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Articles for Translators and Translation Companies

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A Comparative Study of Translation Teaching in Iran and Spain
This article seeks to compare university educational system of translation in Iran with that of Spain and also shed light on aims of both systems and how they try to achieve their desirable purposes. At first, a short history of translation teaching at academic level in both countries is provided and then...
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Strategies of Translating Metaphors in Foreign Movies employed by Iranian Subtitlers
The purpose of the present thesis was to investigate the approaches and strategies employed by Iranian subtitlers in the translation of metaphors into Persian. The material gathered for this purpose consisted of six subtitled films. The films were selected among those originally produced in English and subtitled to Persian. In order to have a contrastive analysis of metaphors and their translations, the movies dialogues and their subtitles were contrasted…
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Teaching Translation: A Look at the Way It Is in Iranian Universities and the Way It Should Be
The importance of translation and cross-cultural issues in today's world is nothing new or strange. However, considering this importance, are the programs for translation students efficient and well designed enough to supply the market with acceptable pieces of translation after the students graduate in the field under consideration?..
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Strategies in Subtitling Black English Movies
In this age of globalization, digitalization, and the dominance of media, audiovisual translation has an increasingly important role to play in communication across cultures and languages. Technological developments have made audiovisual translation the most dynamic field in translation studies. Based on Gottlieb's typology of subtitling strategies, the major aim of this study was to explore the most commonly used strategy in subtitling Black English movies…
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Date conversion in translation
Although facile access to the Internet makes everything easy, manual time reckoning in case of official translation, under circumstance of no-access to Dates Calculator Online, seems inevitable. Thus, this article intends to elaborate on conversion and interconversion among three kinds of calendars used in official translations in Iran: Solar, Lunar and Gregorian...
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Poetry Translation: Critical Analysis of “God’s Patience” Based on Vahid’s Model
Given the importance of the text's formal aspects, in addition to its content, poetry presents special challenges to translators. Poetry has its own distinctive features that cannot be rendered into another language easily. The translation of poetry into poetry entails preserving the rhyme, figurative language and the general tone of the original. In this paper, a Persian poetry by contemporary Iranian poet, Moieni kermanshahi,and its English translation by Vahid...
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Audiovisual contextulization and the (non) translation of grammatical gender
This paper aims to study how English 3rd person singulars (female/male) which are explicit in their genders, are made explicit in translation of a movie. In Persian language there is only one 3rd person pronoun which is not explicit in its gender. The texts in movies are more contextualized since movies have audiovisual contents. This audiovisual contextualization may lead to rather low textual clarification of gender in the translation of such pronouns...
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Cultural Issues in the Translation of Tourist Guidebooks in Iran: Problems and Solutions from a Skopos Theory Perspective
The aim of this study is to see whether ignoring or not paying deserved attention to the translation of cultural issues in tourist guidebooks in Iran is the reason behind failure in communication and therefore, inadequacy to attract tourists. These books with the communicative goals embedded in them are greatly in hand of culture because of their nature and the culture needs a medium like translation to be able to move to a new context, a cross-cultural movement. The translation in its own right needs to be at the service of the communicative goals of such books...
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The Application of House’s Model on William Shakespeare’s “Macbeth” and its Persian Translation by Ala’uddin Pasargadi
There are different Translation Quality Assessment (TQA) models, each introducing new ideas and novel ways to assess the quality of a translated work. These models, however, approach this task differently based on that theoretical frameworks to assess a translated work integratively, discretely, or a mix of them. House’s TQA Model seems to be a promising one to assess literary translation. Having reviewed the alternative TQA models, this study aimed at detailed investigation of House’s Translation Quality Assessment Model and its potential power to predict the errors in Persian translations of literary works...
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The study of address terms and their translation from Persian to English
In translating from Persian to English, choosing natural proper equivalents for address terms is one of the problematic areas of translation. In this study, the researchers clarify the complexity of the address systems of Persian and English languages in order to offer the used translation strategies according to Newmark's procedures for the translation of cultural words. It should be noted that culture is the most important factor involved in the use of address terms and the choice of appropriate equivalent in translation between Persian and English with two different cultures...
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A Critical Study of the Translation of 1984: A Comparative Textual Analysis Model
The present paper aims at doing a critical study of part.1, chapter.1 of the novel 1984 written by George Orwell and translated by Hamid Reza Baluch. It suggests a Comparative Textual Analysis Model for doing this critique. The model includes English and Persian parts through which the paper analyzes the features like text type, text style, text intention, sound effects, place and time in the original and translation separately and then compares them. After this comparison, the effect on the target reader is compared with that of the source reader and based on that, the adequacy of the final translation is determined...
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Strategies for translation of English advertisement into Persian
The role of advertising can be perceived quite differently across cultures. Analysts, therefore, are advised to approach advertisements with some understanding of the expectations in a particular culture. Using a corpus of 12 English-language advertisements and their translated Persian pairs, this article investigates what happens to rhetorical figures in the translation process. Three broad translation strategies borrowed from Smith (2006) (transference, source-language-orientated and target-language-orientated) and their implications were discussed in detail...
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Translating poetry: based on textual and extra textual analysis
It is generally accepted that translating poetry is more difficult than other genres in literature because it is tied severely to its original language. Thus differences in source and target language make its translation a difficult task. Problems lie not only on the words and their meaning but also on figurative language, culture, diction, rhyme, sound, beat, feel and even length of words. To solve the problem related to the translating poetry a workable model is needed. This article is going to examine if the proposed model for translating poetry by Dr. Hossein Vahid Dastjerdi will serve our purpose...
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Translation of Extralinguistic Culture-Bound Elements In Persian Movies Subtitled Into English: A Case Study of The Lizard
Translating cultural elements can be a demanding task due to the fact that such elements have specific meanings in the culture and language in which they arise but not necessarily in others. Taking this fact into account, the present study investigated the strategies used in translation of culture-bound elements in the English subtitles of the Iranian film The Lizard and the frequency of such strategies...
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The Application of Catford’s Shifts on the Persian Translation of Oliver Twist by Yusof Gharib
Current study aims at finding the realization of J.C Catford’s category shifts (structure shift, unit shift, class shift, intra-system shift) in the Persian Translation of Oliver twist. The Ideal goal of this study however is to find the areas in which Persian is deviated from English and to pave the way for future studies which are to formulate manners for translating from Persian into English plus distinguishing obligatory shifts from optional shifts via the application...
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A Comparative Study of Molavi’s “The Song of the Reed” And Its English Translation
Poetry translation has always been one of the most controversial and troublesome task for any translator. There has not been a consensus regarding the translatability of poetry. Many scholars believed that poetry is untranslatable since the translated version of a poem can not preserve both the meaning and the form of the poetic discourse, while others do not concur with this view; for instance, Boase-Beir and De Beauground cited in Connally (1991) believe that translation of poetry can be successful only if both style and content are transferred...
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A comparative analysis of Persian and English translation of “The Sea”: A piece of poetry by Fereydun Moshiri
Literary works due to their specific values, aesthetic and expressive features are more difficult to translate than other types of text. Poetry, as the savior of so many civilizations is something used to express emotions and touch the feelings of its readers and listeners; as a literary genre, it is more difficult to translate due to the use of so many literary devices such as rhyme, rhythm, meter, metaphor and specific expressions...
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Translation Quality Assessment
This study is going to apply one of the models of translation quality assessment on a scientific or technical text. Firstly, the translation quality assessment model of Juliane House is defined and elaborated. Then, this deemed model is applied on a scientific text in terms of overtness and covertness...
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Translation of Poetry: A Case Study of Shamlou’s “The Song Of Abraham In Fire” Through Vahid’s Practical Model For Translation Analysis and Assessment of Poetic Discourse
This study presents an English translation of a Persian piece of modern poetry, “The Song of Abraham in Fire” by Shamlou, A. (1972), in order to assess the translator’s performance in preserving the form and the content of the original poem in terms of a product-oriented model for translation analysis by Vahid, D. H. (2008)...
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The Application of Juliane House’s Model of TQA in Persian Translation of the Book “Pride and Prejudice”
This study aims at applying a model of translation quality assessment (TQA) on a translation of a literary book. Firstly, the House’s model will be elaborated. Then, it will be utilized on a literary text...
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Persian (Farsi)
Whether it is Farsi or Persian is the first issue. Most clients consider them different and have coined terms like Farsi Iran or Afghan Farsi (for Sari) or even Western and Eastern Farsi for Farsi and Dari respectively. The correct name of the language is Persian, and some call it Farsi. These are interchangeable and mean the same thing...
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The Translating Problems of Pro-forms from English into Persian
As soon as writing was invented and developed among separate nations in antiquity, the translation came to play a significant role in intercommunication...
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A Comparative Study of 'The Old Man and the Sea' With Its Two Persian Translations
In this study, the text of the well-known American novel “The old man and the sea” by Ernest Hemingway is compared with its two Persian translations the interval of publication between which is 23 years. First, some selected parts of the novel, including morphemes, words, phrases, clauses, sentences, and larger text segments, are compared with their corresponding parts in the Persian translations. Then, comparisons are made and classified in terms of mistranslation, deletion, expansion, transference, transliteration, synonymy, shifts or transpositions, etc...
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How to Face Challenging Symbols: Translating Symbols from Persian to English
Translation suffers from many limitations, one of which is the difficulty of translating symbols meaningfully in another language. In the present paper, it will be analyzed how symbols have been dealt with in the two languages: Persian and English. A brief analysis of the procedures employed in rendering symbols is presented. Symbols are deeply rooted in the SL culture; consequently, translators should exercise care in handling such cultural items...
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A Brief Overview On Idiomatic Translation
Translation typically has been used to transfer written or spoken SL texts to equivalent written or spoken TL texts. In general, the purpose of translation is to reproduce various kinds of texts—including religious, literary, scientific, and philosophical texts—in another language and thus making them available to wider readers...
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A Comparative Study of the Translation of Colloquialism in English Subtitles of the Iranian Film 'The Wind Will Carry Us'
This research provides an overview of the state of translating colloquialism in Iranian films with English subtitles. Based on Viney and Darbelnet's translation procedures, the researcher took an Iranian film "The Wind Will Carry Us" by 'Abbas Kiarostami', as the subject to see how the translator dealt with colloquial expressions in its source text with a comparison between the SL version and the TL version...
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Translation of Personal Proper Names in the Shahnameh of Ferdowsi
The translation of personal proper names seems to be an effortless task, but several minor setbacks may occur during the process of the translation of these items. This study aimed at determining the translation procedures involved in the translation of personal proper names in the mythical section of the Shahnameh...
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A Comparative Study of the Translation of Image Metaphors of Color in the Shahnameh of Ferdowsi
Metaphors are taken to be the most fundamental form of figurative language, carrying the assumption that terms literally connected with one object can be transferred to another object. A writer/speaker uses metaphor more often than not with the intentions of introducing a new object/concept, offering a more precise meaning, or simply presenting a more poetic effect to his text/speech...
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A Study of the Adequacy and Effectiveness of Persian Translations of Drug Leaflets
In this research, an attempt is made to analyze the adequacy and effectiveness of Persian translation of the drug leaflets. As this seems to be the first time that such a research is being done in Iran, there is no data available in this regard. By translating some of these drug leaflets and making a comparison between these translated brochures and leaflets that are made in Iran, we can achieve some information about the translatability of these texts, in general, and the translatability of their medical terms, in particular...

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Problems of Rendering Linguistic Devices in Rumi's poetry
Translating language-bound terms (LBTs) poses many difficulties to a translator. In the present paper, it will be analyzed how alliteration, assonance, pun, and ambiguous words have been dealt with in the English translation of Rumi's poetry selected from the Divan-e Shams…
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The Relevance of Foregrounding in Translation: Literarily Text in Focus
This paper aimed at shedding light on the importance of foregrounding in translation. It actually sought at determining whether thematic structure specially marked theme or the foregrounding in source and target (ST/TT) is similar or different. For this purpose the first 100 sentences of two literarily texts: Hemingvay's ' Farwell to Arms' (1992), and Conrad's 'Lord Jim' (1949) and their Persian translations by Najafe Darya bandari, (1362) and Saleh Hosseyni,(1362) were compared and contrasted to see whether foregrounding process (marked thematic strture) were handled properly in translation or not…
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Translation of Proper Names in Children’s Literature
Translation of Children's literature is a significant area of study, due to the fact that books for children have always been written by real authors at real places in different languages, and they have been and still are read, in translations into other languages, in all over the world. As a result of internationalism and multiculturalism, children's literature is translated into languages more increasingly, which means that the translated works need to be adapted to the young reader's language in every instance...
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The Polysystem Theory
This paper attempts to discuss the polysystem theory with an approach to children's literature. Mainly, it considers the positions that translated writings can occupy in this system in comparing to the original writings in a country, especially in Iran. It discusses the causes and effects that the translated literature can occupy either the central position or peripheral one in literary system of a country. Then it indicates children's literature; its importance in shaping the children's mind, thought and future, and its position in polysystem…
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Specialized Monolingual Corpora in Translation
In the new world of technology, the translation profession, like other disciplines, cannot be deprived of modern tools such as electronic corpora. Recently, large monolingual, comparable and parallel corpora have played a crucial role in solving various problems of linguistics, including translation. In this study we shall attempt to show the effectiveness of a specialized monolingual corpus in translating various collocations usually found in political texts from English into Persian…
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Lexical analysis of the fiction books translated into Persian for children of age group of A&B
This study analyses the lexical items of the fiction books translated into Persian for children of age group of A&B. Six fiction books translated into Persian for children and some lexical items used in these books are selected at random. After that, it compares these lexical items and lexical items used in the standard educational books for children of that age group. Some lexis are common and some do not exist in the standard books…
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