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Glossary of HIV/AIDS Related Terms
(Starting with "G")



By AIDSinfo,
Glossary of HIV/AIDS Related Terms, 5th Edition, AIDSinfo,
October 2005

ContactUs[at]aidsinfo.nih.gov
http://aidsinfo.nih.gov








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G-CSF
See: Granulocyte-Colony Stimulating Factor

GART
See: Genotypic Assay

GI
See: Gastrointestinal

GM-CSF
See: Granulocyte Macrophage-Colony Stimulating Factor

Gamma Globulin
The part of blood that contains antibodies. It is available as an injectable treatment that can provide temporary protection from certain infections.

See Also:   Antibody
                   Passive Immunotherapy

Gastrointestinal (GI)
Of or relating to the stomach or intestines.


Gene
A short segment of DNA or RNA that acts as a blueprint for building a specific protein.

See Also:   Deoxyribonucleic Acid
                   Ribonucleic Acid

Gene Therapy
An experimental technique that uses genes to treat or prevent disease. This technique may eventually allow doctors to treat a disorder by inserting a gene into a patient’s cells instead of using drugs or surgery.

See Also:   Gene

Genetic Engineering
Artificially changing an organism's genetic material (DNA or RNA) in order to change particular characteristics of that organism. This laboratory technique can produce proteins for use as drugs and vaccines. For example, a virus such as canarypox virus (which does not cause disease in humans) can be genetically engineered so that it produces specific HIV proteins. The modified canarypox virus can then be tested as an experimental HIV vaccine.


Genital Ulcer Disease
Sores on the genitals, usually caused by a sexually transmitted disease (STD) such as herpes, syphilis, or chancroid. The presence of genital ulcers may increase the risk of becoming infected with HIV through sexual intercourse.


Genital Warts
Also known as condyloma acuminatum and venereal warts. Growths or bumps that appear in and around the vagina, anus, or cervix in females or on the penis, scrotum, groin, or thigh in males. They can be raised or flat, single or multiple, small or large. Some cluster together to form a cauliflower-like shape. They are caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV) and are usually flesh-colored and painless.

See Also:   Human Papillomavirus

Genitourinary Tract
Also called genitourinary system, urogenital system, or urogenital tract. The organs involved in the production and excretion of urine and in reproduction.


Genome
The complete set of genes for a particular organism.

See Also:   Gene

Genotypic Assay (GART)
Also known as Genotypic Antiretroviral Resistance Test (GART). A test that determines if HIV is resistant to particular anti-HIV drugs. The test analyzes a sample of the virus from an individual's blood to identify any genetic mutations that are associated with resistance to specific drugs.

See Also:   Drug Resistance

Glycoprotein
A substance composed of both a protein and a carbohydrate (a sugar molecule) joined together by a chemical linkage.


Gonorrhea
A sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Many people with gonorrhea have no symptoms. If symptoms do occur, they may be burning on urination, frequent urination, yellow or green discharge from the genitals, redness or swelling of the genitals, and a burning or itching sensation of the genitals. Active gonorrhea infection may increase the risk of becoming infected with HIV through sexual intercourse.


Granulocyte
A type of white blood cell particularly important in fighting bacterial infections.


Granulocyte Macrophage-Colony Stimulating Factor (GM-CSF)
A protein that stimulates the production of infection-fighting white blood cells. A laboratory-made version of GM-CSF called sargramostim is used to treat low white blood cell levels, which may occur after chemotherapy or as a result of certain diseases.


Granulocyte-Colony Stimulating Factor (G-CSF)
A protein that stimulates the production of infection-fighting white blood cells. A laboratory-made version of G-CSF called filgrastim is used to treat low white blood cell levels, which may occur after chemotherapy or as a result of certain diseases.


Granulocytopenia
A lower than normal number of specific white blood cells.


gp120
Glycoprotein 120. One of the proteins embedded in the outer envelope of HIV. gp120 projects from the surface of HIV and binds to the CD4 receptor on CD4 cells, initiating the process by which HIV enters and infects a host cell.

See Also:   Envelope

gp160
Glycoprotein 160. A precursor of HIV envelope proteins gp41 and gp120. gp160 is cut by HIV protease to form gp120 and gp41.

See Also:   gp120
                   gp41
                   Protease

gp41
Glycoprotein 41. One of the proteins embedded in the outer envelope of HIV. gp41 plays a key role in HIV's infection of CD4 cells by fusing HIV's envelope with the host cell membrane, allowing the virus to enter the cell.

See Also:   Envelope
                   Fusion Inhibitors





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