Glossary of Logging Terms
U.S. Department of Labor,
Occupational Safety & Health Administration,
Constitution Avenue, NW,
Washington, DC 20210, U.S.A.
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A - FRAME: A structure made of two independent
columns fastened together at the top and separated by
a reasonable width at the bottom to stabilize the unit
from tipping sideways.
AN OPERATION: Any place where logging or log
related activities are taking place.
APPROVED: Approved by the appropriate authority
or testing laboratory.
ARCH: An open-framed trailer or built-up framework
used to suspend the leading ends of trees or logs when
they are skidded.
AUTHORIZED PERSON: A person approved or assigned
by the employer to perform a specific type of duty(s)
or to be at a specific location at a certain time(s).
AXE: A part of the faller's safety equipment
which serves many pounding and chopping functions. Can
also be used to plumb the lean of a tree and gauge the
height of the tree.
BACKCUT (Felling Cut): The last of the three
cuts required to fall a tree. Located on the opposite
side of the tree from the face and minimally 1"
above the horizontal cut of the face. The 1" is
referred to as stump shot and prevents the tree from
kicking back over the stump toward the faller. The backcut
must never be continued to a point at which no holding
wood remains. Variations of backcutting are discussed
in: face-boring backcut, side-boring backcut, and side-notching
LEAN: Weight of tree is opposite or opposed
to the intended felling direction.
BALLISTIC NYLON: A nylon fabric of high tensile
properties designed to provide protection from lacerations.
BAR OR BLADE: That part of the chain saw upon
which the cutting chain travels. Long, thin projection
of the chain saw upon which the saw chain travels. Improper
use of the bar results in kickbacks and saw cuts. It
is the extreme top and bottom of the bar's nose that
BARRIER: A fence, wall or railing to prevent
passage or approach.
BARBER-CHAIR: Vertical split of a tree during
the falling procedure. Generally a result of improper
facing and/ or backcutting. Characterized by a portion
of the fallen tree being left on the stump.
BASE OF TREE: That portion of a natural tree
not more than three feet above ground level.
BEAVER-TAILING: Burying the whole bar of the
saw while cutting.
BED: The intended position in which a tree will
BIGHT OF THE LINE: Any area where a person is
exposed to a controlled or uncontrolled moving line.
BIND OR BOUND: Series of pressures in a felled
tree resulting from objects (terrain, stumps, windfalls,
etc.), which prevent the tree from lying flat on he
ground. The two major components of bind are impression
and tension. It is their directional pressures that
determine the technique and procedure used while bucking.
BINDER: A hinged lever assembly for connecting
the ends of a wrapper to tighten the wrapper around
the load of logs or materials.
BLOWN-DOWN: An area of standing timber which
has been blown over by strong winds or storms.
BLOW-DOWN: Trees that have been blown down as
a result of wind.
BOOMBOAT: Any boat used to push or pull logs,
boom, bundles, or bags, in booming ground operations.
BOOMSCOOTER: A small boat, usually less than
fourteen feet in length, equipped with an outboard motor,
having directional pushing capabilities of 360 degrees.
BORING: Method of using the nose or tip of the
bar to saw into the tree while falling or bucking.
BIND: One of the five basic tree positions
commonly encountered while bucking. A tree in a bottom
bind situation is tensioned on the top and compressed
on the bottom.
BRAILING: When tiers of logs, piles, or piles
are fastened together with a type of dogline and the
ends of the side members are then fastened together
BROW LOG: A log or a suitable substitute placed
parallel to any roadway at a landing or dump to protect
the carrier and facilitate the safe loading or unloading
of logs, timber products, or materials.
BRUSH-OUT OR SWAMP-OUT: To clean out brush and
other material around the base of trees to be felled
or logs to be bucked. Gives protection against saw kickback
and provides safe footing.
BUCK: To cut a felled tree into logs.
BUCKING: Process of sawing a felled tree into
sections called logs. Length of the log is dependent
on the species of the tree and what type of product
it will be made into.
BULLBUCK OR BULLBUCKER: Supervisor of the fallers.
Among his responsibilities are assignment of fallers
to working areas and insurance that work is done safely
BULLBUCKER: A foreman or supervisor of falling
and bucking operations.
BUSHELING: Method of payment in which the faller
is paid for how many trees he falls and bucks. Generally
the number of trees is converted into thousands of bored
feet and a specific amount paid for each thousand board
BUTT: Bottom of a felled part of a tree.
BUTT LOG: Portion of a felled tree from the butt
to the first bucking cut.
BUTT WELDING: The practice of welding something
end to end.
Situation created when the two cuts of the undercut
(free cut) do not meet exactly, i.e. one bypasses the
other. Creates undesirable results such as barber chairing,
cracked tree butts, excessive fiber pull and misdirected
fall of the tree.
CABLE YARDING: The movement of felled trees or
logs from the area where they are felled to the landing
on a system composed of a cable suspended from spars
and/or towers. The trees or logs may be either dragged
across the ground on the cable or carried while suspended
from the cable.
CALKS OR CHALKS: Heavy leather boots containing
numerous steel calks or spikes. A part of the fallers
safety equipment used to promote secure footing.
CAT-FACE: Scar or deformed section at the base
of a tree caused by rot or fire.
CLEAR-CUT: An area in which all of the trees
have been or will be felled, bucked and skidded in one
operation. When all trees in a given area are felled.
CHOCK: A block, often wedge shaped, which is
used to prevent movement; e.g., a log from rolling,
a wheel from turning.
CHOCKER: A sling used to encircle the end of
a log for yarding. One end is passed around the load,
then through a loop eye, end fitting or other device
at the other end of the sling. The end that passed through
the end fitting or other device is then hooked to the
lifting or pulling machine.
CHOKER: A length of wire rope with attachments
for encircling the end of a log to be yarded.
COMPETENT PERSON: One who is capable of identifying
hazards in the surrounding or working conditions which
are unsanitary, hazardous or dangerous.
CONVENTIONAL FACE: One of the three types of
faces commonly used to fall a tree; the face or undercut
is taken from the butt of the tree.
CORNER-NIPPING: Special technique of partially
cutting the extreme outside holding wood corners to
prevent root pull, slabbing and alteration of the desired
CORNERS: The extreme outside position of the
holding wood on either side of the tree.
CORNERS: 1) Left and right side of the holding
wood. 2) Corner of the falling "face".
CORNER BLOCK: The first block the haulback passes
through on its way to the tail block.
CROSSING THE LEAD: Intentional or unintentional
falling of a tree across the established lead of falling
direction. Although crossing the lead may be caused
by wind, it generally is a result of improper falling
CROTCH LINE: Two short lines attached to the
same ring or shackle, used for loading or unloading.
CRUMMY: Vehicle used to transport fallers to
and from the falling and bucking area.
CULL: A tree or log which is considered unmerchantable
because of defects.
CUT-UP: Tree or log left standing or suspended
with the falling or bucking cuts almost completed.
CUTTER: One whose primary job is to fall, buck
or limb trees before they are moved to the landing area.
DANGER TREE: A standing tree that presents a
hazard to employees due to conditions such as, but not
limited to, deterioration or physical damage to the
root system, trunk, stem or limbs, and the direction
and lean of the tree.
DAY WORK: Method of payment in which the faller
is paid a specific amount for working a day.
Dbh: Diameter of the tree at breast height.
DEBARK: To remove bark from trees or logs.
DECK: A stack of trees or logs.
DESIGNATED PERSON: An employee who has the requisite
knowledge, training and experience to perform specific
DOGS: A metal plate containing 3 to 5 points
or fingers which are located in front of the chain saw
protruding parallel with the bar. Dogs allow the saw
to be pivoted while falling or bucking.
DOG LINE: Type of line used to fasten logs or
timber products together by the use of dogs.
DOMINO FALLING: Placing undercuts and backcuts
in a series of trees, then "pushing" them
with another tree. Domino falling is a dangerous, unacceptable
DOMINO FELLING: The partial cutting of multiple
trees which are left standing and then pushed over with
a pusher tree.
DOUBLE ENDED LOGS: Two logs end to end on the
DROPLINES: A short line attached to the carriage
or carriage block which is used as an extension to the
DRUM: A mechanical device on which line is spooled
DUTCHMAN: see Bypass
DUTCHMAN (As Used In Falling): A method used
to pull a tree against its lean by leaving a section
of the undercut on one corner of the face. The portion
left consists of a single saw kerf in one side of the
face cut. A single saw kerf must never extend completely
across the stump.
DUTCHMAN: General reference made to a special
falling technique in which the constant relationships
of the face, holding wood and backcut are intentionally
altered to solve a particular falling problem. (Refer
Dutchman, and Swing
END BIND: One of the five basic tree positions
commonly encountered while bucking. An end bind situation
occurs on steep terrain where the force of gravity closes
the bucking cuts.
ESCAPE ROUTE: A predetermined path of exit used
by fallers when falling or bucking. The essential components
of an escape route are: selection of the desired direction
and distance, prior to falling or bucking and a well-cleared
path through which to escape. Also known as retreat
EXPERIENCE PERSON: A person who has been trained
and has participated in the subject process for a period
of time, long enough to thoroughly acquaint the person
with all facets of the process.
EXTREME WEATHER CONDITIONS: Includes, but is
not limited to:
- Strong winds (applies to timber areas only) –
Wind velocity that reaches sufficient force to blow
limbs from standing trees or cause windfalls or
prevent cutters from falling of trees in the desired
- Impaired vision – Conditions such as falling snow,
sleet, mist, fog, rain, dust or darkness which substantially
impair visibility to the extent that employees cannot
clearly see signals, moving vehicles, equipment
and lines, falling trees or other hazards;
- Hazardous snow or icing conditions – Snow or ice
conditions which prevent escape from hazards such
as falling trees, moving logs, vehicles or similar
hazards; or lighting.·
F.O.P.S.: Falling object protective structure.
FACE: Edge of area formed along standing timber
as timber is felled.
FACE: A section of wood sawn and removed from
a tree's base. Its removal allows the tree to fall and
assists in direction where it will fall. The face is
comprised of two separate cuts which have constant relationships;
the horizontal cut must be at least 1/3 the diameter
of the tree, the sloping cut must be angled enough to
allow a wide opening and the two cuts must not cross
each other. See notch
cut and undercut.
FACE-BORING BACKCUT: Special alteration of standard
backcutting procedure used to handle particular trees
such as those which are large or leaning heavily. Face-boring
reduces the amount of wood remaining to be cut prior
to the final backcutting.
FAIR LEAD: Sheaves, rolls, or a combination thereof
arranged to receive a line coming from any direction
for proper lone spooling on to a drum.
FALLER: Timber faller-bucker (coastal) or tree
FALLER: Specialist who falls and bucks trees
in a safe manner while utilizing as much of the tree
as possible. In some areas the faller only cuts the
trees down and a bucker saws them into logs.
FELL (Fall): To cut down trees.
FELLER (Faller): An employee who fells trees.
FRONT END LOADER: A mobile machine mounted on
a wheeled or tracked chassis, equipped with a grapple,
tuck, bucket, or fork-lift device, and employed in the
loading, unloading, stacking, or sorting of logs or
GROUNDED: The placement of a component of a machine
on the ground or on a device where it is firmly supported.
GUARDED: Covered, shielded, fenced, enclosed,
or otherwise protected by means of suitable enclosures,
covers, casings, shields, troughs, railings, screens,
mats, or platforms, or by location, to prevent injury.
GUARD RAIL: A railing to restrain a person.
GUNNING OR SIGHTING: Technique of aligning the
handle bars and/or gunning mark with the desired falling
direction. Since the gunning mark and handle bars are
at a 90-degree angle to the bar, exact position of the
face, in relation to the desired falling location, can
easily be established.
GUYLINE: A line used to support or stabilize
GYPSY DRUM: A mechanical device wherein the line
is not attached to the drum and is manually spooled
to control the line movement on and off the drum.
Situation in which a tree is lodged in another and prevented
from falling to the ground. Results from a number of
causes such as improper facing and/or backcutting and
wind. Can be very dangerous.
HAULBACK: A line used to pull the buttrigging
and mainline to the logs to be yarded.
HAULBACK BLOCK: Any block the haulback line passes
through including the corner block and tailblock.
HAYRACK: A type of loading boom where two tongs
are used and logs are suspended. A transporting vehicle
with multiple sets of bunks attached to a rigid frame
usually used for hauling logs.
HAZARDOUS FALLING AREA: The area within a circle
centered on the tree being felled and having a radius
not less than twice the height of that tree.
HEAD LEAN: One of the two natural leaning forces
found in most trees. Head lean is the most prominent
outward slant or lean of a tree in reference to its
HEAD TREE: The tree where yarding and/or loading
HEALTH CARE PROVIDER: A health care practitioner
operating within the scope of his/her license, certificate,
registration or legally authorized practice.
HEEL BOOM: A type of loading boom where one tong
is used and one end of the log is pulled up against
HIGH LEAD: A system of logging wherein the main
line is threaded through the main line block, which
is attached near the top of the spar, to obtain a lift
of the logs being yarded.
HOBO LOG and/or HITCHHIKERM.: A free or unattached
log that is picked up by a turn and is transported with
HOLDING WOOD: Section of wood located between
the face and the backcut. Its purpose is to prevent
the tree from separating from the stump until it has
been committed to the face. It also helps direct where
the tree will fall. The holding wood must never be completely
HOOKTENDER: The worker that supervises the method
of moving the logs from the woods to the landing.
HORIZONTAL FACE CUT: First of the two cuts required
to face a tree. Its depth is minimally 1/3 the diameter
of the tree and level.
HUMBOLDT FACE: One of the two types of faces
commonly used to fall a tree. The face section is removed
from the stump of the tree.
HUNG/LODGED TREE: See Hang-up.
HYDRAULIC JACK: A mechanical device, powered
by internal pressure, used to control the direction
in which a tree is to be felled.
HYDRAULIC JACK PAD: Thick steel pad which is
placed between the hydraulic jack plunger and butt of
the tree to distribute the upward push over a larger
IN THE CLEAR: A position within the work area
where the probability of hazardous contact with falling
trees, moving logs, rootwads, chunks, material, rigging
and equipment is minimized by distance from the hazards
and/or use of physical barriers, such as stumps, trees,
terrain or other objects providing protection.
JACK-POT: An area in which the trees have not
been felled in any particular lead or direction. Such
a situation is a result of poor falling technique.
JACKSTRAWED: Trees or logs piled in an unorderly
JAGGERS: Any projecting broken wire in a strand
Space resulting from the cutting of a saw chain. The
width of a cut is referred to as the kerf.
KERF DUTCHMAN: A special falling technique in
which the constant relationships of the face, holding
wood, and backcut are intentionally altered to solve
a particular falling problem. The faller can, with the
use of the Kerf Dutchman, force a tree to jump off the
stump. If understood and properly used, the Kerf Dutchman
can in specific instances solve problems of breakage
and crossing roads or creeks.
KICK-BACK: A strong thrust of the saw back toward
the faller generally resulting from improper use of
the nose of the bar or the pinching of the bar in a
cut. Kickback causes loss of control of the saw and
this in turn results in numerous saw cuts each year.
Kick-back also refers to a tree jumping back over the
stump toward the faller. This kind of kick-back generally
results from a tree being felled into standing timber
and/or lack of stump-shot.
KICKER: A piece of the face, or an equivalent
object, placed in one side of a face cut to pull the
tree from its lean as it falls.
KNOB: A metal ferrule attached to the end of
LANDING: Any place where logs are laid after
being yarded and before transport to the worksite.
LAY: Refers to either the position in which a
felled tree is lying or the intended falling place of
a standing tree.
LEAD: Predetermined direction of falling the
trees of a particular strip or area in regard to the
relation of the trees to one another and their combined
relationship to the surrounding terrain.
LEAD: The established direction in which all
trees in a quarter or strip are to be felled, usually
governed by the terrain of the area, or its general
slope or skid road system.
LEAN: Refers to the directional tilt of a tree
away from its vertical position. Many times two lean
forces may be in play in the same tree. They are referred
to as head lean and side lean. The lean, or leans, of
a tree can be easily established with the use of a plumb-bob
or axe handle.
LEANER: A tree that leans excessively, not growing
LEG PROTECTOR: Ballistic nylon pad attached to
one or both pant legs to protect the leg from contact
with the saw chain. It can be attached to either the
inside or outside of the pant leg.
LIFT TREE: An intermediate support for skylines.
LIGHTNING STRIKE: Tree that has been struck by
LILY PAD: A thin slice of wood, sometimes taken
off the stump and used to cover the saw if it's to be
LIMB LOCK: A series of cuts made on limbs to
release back or side pressure and create a stay
in the limb that will prevent the limb from either kicking
back and striking the logger or pinching the saw.
LIMB LOCK: Limbing technique used to more safely
handle back pressure and sideways pressure on limbs
in order to reduce the liklihood of a limb under pressure
kicking back and striking the logger's leg or pinching
the saw. Two bypassing cuts are made, one on the
top side and one on the bottom side of the limb (top
and bottom refer to the top and bottom of the limb as
if the tree were standing up). The cut on the
top of the limb is made closer to the trunk of the tree
and the cut on the bottom is made further out on the
limb. This creates a step in the limb which helps
prevent the limb from kicking out or back toward the
LIMBING: To cut branches off felled trees.
LOADING BOOM: Any structure projecting from a
pivot point to guide a log when lifted.
LODGED TREE (Hung Tree): A tree leaning against
another tree or object which prevents it from falling
to the ground.
LOG: A segment sawed or split from a felled tree,
such as, but not limited to, a section, bolt, or tree
LOG DUMP: A place where logs are removed from
transporting equipment. It may be either dry land or
water, parbuckled over a brow log or removed by machine.
LOGGING MACHINE: A machine used or intended for
use to yard, move, or handle logs, trees, chunks, trailers,
and related materials or equipment. This shall include
self-loading log trucks only during the loading and
LOGGING OPERATIONS: Operations associated with
felling and moving trees and logs from the stump to
the point of delivery, such as, but not limited to,
marking danger trees and trees/logs to be cut to length,
felling, limbing, bucking, debarking, chipping, yarding,
loading, unloading, storing, and transporting machines,
equipment and personnel to, from and between logging
LOG STACKER: A mobile machine mounted on a wheeled
or tracked chassis, equipped with a frontally mounted
grapple, tusk, or forklift device, and employed in the
loading, unloading, stacking or sorting of logs.
LONG-BUTT: After a tree is felled a section of
the butt-end may be sawn off because of rot.
LONG STICKS: An overlength log that creates a
hazard by exceeding the safe perimeters of the landing.
MACHINE: A piece of stationary or mobile equipment
having a self-contained power plant that is operated
off-road and used for the movement of material. Machines
include, but are not limited to, tractors, skidders,
front-end loaders, scrapers, graders, bulldozers, swing
yarders, log stackers, log loaders, and mechanical felling
devices, such as tree shears and feller-bunchers. Machines
do not include airplanes or aircraft (e.g., helicopters).
MAINLINE: The line attached to the buttrigging
used to pull logs to the landing.
MATCHCUTTING: The felling of trees without using
MECHANIZED FALLING: Falling of standing timber
by a self-propelled mobile wheeled or tracked machine
equipped with a shear or other powered cutting device.
MOBILE LOG LOADER: A self-propelled log loading
machine mounted on wheels or tracks.
MOBILE YARDER: A logging machine mounted on wheels,
tracks, or skids, incorporating a vertical or inclined
spar, tower, or boom.
MUST: The same as "shall" and is mandatory.
NEW AREA OR SETTING: A location of operations
when both the loading station and the yarder are moved.
NO-BIND: One of the five basic tree positions
commonly encountered while bucking. A tree in a no-bind
situation is usually found in flat terrain.
OFFSIDE: 1) Side of tree opposite to which the
faller stands when falling or bucking. 2) Side of body
opposite to that normally used to hold saw.
PASS LINE: A small line threaded through a block
at the top of the spar to assist the high climber.
PEELER: Logs used for peeling into thin layers
called veneer for the manufacture of plywood.
PERMISSIBLE: (As applied to any device, equipment
or appliance)- such device, equipment or appliance has
the formal approval of the United States Bureau of Mines,
American Standards Association, or National Board of
PLUMB: To gauge or assess the various types of
lean in a tree.
PLUMB-BOB: Special tool used to establish the
outward lean or slant of a tree in relation to its base.
Generally a lead weight attached to piece of string
PORTABLE SPAR OR TOWER: A movable engineered
structure designed to be used in a manner similar to
which a wood spar tree would be used.
PUSHER OR DRIVER: Use of a tree to drive or pushover
another that does not fall although it has been faced
and backcut. Such a situation results if a tree hangs-up,
sits back or is skybound.
PUSHING: When a tree has been undercut and backcut
and will not fall, the faller may as a last resort "push"
this tree by falling another into it.
QUALIFIED PERSON: A person, who by possession
of a recognized degree, certificate, professional standing,
or by extensive knowledge, training, and experience,
has successfully demonstrated ability to solve or resolve
problems relating to the subject manner, the work, or
QUARTER: That area or portion of standing timber
assigned to a faller.
RATED CAPACITY: The maximum load a system, vehicle,
machine or piece of equipment was designed by the manufacturer
REACH: A steel tube or wood timber or pole connected
to the truck and inserted through a tunnel on the trailer.
It steers the trailer when loaded and pulls the trailer
RECEDING LINE: The line on a skidder or slackline
comparable to the haulback line on a yarder.
RELOAD: An area where logs are dumped and reloaded
or transferred as a unit to another mode of transportation.
RIGGING CREW: Crew and equipment that drags logs
to an area called a deck or landing. From the deck,
logs are loaded onto trucks for transport.
RIGGING CUT: The bucking of non-merchantable
trees which have been felled or blown down to facilitate
easier access to the area by the rigging crew.
RIGGING CUT OR WEAKENING CUT: A tree may be lying
in such a position that a normal bucking cut cannot
be made safely. In order to facilitate yarding or skidding,
the faller will make partial bucking cuts from a safe
position, perhaps two log-lengths apart.
ROLLWAY: Any place where logs are dumped and
they roll or slide to their resting place.
ROOT PULL: The pulling out of a portion of a
tree's root system. Generally a result of not cutting
up the corners of the holding wood close enough on a
large or heavily leaning tree.
ROOTWAD: The ball of a tree root and dirt that
is pulled from the ground when a tree is uprooted.
R.O.P.S.: Roll over protection structure.
RUNAWAY: A tree that has rolled or slid downhill
below previously felled and bucked timber.
RUNNING LINE: Any line that moves.
RUSSIAN COUPLING: An incomplete bucking cut as
a result of an unsafe bucking situation. In such an
instance the faller only partially cuts through the
tree. This situation can be very dangerous to the rigging
crew. If a Russian coupling is left, the tree should
be marked and supervisors notified.
SAFETY FACTOR: The ratio of breaking strength
to a safe working strength or loading.
SAFETY GLASS: A type of glass that will not shatter
SAIL BLOCK: A block hung inverted on the sail
guy to hold the tong block in proper position.
SAW LOG: logs taken to be manufactured in lumber.
SCALER: The person who measures the diameter
and length of the logs determines specie and grade,
and makes deductions for footage calculations.
SCHOOL-MARM: A tree stem that branches into two
or more trunks or tops.
SEGMENTS: Calculation arrived at by dividing
the height (in feet) of a tree by the diameter at breast
height (in feet). Used to determine whether or not a
tree can be successfully wedged over against the lean.
SERVICEABLE CONDITION: A state or ability of
a tool, machine, vehicle or other device to operate
as it was intended by the manufacturer to operate.
SET: Combination of two fallers, or one faller
and one bucker working together.
SET OR GANG: May consist of one faller who fells
and bucks timber. Might be one faller and one bucker
working as a team. (This term was used in "hand"
falling era also; i.e., two fallers, two buckers, to
form a four-man set or gang before chain saws came into
SET-BACK: Occurs when a tree settles back opposite
to the intended direction of fall; hazardous situation
when the faller loses control of a tree.
SHALL: A requirement that is mandatory.
SHALLOW NOTCHES: An undercut that has not been
sawn deeply enough into the tree.
SHEAR LOG: A log placed in a strategic location
to divert passage of objects.
SHORE SKIDS: Any group of timbers spaced a short
distance apart on which logs are rolled.
SHOULDER PAD: Leather, canvas or felt pad threaded
throughout the suspenders on one shoulder to protect
the body from contact with a saw being carried.
SIDE BIND: One of the five basic tree positions
commonly encountered while bucking. A tree in a side
bind situation is compressed on one side and tensioned
on the other.
SIDE-BORING BACKCUT: Intentional alteration of
the standard backcutting procedure to prevent loss of
control of a tree and/or its barber-chairing. Side-boring
is an effective technique of reducing the amount of
holding wood required to fall a tree. The nose of the
bar is pushed into the tree behind the face and 2"
above the horizontal cut.
SIDE LEAN: One of the two natural leaning forces
found in many trees. Compared to head lean, side lean
is the lesser pronounced lean.
SIDE-NOTCH: Additional side saw cuts made to
prevent "barber-chair" or to facilitate sawing
large trees into logs.
SIDE-NOTCHING BACKCUT: Another intentional alteration
of standard backcutting to prevent loss of control and/or
barber-chairing. This method also reduces the amount
of holding wood remaining to be cut by cutting each
side prior to the final across the back severing.
SIDEWINDER: A limb or sapling that is bent under
a tree that has been felled. Unintentionally cutting
them is extremely dangerous. In some areas sidewinder
refers to the falling of a tree in an unintended direction.
SINGLE-JACK: A faller who falls and bucks trees
in an area by himself.
SIGNAL PERSON: The person designated to give
signals to the machine operator.
SIT-BACK: Refers to a tree that settles back
on the stump closing the kerf of the backcut. Generally
a result of improper determination of the tree's lean
and/or of wind.
SIWASH: The use of a natural physical object,
such as a tree, to change the direction of a line rather
than with a block.
SKIDDER: A machine or animal used to move logs
or trees to landing.
SKIDDING: The yarding of trees or logs by pulling
or towing them across the ground.
SKYBOUND: A tree that fails to fall after being
faced and backcut. Generally a result of picking the
SKYLINE: The line suspended between two points
on which a block or carriage travels.
SLACKLINE: A form of skyline where the skyline
cable is spooled on a donkey drum and can be raised
SLACKPULLER: Any weight or mechanical device
used to increase the movement of a line when its own
weight is inadequate.
SLABBING: Generally a result of improper technique
and/or sequence of bucking cuts which result in a lateral
split of a log.
SLIPSHOD: Poor procedure or technique of falling
SLOPE (Grade): The increase or decrease in altitude
over a horizontal distance expressed as a percentage.
For example, a change of altitude of 20 feet (6 m) over
a horizontal distance of 100 feet (30 m) is expressed
as a 20 percent slope.
SLOPING FACE CUT: The second of the two cuts
required to face or undercut a tree. It must be angled
sufficiently to allow a wide mouthed face opening.
SNAG: Any standing dead tree or portion thereof.
SNAG: A dead or dying tree that is still standing.
Snags must be felled prior to beginning work on an area.
Special procedure must be observed when falling snags.
SNAP TOP: Broken off top of a tree as a result
of wind and/or rot.
SNIPE OR TRIM: Allowance for falling and bucking
cuts; extra length added to regular log length.
A device rigged for highlead, skyline or slackline yarding.
SPEEDER: A small self-powered vehicle that runs
on a railroad track.
SPIKE TOP: A live tree that has a dead barkless
SPIKED TOP: When the top of a tree dies and loses
its branches, leaving a tall, dry spike of dead wood.
Usually occurs in cedar.
SPRING BOARD: Metal-toed plank used to elevate
the faller above a large swelled butt or to allow him
to fall on extremely steep ground. A notch is sawn into
the side of the tree and spring board toe inserted into
it. The faller stands on this plank to face and backcut.
A tree, segment of a tree, limb, or sapling that is
under stress or tension due to the pressure or weight
of another object.
SQUARE LEAD: The angle of 90 degrees.
SQUIRREL: A weight used to swing a boom when
the power unit does not have enough drums to do it mechanically.
SQUIRREL TREE: A topped tree, guyed if necessary,
near the spar tree in which the counter balance (squirrel)
of a tree rigged boom is hung.
STAGGED OR BOBBED PANTS: Pants whose cuffs are
removed and length shortened to facilitate unrestricted
movement for working and escaping.
STAGGED TROUSERS: The faller's trousers are maintained
without cuffs and are shortened to prevent tripping
An intentional alteration of standard falling technique
to solve problems of maintaining a lead. The Step Dutchman
is put in play by sawing off the lean side holding wood
and placement of a step (rock, wood) into the face to
force the tree to pivot to the desired direction.
STIFF BOOM: Two or more boom sticks wrapped together
on which boom persons walk or work.
STINGER: Metal nail-like affair attached to the
end of a logger's measuring tape. After inserted, it
will secure one end of the tape allowing the faller
to proceed down the tree to accurately determine the
desired length of the log.
STRAP: Any short piece of line with an eye or
"D" in each end.
STRAWLINE: A small line used for miscellaneous
STRIP OR QUARTER: Designated area of trees established
by natural boundaries (roads, streams, etc.), or ribbons
within which fallers are assigned.
STRIP LAYOUT: Refers to the best method of falling
the trees of an area in relation to themselves and the
terrain. Strip layout is the faller's first consideration
in the falling sequence.
STUB: A standing dead tree characterized by a
broken off top and very few or no remaining branches.
STUMP SHOT: Two inches or more height difference
between the horizontal cut of the face and the backcut.
The difference in height establishes an anti-kick step
that will prevent a tree from jumping back over the
stump toward the faller.
SWAMPING: The falling or cutting of brush around
or along a specified place.
SWAMPOUT: Refers to the clearing away from the
base of a tree and bucking area loose debris that could
hamper footing, use of tools, and/or escaping. Preparing
the working and escaping area is an essential part of
the falling procedure.
SWIFTER: A piece of equipment used to tie the
side sticks of a log raft together to keep the raft
SWING CUT: A back cut in which the holding wood
on one side is cut through.
SWING DUTCHMAN: A special
falling technique which, when used properly, allows
the faller to minimize breakage and maintain a lead.
As with the Step Dutchman, this alteration of falling
technique caused the tree to swing. The swing results
because the holding wood on the lean side has been severed.
The swing Dutchman does not utilize a step and will
not pivot a tree as much as will the Step Dutchman.
TAIL BLOCK: The haulback block at the back end
of the show.
TAIL HOLD: An anchor used for making fast any
line or block.
TAIL TREE: The tree at the opposite end from
the head tree on which the skyline or other type rigging
TANG: Sharp or pointed end of chain saw file.
TEEPEE: Unintentional lodging of two or more
trees in another standing tree generally caused by improper
or poor falling technique.
THIRD FACING CUT: Special technique of making
an "extra" facing cut to promote a proper
face. Root protrusions, cat-faces and rot are some of
the common sources that require a third facing cut.
THROW BACK: Portions of trees or limbs propelled
back toward the timber faller by the action of a tree
falling through other standing trees.
TIE DOWN: Chain, cable, steel strips or fiber
webbing and binders attached to a truck, trailer or
other conveyance as a means to secure loads and to prevent
them from shifting or moving when they are being transported.
TIGHT LINE: When either the mainline or haulback
are held and power is exerted on the other or when power
TIN PANTS AND JACKET: Outside clothing generally
made of canvas material that is water-proofed.
TONG LINE BLOCK: The block hung in a boom through
which the tong line operates.
TONGUE: A device used to pull and/or steer a
TONGUE AND GROOVE: Bucking technique used to
hold logs in place after bucking cuts are made. Used
where trees can slide or roll after bucking.
TOP BIND: One of the five basic tree positions
commonly encountered while bucking. A tree in a top
bind situation is compressed on top and tensioned on
TOP LOCK: Limbing technique used to cut off the
tops of felled trees whose stem is under stress.
Two offset and bypassing cuts are made in the stem near
the top of the tree. The first cut is made on
the side of the tree that is under compression.
The second cut is offset from the first and made on
the side of the tree that is under tension.
TOP LOCK: Partial cutting of the top of a felled
tree under compression or tension by using two offset
and bypassed cuts.
TOPPING: Cutting off the top section of a standing
TRACTOR: A machine of wheel or track design used
TRACTOR LOGGING: The use of any wheeled or tracked
vehicle in the skidding or yarding of logs.
TRANSFER (As Used in Loading): Changing of logs
in a unit from one mode of transpiration to another.
TREE JACK: A grooved saddle of wood or metal
rollers contained within two steel plates, attached
to a tree with a strap, used as a guide for skyline,
sail guy, or similar static line. It is also formed
to prevent a shard bend in the line.
TREE JACK (SHOE) (Other than for Directional Falling
Use): A grooved saddle of rollers contained within
two steel side plates attached to a tree with a strap
as a guide for skyline, sail guy or similar static line.
TREE PLATES: Steel bars sometimes shaped as elongated
J's, which are fastened near the top of a tree to hold
guyline and prevent them from cutting into the tree
when tightened. The hooks of the J are also used to
prevent the mainline block strap from sliding down the
TREE PULLING: A method of falling trees in which
the tree is pulled down with a line.
TRIM: An allowance of length added to the desired
length of a log. (Example: desired length 17 feet, actual
length cut 17 feet 6 inches).
TURN: Any log or group of logs attached by some
means to power and moved from a point of rest to a landing.
A notch cut in a tree to guide the direction of the
tree fall and to prevent splitting or kickback.
UPROOTED: Trees that have been blown over as
a result of wind.
VEHICLE: A car, bus, truck, trailer or semi-trailer
owned, leased or rented by the employer that is used
for transportation of employees or movement of material.
VEHICLE/CREW BUS: A car, bus, truck, trailer
or semi-trailer owned, leased, or rented by the employer
that is used for transportation of employees or movement
WEDGE: A plastic or metal tool used by a faller
to prevent a tree from falling backwards, redistribute
a tree's weight to a desired direction and to prevent
the bar from being pinched while bucking.
WEDGE OR PIE: A section sawn from a tree during
the bucking sequence to allow for the directional pressures
of various bind situations. Splits, slabs and excessive
wood-pulling are minimized when a wedge is sawn.
WIDENING OR DAYLIGHTING: Taking an additional
strip of timber off the right-of-way or quarter after
the road is in.
WIDOW MAKER: Any loose overhead debris such as
limbs or tree tops that may fall at any time. Widow
makers are extremely dangerous and present the faller
with a continual source of danger. Limb or other loose
material dropped or thrown from a tree toward the faller
as the tree is felled.
WINCHING: The winding of cable or rope onto a
spool or drum.
YARDING: The movement of logs from the place
they are felled to a landing.
Definitions from OSHA Logging Standard 29 CFR 1910.266
Definitions from WAC Safety Standards Chapter 296-54-505
Source: Paul Cyr and Emil Golias.
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