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Jensen's Technology Glossary
(Starting with "I")



By Bob Jensen,
Trinity University,
New Hampshire, U.S.A.

http://www.trinity.edu/rjensen/








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IAB = The abbreviation for Internet Architecture Board, the IAB is the council that makes decisions about Internet standards.  See also IETF .)

IAT = Institute for Academic Technology, University of North Carolina, P.O. Box 12017, RTP, North Carolina 27709 (919-405-1942) and http://www.iat.unc.edu/. This was initially an IBM-funded support center for PC hypertext/hypermedia developers in higher education that was funded primarily through a grant from IBM Corporation. The IAT served as a clearinghouse for technology developments, develops some Multimedia ToolBook hypermedia education materials (especially in language education), and provides demonstrations on hypermedia. The IAT offered workshops for developers. The IAT Inforbits online newsletter is still in operation. The IAT also broadcasted training courses via satellite KU and C bands and distributed tapes of those broadcasts for persons unable to view/record them live. After IBM withdrew its funding of the IAT, the University of North Carolina closed the IAT on June 30, 1998.  (See also IKE)

IBM = International Business Machines Corporation, a giant present and historic leader in mainframe and PC computing. Having survived an enormous downturn of bad fortunes in the 1980s, IBM has struggled back with new products and joint ventures. In 1997, IBM announced that network software would all be sold under the banner eNetwork Software. IBM developed a superior operating system called OS/2, but poor marketing and timing resulted in a loss of momentum to Microsoft's Windows and Windows 2000 operating systems. IBM's joint venture with Apple Corporation resulted in the Power Mac and Power PC desktop computers. Most interesting is the IBM Global Campus initiative and the IBM Higher Education home page..   (See also EduQuest, IAT, and IKE)

ICBT = (See CBT )

Icon = Graphical representation of an object (file, directory, picture, text field, etc.) as a tiny symbol that can be arranged with other icons and clicked on using a mouse pointer.

IDE = Intelligent Drive Electronics interface hard drive disc controller standard for PCs that enables the controller to reside on the motherboard and, thereby, not require the use of an expansion slot. This enhances ease of installation and allows for the elimination of SCSI controllers for accessing auxiliary hard drives, CD-ROM drives, CD-R drives, etc.  See SCSI.

IDTV = Improved Definitional TV that uses a computerized line doubling technique to simulate HDTV at higher resolutions. (See also Video and HDTV)

IDL = Interface Definition Language that facilitates interfacing between servers and IDL compliant client computers. For example, a Java IDL enables Java to communicate with non-Java objects on networks. (See also Java.)

IEEE = Institute for Electrical and Electonics Engineers.  The IEEE is a huge organization that is a major source of technical literature, training, standards, and virtually everything else in electrical and electronics engineering.  See also ISO 9000.

IIOP = (See Internet Messaging).

IETF = The abbreviation for Internet Engineering Task Force.  IETF refers to a subgroup of the Internet Architecture Board that focuses on solving technical problems on the Internet.

IKE = IBM Kiosk for Education (see also IAT and the IBM Global Campus.). One thing that stood out, or rather did not stand out, at the 1994 EDUCOM Conference was a booth in the most obscure part of the vendor exhibit area. IBM made a grant to the University of Washington to develop the IKE-IBM Kiosk for Education.  Subsequently, IBM folded the IKE activities into the IBM Global Campus portfolio of products and services for educators.

Image map = A graphic image at WWW sites that is a navigational tool. It contains two elements: (1) the graphic that is visible on the screen and (2) a text file that contains the HTML or other hyperlink coding. (See also World Wide Web)

IMAP4 = (See Internet Messaging).

Incremental packet writing = Like multisession Photo CD, this process lets you add data to a disk in multiple sessions and create a single table of contents when the disk is full. Unlike Photo CD disks, though, a disk written in this way is readable by other CD drives only when the disk is finalized, not before. (See also CD-R)

Indeo = Video compression hardware manufactured by Intel for PC computers. The i750 chipset will capture 32-by-240 pixel windows at 15 fps and 160-by-120 pixel windows at 30 fps. Creative Labs (that markets the popular Sound Blaster and Video Blaster hardware/software) will now market the Indeo boards according to NewMedia, January 1994, p. 36. The main competitor for Indeo will be MPEG compression boards that are anticipated by analysts to be the major standard of the future. Hood (1994) is cautious about MPEG and leans toward the Intel Indeo option. He concludes: "Intel's most compelling arugument, however, is in the numbers. Machines capable of playing Indeo video (486 or Pentium) are selling at a rate of 1 million a month, whereas fewer than 200,000 MPEG boards have sold." (See also Video for Windows, QuickTime, Video, DVI, Compression, MCI, Ultimedia Video, and MPEG)

Indy = (See SGI)

Information highway = A world wide combination of fiber optic cable and satellite receivers in a future time when homes and offices around the world will be linked by highways of electronic information that can be traversed interactively both to and from a connected user. Technologies are coming to a head and plans are being laid to bring the digital information highways to Main Street USA and elsewhere in the world. In homes and offices, a single piece of interactive TV digital television equipment (let's call it the PCTV computer/television superhighways terminal) will combine what are now television sets, telephones, stereos, videotape players, videodisc players, compact disc players, and computers. The PCTV will be networked to hundreds of millions of "servers" ranging from the computer files of individuals to the systems of computer files that contain virtually all the movies ever made, all the contents of daily newspapers, all the "television" shows ever recorded, all the cataloged products and services available from vendors, all public documents of governments, all the contents of libraries, all instructional and training courses on most anything known in the world, and so on to limits beyond our present imaginations. Even before the information superhighways come to town via digital satellites, Barcroft (1993), telephone fiber optics, and cable digital TV, technology see Victor (1993b) is presently in place to make vast amounts of digitized financial information publicly available in hypermedia structures. The hardware for a fiber optic superhighway across the United States made great progress when AT&T Corporation announced that "Sonet" service is operational initially between 200 cities. In 1994, Macromedia teamed up with Microware Systems Corporation in Des Moines, Iowa, to extend the Director software into PC and Mac utilities for authoring interactive network television titles. (See also Intercast, Webcasting, PCTV, Video server, PPV, Set-top box, Sonet, Internet, and SLIP)

Inline images = These are the graphics contained within a Web document.

Instant Messaging (IMING) = messaging between to or more individuals who are simultaneously online.  It is more like a telephone conversation than email.  America OnlineAOL introduced instant messaging and has had an ongoing dispute with Microsoft over its use in Internet Explorer.   Instant Messenger can be used by AOL members but there is no requirement to be connected to the Internet through AOL. An Open Source alternative to AOL's instant messaging is called Jabber.

In order for IMing to work, both users (who must subscribe to the service) must be online at the same time, and the intended recipient must be willing to accept instant messages.  Under most conditions, IMing is truly "instant." Even during peak Internet usage periods, the delay is rarely more than a second or two. It is possible for two people to have a real-time online "conversation" by IMing each other back and forth.

Google Introduces Instant Messaging
Google Inc. is joining yet another Internet turf battle, the one over instant communication. Google introduced today an instant-messaging service that lets users exchange text messages and make voice calls over personal computers. Google's move pits it against Internet giants such as Time Warner Inc.'s America Online unit, Yahoo Inc. and Microsoft Corp. that dominate the market.
Mylene Mangalindan and Christopher Rhoads, "Google Introduces Instant Messaging," The Wall Street Journal, August 24, 2005; Page B3 ---
http://online.wsj.com/...todays_us_marketplace

See this IM service at https://www.google.com/talk/ .

Skype" is a programme allowing telephone conversations via the Internet. Calls to other Skype" users are free as well as calls to regular telephone and mobile telephone numbers all over the world are at a low rate. Software Software is the general term for IT programs that make PCs and other electronic devices function
http://wireless-dictionary.rtx.dk/

The Hype over Skype: Can It Go the Distance?
 Although Skype, which provides Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) telephony services and PC-to-PC calling, turns two years old on August 29, it remains unclear what kind of business this relative newcomer will turn out to be. Skype could remain a mere fad for techies, become a next-generation communications platform or evolve into the next eBay or Google, say Wharton experts. What's certain, however, is that Skype, which has offices in Estonia, London, San Francisco, Korea and Japan, is worth watching. As of August 4, its software had been downloaded nearly 145 million times and the company claims to have 47 million people using its services. Skype is an "underappreciated phenomenon in telecom," says one Wharton professor.

 Knowledge@ wharton blog, August 10-Sept 6  ---
http://knowledge.wharton.upenn.edu/

"VoIP is not a threat that's going to put telecommunications companies out of business," says Jeff Kagan, a telecommunications analyst and president of The Kagan Group. "VoIP is a change wave, part of a 20-year transformation that the telecommunications industry is in right now." That "change wave," as Kagan puts it, got a little closer to cresting this week -- but not from the Google announcement (of instant voice messaging https://www.google.com/talk/ ). Skype, the most popular VoIP application anywhere in the world right now -- with over 50 million registered users in just two years -- will celebrate its two-year anniversary next week. To mark the occasion, it will open up its technology platform, allowing any user to incorporate Skype into their Web pages and applications. Opening these application programming interfaces (APIs) is a "major step," said Jeff Pulver, chairman and founder of Pulver.com and creator of the international VON (Voices on the Net) conferences, in a statement.  Earlier this summer, Skype released the API code for its "buddy" list (where Skype users keep their friends' and associates' contact information). The move has already spurred a small but growing development community of programmers looking to tie in buddy lists with telecommunications services. (One such service connects Skype's buddy list to cell phones, so users can call a Skype buddy on their mobile phone.) Skype's efforts in opening its code have "raised the bar for everyone," says Mark Levitt, a vice president of collaborative computing at IDC.
Eric Hellwig, "Google's Move into IM," MIT's Emerging Technologies, August 25, 2005 ---
http://www.technologyreview.com/...?trk=nl

See VoIP

Integrated information system = Networked systems that allow centrally located multimedia sources to communicate with remote centers such as classrooms. For example, over 5,000 classrooms are purportedly linked to the Dynacom (800-782-7230) integrated information system that utilizes video servers, satellite receivers, and classroom hand-held control devices.

Intelligent Computer Based Training  = (See CBT )

Interactive TV = (See Information highway)

Intercast = a term given by Intel Corporation for incoming-only (push-only) reception of HDTV. An upgrade tuner for intercasting can be installed in a PC. The cost of such a tuner is under $150. Without any monthly fee, phone modem, or cable modem, users can receive broadcasts and webcasts. However, intercasting will not allow interactive searching or other two-way communication. See also PCTV, HDTV, and Webcasting.

Interchange = A commercial network service introduced by a computer book publishing firm called Ziff-Davis. Although designed to compete with CompuServe and other commercial network services, Interchange tries to provide more services for technology monitoring of computer users. (See also Networks, CompuServe, Internet, eWorld, Prodigy, and America Online)

Interface = The connection between a computer and its auxiliary equipment such as hard drives, CD-ROM drives, videodisc players, printers, scanners, etc.

Interleaving = A process that allows separate channels for data, audio, and video files to be played back simultaneously on a compact disc. Interleaving also allows the reader to choose from one of several audio channels while a video channel is playing. In playback, interleaved audio and video sequences are alternately played back such that on slow systems there may be choppy interrupts when video and audio are played simultaneously.

International Internet Association = An Internet service that may be accessed for a fee under instructions given at phone number 813-923-4093. The IIA taps over 20,000 databases worldwide, including databases from government, business firms, news services, and universities. American Accounting Association members may access a free AAA bulletin board by phoning 813-923-4093. (See also ANet and PIC-AECM)

Internet = An international grouping of computer networks. The Internet started as a relatively tiny United States Department of Defense (DOD) Advanced Research Project Agency (ARPA) project in 1969. It commenced with the networking of four computers.  The Internet was not widely known between 1969 and 1991.  Its popularity exploded when HTML, HTTP, and the World Wide Web made it much easier to use the Internet.   For interactive computing between computers on the Internet, see Distributed Network Computing. For web browsers see Web browsers, Java, GINA, Gopher, Mosaic, and SLIP. For accounting educator Internet networks see ANet, ADO and RDS, International Internet Association, Internet 2, PIC-AECM, and RAW. (See also ABKY, IKE, Sonet, Telnet, FTP, TENet, ARPANet, BITNET, World Wide Web, Finger Gateway, Whois Gateway, UUCP, NSFNet, NYSERNet, Gateways, Outernets, Macmillan Information SuperLibrary, Remote login, Search engine,   TCP/IP, and USENet).  Also see Instant Messaging  and Portal.

1974
Bob Kahn and Vint Cerf refer to the term "Internet" for the first time on their notes regarding Transmission Control Protocol
http://www.bangla.net/isp/tech_support/internet-timeline.html

The "official definition" came out long after the term Internet became commonly used --- http://www.itrd.gov/fnc/Internet_res.html

I've got all the symptoms
In the early '90s, psychiatrists and clinicians were beginning to hear of a new medical term, "internet addiction." At first, this was met with a lot of skepticism and denial, however, it became evident that the more people logged on to cyberspace, the more they got hooked.The 10 Symptoms You Need To Watch Out For:
AskMen.com ---
http://www.askmen.com/fashion/body_and_mind/16_better_living.html

Three quarters of the American population now have Internet access, with women slightly more likely than men to spend time surfing, a new survey says. Wired News, March 18, 2004 --- http://www.wired.com/...?tw=newsletter_topstories_html How Web Pages Work --- http://computer.howstuffworks.com/web-page3.htm How Internet Infrastructure Works --- http://computer.howstuffworks.com/internet-infrastructure.htm How Computer Things Work (including buying guides) --- http://computer.howstuffworks.com/ Personal technology reviews by Walter Mossberg --- http://ptech.wsj.com/ 

An Internet/Web portal with 14 channels on marketing and e-Commerce --- http://www.internet.com/home-d.html 

  • Internet Technology
  • Ecommerce/Marketing
  • Web Developer
  • Windows Internet Tech.
  • Linux/Open Source
  • Internet Resources
  • ISP Resources
  • Internet Lists
  • Download
  • International
  • International News
  • International Investing
  • ASP Resources
  • Wireless

Other examples of portals and vortals can be found at http://www.trinity.edu/rjensen/000aaa/portals.htm 

"Recommended Reading (on Internet Governance)," by Keith Huang, The Wall Street Journal, April 3, 2006; Page R2 --- http://online.wsj.com/...todays_us_the_journal_report

Internet governance has become an increasingly contentious issue, not only in regards to who should manage it, but also the limitations that some countries have placed on access.

For example, the Chinese government actively restricts access to forbidden sites and content -- a barrier that has been dubbed "The Great Firewall of China."

In contrast, the U.S. State Department has created a new "Global Internet Freedom Task Force" designed to help technology companies handle problems with censorship in countries that restrict Internet use.

Hans Klein, an associate professor of public policy at the Georgia Institute of Technology, has studied and written extensively on Internet governance and is an active member in various organizations that aim to foster the growth of the Internet and determine who should legally govern activity on the Web.

Here, Mr. Klein comments on a selection of what he considers among the best books and online resources about Internet governance.

Online Resources

ICANN, icann.org
"This is the site of the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN).
I sometimes call ICANN 'the WTO of the Internet' because it coordinates world Internet resources the way the World Trade Organization coordinates trade. The site is packed with information, but it can be dry."
 
" The Internet Governance Forum,
www.intgovforum.org
"The Internet Governance Forum will host international discussions of public policies for the Internet. This is its official site, and it will undoubtedly grow in importance as we approach the first IGF meeting in October 2006."
 
" ICANNwatch.org,
icannwatch.org
"A lively site for news and sometimes biting commentary on ICANN. It also contains lots of archival documents and articles."
 
" Internet Governance Project,
www.intgovforum.org
"A joint project of researchers from Syracuse University, Georgia Institute of Technology, and the Wissenschaftzentrum Berlin [Social Science Research Center Berlin], this site offers expert policy analysis on current issues. Full disclosure: I am one of the partners of this project."
 
" UN Working Group on Internet Governance,
wgig.org
"This official site is for a U.N. working group that did important work last summer, but it remains a treasure trove of materials."
 
" World Summit on the Information Society,
www.itu.int/wsis
"The World Summit on the Information Society was the site of last fall's showdown between the U.S. and the rest of the world over ICANN, wherein the U.S. won the right to approve new domain-name extensions and agreed to create an international forum on various Internet issues. The site hosts the 'Tunis Commitment' document that preserved ICANN's operation under U.S. authority."
 
" Heinrich Boell Foundation WSIS Site,
www.worldsummit2005.de/en/nav/14.htm
"This was the main European site for tracking issues of Internet governance.
It offers abundant material, in both English and German."
 
" The Register,
theregister.co.uk
"This online trade journal, whose slogan is 'Biting the hand that feeds IT,' regularly offers thoughtful analysis of governance issues."
 
 

Books

" "Ruling the Root: Internet Governance and the Taming of Cyberspace," By Milton L. Mueller
"This is a detailed history of the Internet governance debate by a professor of information studies at Syracuse University one of the leading intellectual-activists in the field."
 
" "Borders in Cyberspace: Information Policy and the Global Information Infrastructure," Edited by Brian Kahin and Charles Nesson
"Although it is a bit dated, the essays in this volume offer a good legal overview of the issues of internationalization and cyberspace. Especially interesting is the lead article by David Johnson and David Post, 'The Rise of Law on the Global Network.'"
 
" "Global Public Policy: Governing Without Government," By Wolfgang H. Reinicke
"Reinicke's book is not about the Internet per se, but it explains a great deal about global governance in general. It offers a powerful perspective for thinking about Internet governance."
 
" "Global Media Governance: A Beginner's Guide," By Sean O'Siochru and Bruce Girard With Amy Mahan
"This elegantly brief volume surveys the major global governance institutions: WTO, WIPO [
World Intellectual Property Organization], UNESCO [United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization], ITU [International Telecommunications Union], and ICANN."

Internet 2 = the Internet 2 Consortium of more than 100 universities and other organizations collaborating to develop the next-generation Internet technology. In addition to bandwidth issues, the Consortium is dealing with such issues as audio and video integration, interactive distance learning, telemedicine, online research collaboration, and real-time simulation/modelling. The main web site is at http://www.internet2.edu/.

Internet audio and video = The transport of audio and video such that users can hear sounds and watch video while reading text and graphics on the Internet. It is no longer necessary to download these media files and install them on a local computer or a local server. These files can be played live on the Internet. Ozer (1996) reviews audio and video hardware and software for the Internet. Popular QuickTime (MOV) and Windows Video (AVI) standards will soon have to compete with the newer Microsoft (AV) standard. Various playback utilities, including the always popular QuickTime playback software, can be downloaded free from <http://www.texas.net./>. Both real-time and pseudo streaming are discussed under Web streaming. (See also Active Video (AV), AVI, Java, QuickTime, and Web streaming)

Also see Instant Messaging 

Internet Messaging = technologies for sending messages across the Internet. Leading technologies are shown below:

Mail & News

IMAP4 (Internet Message Access Protocol, Version 4)

A still-evolving protocol that allows a client to access and manipulate e-mail messages on a server. IMAP4--designed for disconnected e-mail use--lets you perform such tasks as managing folders remotely, viewing just message subject lines, and selectively downloading messages and attachments based on various criteria (size or author, for example). IMAP4 also allows for shared mail folders.

MIME (Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions)

A standard for transmitting nontext e-mail message attachments via SMTP. Most proprietary mail systems must translate any received MIME attachments through an SMTP gateway. See also MIME.

NNTP (Network News Transfer Protocol)

The protocol used by clients to post and retrieve messages to and from news servers, which host discussions. NNTP is also used by news servers to replicate newsgroup discussions.

POP3 (Post Office Protocol, Version 3)

An established protocol that lets Internet users send and retrieve e-mail to and from mail servers. POP3 provides simple store-and-forward e-mail functionality, compared with the richer IMAP4 specification.

SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol)

A standard protocol that defines how e-mail messages are transferred between servers. SMTP defines only ASCII text content, necessitating the MIME standard for nontext attachments.

Uuencode/uudecode

Along with MIME, another common method of sending binary e-mail attachments as plain ASCII text. See ASCII..

See Instant Messaging

Infrastructure

HTML (HyperText Markup Language)

The simple document-formatting language of the World Wide Web. Netscape and other vendors have begun using HTML as their standard for rich-text formatting across all Internet applications, such as e-mail and newsgroup messages. See HTML.

HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol)

The protocol that negotiates delivery of text and other elements from a Web server to a Web browser. See HTTP.

IIOP (Internet Inter-ORB Protocol)

An evolving wire-level protocol that defines how distributed objects communicate with each other. IIOP--which is similar to Microsoft's Distributed Common Object Model (DCOM) specification--is based around the Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA). In theory, any IIOP-compliant client software on any platform will be able to access the same object, a programming function that performs a specific task (such as authenticating a user against a server).

LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol)

An emerging directory service protocol that uses a subset of the X.500 directory standard to provide a common way to identify user and group information. It can be extended to provide information on other network resources.

Security

S/MIME (Secure MIME)

A public-key encryption protocol for securely sending MIME attachments.

SSL (Secure Sockets Layer)

A protocol for sending encrypted information between a client and a server, often a Web server. SSL can work with any application-layer TCP/IP protocol and is most commonly used with HTTP.

X.509 certificates

Digital-signature certificates that use public-key encryption for authenticating users. X.509 certificates can be issued by either a certificate authority (such as VeriSign) or an internal certificate server.

(See also Security, ASCII, E-mail, Internet, Internet Messaging, Mosaic, SLIP, and USENet)

Internet phones and videoconferencing = Emerging telephony on the Internet coupled with the extension to video telephony. Technology in this area is reviewed in PC Magazine, March 26, 1996, pp. 143-145.  Also see Instant Messaging

Internet surfing = (See Web surfing)

Internet surfing backwards = (See Web surfing backwards)

Internetwork Packet Exchange (IPX) = One of the data transmission protocols used by NetWare.

InterNIC InfoSource = An information server about the Internet. (See also Mosaic)

Intranet = The use of the Internet and Internet-type software for subsytems of computing for private organizations and individuals. Companies are storing key forms and documents on web sites inside their operations, making it easy for employees to find information using standard web browsers, not special-purpose database programs. Most intranets use the "free" connections of the Internet, and turn the Internet into an intranet with passwords or other access barriers to documents and databases.  Combinations of free Internet lines connected with leased (usually from telephone companies) private nodes are termed "virtual private networks" or VPN.  A VPN functionality of a dedicated line, but which is really like a private
network within a public one, because it is still controlled by a telephone company.    VPN's use encryption and other security mechanisms to ensure that only authorized users can access the network and that the data cannot be intercepted.   Some security mechanisms exist that are not available on intranets.  The finer points of VPN networking is discussed by  in a very long article by Mike Fratto in "VPNs Across Multiple Sites," Network Computing, July 1, 1998, 38-70.(See also TCP/IP, WANLAN,   and Extranet.)

IP = The abbreviation for Internet Protocol, IP refers to the set of communication standards that control communications activity on the Internet. An IP address is the number assigned to any Internet-connected computer.

iPod = Apple Corporation's brand of portable media players launched in 2001. Devices in the iPod range are primarily music players, designed around a central scroll wheel --- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ipod
Microsoft's competing player is called Zune.

IRC = Internet Relay Chat audio conversation channel on the WWW that works much like a CB radio for chatting on particular topics. Chat lines are typically in real time whereas "conferencing" use topical message boards to allow messaging to take place asynchronously. (See also World Wide Web)

ISA = (See Bus)

ISDN = Integrated Services Digital Network means of connecting to digital networks, including the Internet, via a common (digital) telephone line. For a review of ISDN in accounting, see Harding (1996). It is the fastest way for many individuals to connect to digital networks via a modem. However, at the present capacity of 128,000 bps, it is very slow relative to cable TV modems that can do over 1 million bps and exponentially faster direct connections that do not use modems at all. (See also Modem, MMDS, and DSL)

ISO 9000 = International Organization for Standardization's series of international standards for information systems intended for compatibility and quality assurance.  These are intended to foster world trade. 

ISO 9000 Translated into Plain English http://www.praxiom.com/.

ISO statdards  include:

  • ISO 9001- "Quality Systems - Model for Quality Assurance in Design, Development, Production, Installation, and Servicing"; 
  • ISO 9002 - "Model for Quality Assurance in Production, Installation, and Servicing";
  • ISO 9003 - "Model for Quality Assurance in Final Inspection and Test.";
  • ISO 9004 - a document guide to further quality development;
  • ISO 14000 - a new standard to address environmental issues.

Most importantly, ISO is comprised of many other standard setting bodies, including the following:

  • ANSI (American National Standards Institute)
  • ITU (International Telecommunication Union)
  • IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers)
  • VESA (Video Electronics Standards
    Association)

The key to these standards has been an audit and ceritfication system.  Companies seeking ISO certification must have an audit.  The certification has become important, especially in Europe, for market advantages, cost reduction, access to markets, improved communications, reduced political conflicts, documentation and dissemination processes, and employee training.  Many of the standards are focused upon meeting paperwork and record keeping requirements. 

For a plain English explanation see http://www.praxiom.com/

ISO 9660 = The data-format and file-naming conventions that ensure CD-based data can be accessed across multiple computer platforms. (See also CD-R)

ISOC = This is the abbreviation for Internet Society, an organization formed to support a worldwide information network. ISOC is the sponsoring body of the Internet Architecture Board.

ISP = Internet Service Provider that provides access to the Internet and the World Wide Web.

iSync

iSync From Apple Corporation Beats Microsoft to the Market
January 6, 2002 message from AppDevTrends@101communications-news.com 

Basically, the iSync platform adds mobile phones to Apple's digital hub strategy. It works with the Mac OS X Jaguar Address Book and iCal (Apple's calendar program) to synchronize contacts and calendars among Bluetooth-enabled mobile phones, PalmOS devices, Apple's iPod portable digital music player and other Macs using Apple's .Mac service. With iSync 1.0, users can sync their Jaguar Address Book with the new .Mac Address Book, making it possible to access contacts while using .Mac Web Mail from virtually any computer, the company said in a statement. iSync 1.0 also includes a feature that allows for regularly scheduled Mac-to-Mac synchronization.

For the rest of the story, please go to http://www.adtmag.com/article.asp?id=7132 

Also see Wireless.

ITAD = Integrated Telephone Answering Device that avoids tape recording by using direct digital recorders for telephones.



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