Glossary of HIV/AIDS Related Terms
(Starting with "E")
Glossary of HIV/AIDS Related Terms, 5th Edition, AIDSinfo,
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The measure of the success of a treatment for a particular
disease or condition.
The ability of a treatment to produce the desired effect
on the disease or condition being treated.
Inflammation of the brain, which can be caused by a
virus infection. The brain tissue swells, which may
lead to the destruction of nerve cells, bleeding within
the brain, and brain damage.
The final period or phase in the course of a disease
that leads to a person's death. An example of this is
end-stage renal disease (ESRD), in which a person's
kidneys have deteriorated to the point that the damage
is life-threatening and likely fatal.
A term that refers to diseases associated with particular
geographic regions or populations. For example, malaria
is endemic in tropical regions of the world where mosquitoes
carry the parasite that causes malaria.
General term for a measurement used to analyze results
of a clinical trial. Common endpoints of a clinical
trial are dose-limiting toxicity of a study drug and
progression of the disease or condition being studied.
See Also: Surrogate
Of or relating to the intestines. This term also refers
to a coating used on some drugs to prevent the breakdown
of the drug by the stomach before it has a chance to
be absorbed by the intestines.
Inflammation of the small intestine caused by bacterial
or viral infection. Often causes diarrhea and dehydration,
and may also involve the stomach and large intestine.
See Also: Colitis
A class of anti-HIV drugs designed to disrupt the ability
of HIV to enter a host cell through the cell's surface.
This class includes receptor inhibitors (CD4, CCR5,
or CXCR4) and fusion inhibitors.
See Also: Fusion
The outer protective membrane of HIV, composed of two
layers of fat-like molecules called lipids. HIV uses
specific proteins embedded in the envelope to attach
to and enter host cells.
A protein that helps a chemical reaction happen by decreasing
the energy needed for the reaction to occur.
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
A highly sensitive laboratory test used to determine
the presence of antibodies to HIV in the blood or saliva.
Positive ELISA test results indicate that a person is
HIV infected, but these results should be confirmed
with a highly specific laboratory test called a Western
See Also: Western
A condition in which the number of eosinophils (a type
of white blood cell) in the blood is higher than normal.
Eosinophilia is often a response to infection or allergens
(substances that cause an allergic reaction).
Eosinophilic Folliculitis (EF)
A type of folliculitis (inflammation of hair follicles)
characterized by recurring patches of inflamed, pus-filled
sores, primarily on the face and sometimes on the back
or upper arms. The sores usually spread, may itch intensely,
and often leave areas of darker than normal skin (hyperpigmentation)
when they heal. HIV-associated EF most commonly occurs
in people with low CD4 counts.
A disease that has spread rapidly through a segment
of the human population in a given geographic area.
The branch of medical science that studies the occurance,
distribution, and control of a disease in populations.
The protective covering of the internal and external
organs of the body, including the lining of blood vessels,
body cavities, glands, and organs. In addition to its
protective properties, the epithelium also provides
a surface to absorb and secrete chemicals needed by
A particular segment of an antigen that the body's antibodies
can recognize and bind to.
See Also: Antibody
Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV)
A human herpesvirus that causes infectious mononucleosis
(mono), a contagious disease. Symptoms of infectious
mononucleosis are fever, sore throat, and swollen lymph
nodes. EBV infection can also lead to oral hairy leukoplakia,
Burkitt's lymphoma and nasopharyngeal carcinoma, especially
in immunocompromised people.
See Also: Burkitt's
Abnormal redness of the skin caused by a buildup of
red blood cells in the capillaries.
A type of rash that can occur in response to medications,
illness, or infections such as herpes simplex or mycoplasma
infections. Severe forms of this condition include Stevens-Johnson
syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN).
These may also be serious side effects of some anti-HIV
See Also: Stevens-Johnson
Red blood cells, whose primary function is to carry
oxygen throughout the body.
The branch of medical science that studies causes of
disease. Such causes are called etiologic agents. For
example, HIV is the etiologic agent of AIDS.
Refers to any of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
procedures that allow distribution of experimental drugs
to people who are failing currently available treatments
and are unable to participate in ongoing clinical trials.
These procedures include compassionate, treatment, or
See Also: Compassionate
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