origin discrimination occurs when an employer
treats an employee differently because of the
country the employee came from or because of the
of the federal National Labor Relations Board.
The NLRB's main office is in Washington, D.C.,
but the NLRB also has "regional" offices in many
other cities. The NLRB enforces federal laws governing
labor relations between employers and unions and
basic to the maintenance of a standard of living
consistent with the parties' general status. For
couples who have had a high standard of living
during their marriage, necessaries might include
much more than basic items such as food and clothing.
Compare Common Necessaries.
failure to use reasonable care.
commercial lease under which the tenant pays most
or all of the landlord's expenses (such as property
taxes), so the landlord receives a "net"
amount that is mostly pure profit.
defendant's plea not contesting the criminal charges.
This is called a plea of nolo contendere and is
essentially the same as a guilty plea. While technically
not an admission of guilt as to the commission
of the crime, the punishment is identical. Such
a plea is made in cases where there is pending
civil liability. For this reason many states will
not permit a no contest plea where there has been
injury as a result of the criminal conduct.
system (now available in all states) in which
a person is entitled to obtain a divorce without
demonstrating that the other spouse is at fault.
system of automobile insurance where one collects
from his or her own insurance company regardless
of who is at fault for the accident.
Latin term for a defendant's plea of not contesting
the criminal charges. It is essentially the same
as a guilty plea. While technically not an admission
of guilt as to the commission of the crime, the
punishment is identical. Such a plea is made in
cases where there is pending civil liability.
For this reason many states will not permit a
no contest plea where there has been injury as
a result of the criminal conduct.
contract between an employer and employee requiring
the employee to agree not to start his own businesses
or go to work for a competitor after he leaves
his job with the employer.
parent with whom a child does not reside. Generally,
the noncustodial parent will have visitation rights
to see children who reside with the custodial
obligation that cannot be wiped out in bankruptcy.
that a debtor loses in bankruptcy. A debtor who
files a Chapter 13 plan must pay creditors at
least as much as the value of the nonexempt property.
A person seeking admission to the U.S. for a
definite period of time and not as an immigrant.
A travel document allowing a person to seek admission
at a U.S. port of entry to be admitted for a definite
period of time.
category of visas for persons coming to the U.S. for
a limited period of time to work.
court order that cannot be modified by the court
regardless of any change in the circumstances
of the parties. Some spousal support orders are
nonmodifiable, generally by agreement of the parties.
to pay or quit
written notice given by the landlord ordering
the tenant to pay overdue rent or leave the premises
within a stated period of time (usually 3 days).
written or verbal notice given by an employee
to end employment with an employer.
written or verbal notice given by an employer
to end a worker's employment. Also known as "notice
notice to appear
A document issued by the immigration court directing
the person to appear for a hearing at a specific
time and location, to determine whether the person
should be admitted or removed from the U.S. This
document is referred to as an "NTA".
formal plea at arraignment in which the defendant
denies each and every criminal allegation of the
complaint. A finding of not guilty can also occur
at the conclusion of the trial either by a judge
or a jury.
guilty by reason of insanity
plea is more of a defense then a response to a
criminal allegation. Technically a defendant will
have committed the physical act constituting the
crime but claim no legal responsibility because
he or she was insane when the crime was committed.
Since all crime must include criminal intent,
the defendants insanity plea is recognized
as a complete defense to the charge -- thereby
making the defendant not guilty.
wrongful use of property that hurts the ability
of neighbors to use their properties peacefully.
Loud noises and noxious smells and sometimes nuisances.