature that a surrounding flammable atmosphere will
not be ignited thereby.
Fire Hazard means a condition or material that may start or
contribute to the spread of fire.
Fire Protection means methods of providing fire prevention,
response, detection, control, extinguishment, and engineering.
Fire Response means the activity taken by the employer at the
time of an emergency incident involving a fire at the worksite, including
fire suppression activities carried out by internal or external resources
or a combination of both, or total or partial employee evacuation of the
area exposed to the fire.
Fire Response employee means a shipyard employee who carries
out the duties and responsibilities of shipyard firefighting in accordance
with the fire safety plan.
Fire Response organization means an organized group
knowledgeable, trained, and skilled in shipyard firefighting operations
that responds to shipyard fire emergencies, including: fire brigades,
shipyard fire departments, private or contractual fire departments, and
municipal fire departments.
Fire Suppression means the activities involved in controlling
and extinguishing fires.
Fire Watch means the activity of observing and responding to
the fire hazards associated with hot work in shipyard employment and the
employees designated to do so.
Fixed Extinguishing system means a permanently installed fire
protection system that either extinguishes or controls fire occurring in
the space it protects.
Flammable Liquid means any liquid having a flashpoint below 100
єF (37.8 єC), except any mixture having components with flashpoints of 100
єF (37.8 єC) or higher, the total of which make up 99 percent or more of
the total volume of the mixture.
Gangway means any ramp-like or stair-like means
of access provided to enable personnel to board or leave
a vessel including accommodation ladders, gangplanks,
are operations performed in testing, evaluating, removing or controlling
hazardous materials or conditions, within or related to a confined or
enclosed spaces, which may present hazards to personnel entering or
working in, on or adjacent to the space.
General Exhaust (Dilution) Ventilation Systems
also called dilution ventilation, is different from local exhaust
ventilation because instead of capturing emissions at their source and
removing them from the air, general exhaust ventilation allows the
contaminant to be emitted into the workplace air and then dilutes the
concentration of the contaminant to an acceptable level (e.g., to the PEL
or below). Dilution systems are often used to control evaporated liquids.
Hazardous Material means a material that has one
or more of the following characteristics:
Hazardous Substance means a substance which by reason
of being explosive, flammable, poisonous, corrosive,
oxidizing, irritant, or otherwise harmful is likely
to cause injury.
has a flash point below 140F, closed cup, or is subject to
has a threshold limit value below 500 ppm in the case of a gas or
vapor, below 500 mg/m3 for fumes, and below 25 mppcf in
case of a dust.
has a single dose oral LD50 below 500 mg/kg;
is subject to polymerization with the release of large amounts of
is a strong oxidizing or reducing agent;
causes first degree burns to skin in short time exposure, or is
systemically toxic by skin contact; or
in the course of normal operations, may produce dusts, gases, fumes,
vapors, mists, or smokes which have one or more of the above
Hazardous Substance means a substance likely to cause injury by
reason of being explosive, flammable, poisonous, corrosive, oxidizing, an
irritant, or otherwise harmful.
Hot Work means any activity involving riveting,
welding, burning, powder-actuated tools, or similar
fire-producing operations. Grinding, drilling, abrasive
blasting, or similar spark-producing operations are
also considered hot work except when such operations
are isolated physically from any atmosphere containing
more than 10% of the lower explosive limit of a flammable
or combustible substance.
Hose Systems means fire protection systems consisting of a
water supply, approved fire hose, and a means to control the flow of water
at the output end of the hose.
Host Employer means an employer who is in charge of
coordinating work or who hires other employers to perform work at a
Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health (IDLH) means
an atmosphere that poses an immediate threat to life
or that is likely to result in acute or immediate severe
Incident Management System means a system that defines the
roles and responsibilities to be assumed by personnel and the operating
procedures to be used in the management and direction of emergency
operations; the system is also referred to as an "incident command system"
Incipient Stage Fire means a fire, in the initial or beginning
stage, which can be controlled or extinguished by portable fire
extinguishers, Class II standpipe or small hose systems without the need
for protective clothing or breathing apparatus.
or Inerted Atmosphere
means an atmospheric condition where:
Inerting means the displacement of the atmosphere in a permit
space by noncombustible gas (such as nitrogen) to such an extent that the
resulting atmosphere is noncombustible. This procedure produces an IDLH
The oxygen content of the atmosphere in the space is maintained at a
level equal to or less than 8.0 percent by volume or at a level at
or below 50 percent of the amount required to support combustion,
whichever is less; or
The space is flooded with water and the vapor concentration of
flammable or combustible materials in the free space atmosphere
above the water line is less than 10 percent of the lower explosive
limit for the flammable or combustible material.
Interior Structural Firefighting Operations means the physical
activity of fire response, rescue, or both involving a fire beyond the
incipient stage inside of buildings, enclosed structures, vessels, and
Labeled means identified with a sign, placard, or
other form of written communication, including pictograms,
that provides information on the status or condition
of the work space to which it is attached.
or stringer is a horizontal scaffold member which extends from post to
post and which supports the bearer forming a tie between the posts.
Local Exhaust Ventilation Systems is
composed of five parts: fans, hoods, ducts, air cleaners, and stacks.
Local exhaust ventilation is designed to capture an emitted contaminant at
or near its source, before the contaminant has a chance to disperse into
the workplace air.
Lower Explosive Limit (LEL) means the minimum concentration
of vapor in air below which propagation of a flame does
not occur in the presence of an ignition source.
Marine Chemist means an individual who possesses
a current Marine Chemist Certificate issued by the National
Fire Protection Association.
Multi-Employer Workplace means a workplace where there is a
host employer and at least one contract employer.
Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratory (NRTL)
means an organization recognized by OSHA, in accordance
with Appendix A of 29 CFR 1910.7, that tests for safety
and lists or labels or accepts equipment and materials
that meet all the criteria found in 1910.7(b)(1) through
Not Safe for Hot Work denotes a space where hot
work may not be performed because the conditions do
not meet the criteria for Safe for Hot Work.
Not Safe for Workers denotes a space where an employee
may not enter because the conditions do not meet the
criteria for Safe for Workers.
Oxygen-Deficient Atmosphere means an atmosphere
having an oxygen concentration of less than 19.5% by
Oxygen-Enriched Atmosphere means an atmosphere that
contains 22% or more oxygen by volume.
Personal Alert Safety System (PASS) means a device that sounds
a loud signal if the wearer becomes immobilized or is motionless for 30
seconds or more.
Physical Isolation means the elimination of a fire hazard by
removing the hazard from the work area (at least 35 feet for
combustibles), by covering or shielding the hazard with a fire-resistant
material, or physically preventing the hazard from entering the work area.
Physically Isolated means positive isolation of the supply from
the distribution piping of a fixed extinguishing system. Examples of ways
to physically isolate include: removing a spool piece and installing a
blank flange; providing a double block and bleed valve system; or
completely disconnecting valves and piping from all cylinders or other
pressure vessels containing extinguishing agents.
Portable Unfired Pressure Vessel means any pressure
container or vessel used aboard ship, other than the
ship's equipment, containing liquids or gases under
pressure, excepting pressure vessels built to Interstate
Commerce Commission (ICC) regulations under 49 CFR Part
178: Specifications for Packagings, Subparts C: Specifications
for Cylinders and Subpart H: Specifications for Portable
Powder Actuated Fastening Tool means a tool or machine
which drives a stud, pin, or fastener by means of an
Protected Space means any space into which a fixed
extinguishing system can discharge.
Proximity Firefighting means specialized fire-fighting
operations that require specialized thermal protection and may include the
activities of rescue, fire suppression, and property conservation at
incidents involving fires producing very high levels of conductive,
convective, and radiant heat such as aircraft fires, bulk flammable gas
fires, and bulk flammable liquid fires. Proximity firefighting operations
usually are exterior operations but may be combined with structural
firefighting operations. Proximity firefighting is not entry firefighting.
Qualified Instructor means a person with specific knowledge,
training, and experience in fire response or fire watch activities to
cover the material found in § 1915.508(b) or (c).
Related Employment means any employment performed
as an incident to or in conjunction with ship repairing,
shipbuilding or shipbreaking work, including, but not
restricted to, inspection, testing, and employment as
Rescue means locating endangered persons at an emergency
incident, removing those persons from danger, treating the injured, and
transporting the injured to an appropriate health care facility.
River Tow Boat means a shallow draft, low free board,
self-propelled vessel designed to tow river barges by
pushing ahead. For purposes of this section, the term
does not include other towing vessels.
Safe for Hot Work denotes a space that meets all
of the following criteria:
Safe for Workers denotes a space that meets the
The oxygen content of the atmosphere does not exceed 22.0 percent by
The concentration of flammable vapors in the atmosphere is less than 10
percent of the lower explosive limit;
The residues or materials in the space are not capable of producing a higher
concentration than permitted in paragraph (1) or (2) of the above, under
existing atmospheric conditions in the presence of hot work and while maintained
as directed by the Marine Chemist or competent person, and
All adjacent spaces have been cleaned, or inerted, or treated sufficiently
to prevent the spread of fire.
Safety and Health Advisory Committee (SHAC)
is composed of representatives from Labor, Management, consultants, and
academia. This committee operates within the framework of the National
Shipbuilding Research Program (NSRP) which is a DoD-funded program
established to help reduce the cost of Shipbuilding and Ship Repair for
both private and public shipyards. The SHAC committee is chartered with
the expressed mission to initiate and implement efforts that will reduce
injuries and illnesses to our industry workers as well as the associated
costs related to these injuries. In accomplishing this mission, the SHAC
committee entertains a close working relationship with OSHA and NIOSH on a
variety of subjects including regulation reform, injury reduction and
The oxygen content of the atmosphere is at least 19.5 percent and
below 22 percent by volume;
The concentration of flammable vapors is below 10 percent of the
lower explosive limit (LEL);
Any toxic materials in the atmosphere associated with cargo, fuel,
tank coatings, or inerting media are within permissible
concentrations at the time of the inspection; and
Any residues or materials associated with the work authorized by the
Marine Chemist, Certified Industrial Hygienist, or competent person
will not produce uncontrolled release of toxic materials under
existing atmospheric conditions while maintained as directed.
Ship breaking means any breaking
down of a vessel's structure for the purpose of scrapping
the vessel, including the removal of gear, equipment
or any component part of a vessel.
Shipbuilding means the construction
of a vessel including the installation of machinery
Shipyard Employment means
ship repairing, shipbuilding, ship breaking, and related
Shipyard firefighting means the activity of rescue, fire
suppression, and property conservation involving buildings, enclosed
structures, vehicles, vessels, aircraft, or similar properties involved in
a fire or emergency situation.
Ship Repair and Ship Repairing mean any repair of
a vessel including, but not restricted to, alterations,
conversions, installations, cleaning, painting, and
Small Hose System means a system of hoses ranging in diameter
from 5/8" (1.6 cm) up to 1 1/2" (3.8 cm) which is for the use of employees
and which provides a means for the control and extinguishment of incipient
Space means an area on a vessel or vessel section
or within a shipyard such as, but not limited to: cargo
tanks or holds; pump or engine rooms; storage lockers;
tanks containing flammable or combustible liquids, gases,
or solids; rooms within buildings; crawl spaces; tunnels;
or access ways. The atmosphere within a space is the
entire area within its bounds.
Standpipe means a fixed fire protection system consisting of
piping and hose connections used to supply water to approved hose lines or
sprinkler systems. The hose may or may not be connected to the system.
Upper Explosive Limit (UEL) means the maximum concentration
of flammable vapor in air above which propagation of
flame does not occur on contact with a source of ignition.
Vessel includes every description of watercraft
or other artificial contrivance used, or capable of
being used, as a means of transportation on water, including
special purpose floating structures not primarily designed
for or used as a means of transportation on water.
Vessel Section means a sub-assembly, module, or
other component of a vessel being built, repaired, or
Visual Inspection means the physical survey of the
space, its surroundings and contents to identify hazards
such as, but not limited to, restricted accessibility,
residues, unguarded machinery, and piping or electrical
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