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Glossary of Legal Terms
(Starting with "N")



By Henry Dahut,
GotTrouble.com,
Studio City, CA, U.S.A.

hdahut[at]gottrouble.com
www.gottrouble.com








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national origin discrimination

National origin discrimination occurs when an employer treats an employee differently because of the country the employee came from or because of the employee's ancestry.

NLRB

Abbreviation of the federal National Labor Relations Board. The NLRB's main office is in Washington, D.C., but the NLRB also has "regional" offices in many other cities. The NLRB enforces federal laws governing labor relations between employers and unions and union workers.

necessaries

Things basic to the maintenance of a standard of living consistent with the parties' general status. For couples who have had a high standard of living during their marriage, necessaries might include much more than basic items such as food and clothing. Compare Common Necessaries.

negligence

The failure to use reasonable care.

net lease

A commercial lease under which the tenant pays most or all of the landlord's expenses (such as property taxes), so the landlord receives a "net" amount that is mostly pure profit.

no contest

A defendant's plea not contesting the criminal charges. This is called a plea of nolo contendere and is essentially the same as a guilty plea. While technically not an admission of guilt as to the commission of the crime, the punishment is identical. Such a plea is made in cases where there is pending civil liability. For this reason many states will not permit a no contest plea where there has been injury as a result of the criminal conduct.

no fault divorce

The system (now available in all states) in which a person is entitled to obtain a divorce without demonstrating that the other spouse is at fault.

no fault insurance

A system of automobile insurance where one collects from his or her own insurance company regardless of who is at fault for the accident.

nolo contendere

The Latin term for a defendant's plea of not contesting the criminal charges. It is essentially the same as a guilty plea. While technically not an admission of guilt as to the commission of the crime, the punishment is identical. Such a plea is made in cases where there is pending civil liability. For this reason many states will not permit a no contest plea where there has been injury as a result of the criminal conduct.

non-compete agreement

A contract between an employer and employee requiring the employee to agree not to start his own businesses or go to work for a competitor after he leaves his job with the employer.

noncutodial parent

The parent with whom a child does not reside. Generally, the noncustodial parent will have visitation rights to see children who reside with the custodial parent.

nondischargeable debt

Any obligation that cannot be wiped out in bankruptcy.

nonexempt property

Property that a debtor loses in bankruptcy. A debtor who files a Chapter 13 plan must pay creditors at least as much as the value of the nonexempt property.

nonimmigrant

A person seeking admission to the U.S. for a definite period of time and not as an immigrant.

nonimmigrant visa

A travel document allowing a person to seek admission at a U.S. port of entry to be admitted for a definite period of time.

nonimmigrant workers

Special category of visas for persons coming to the U.S. for a limited period of time to work.

nonmondifiable order

A court order that cannot be modified by the court regardless of any change in the circumstances of the parties. Some spousal support orders are nonmodifiable, generally by agreement of the parties.

notice to pay or quit

A written notice given by the landlord ordering the tenant to pay overdue rent or leave the premises within a stated period of time (usually 3 days).

notice of resignation

A written or verbal notice given by an employee to end employment with an employer.

notice of termination

A written or verbal notice given by an employer to end a worker's employment. Also known as "notice of discharge".

notice to appear

A document issued by the immigration court directing the person to appear for a hearing at a specific time and location, to determine whether the person should be admitted or removed from the U.S. This document is referred to as an "NTA".

not guilty

The formal plea at arraignment in which the defendant denies each and every criminal allegation of the complaint. A finding of not guilty can also occur at the conclusion of the trial either by a judge or a jury.

not guilty by reason of insanity

This plea is more of a defense then a response to a criminal allegation. Technically a defendant will have committed the physical act constituting the crime but claim no legal responsibility because he or she was insane when the crime was committed. Since all crime must include criminal intent, the defendant’s insanity plea is recognized as a complete defense to the charge -- thereby making the defendant not guilty.

nuisance

A wrongful use of property that hurts the ability of neighbors to use their properties peacefully. Loud noises and noxious smells and sometimes nuisances.



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