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Indo-Aryan languages


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The Indo-Aryan or Indic languages are the dominant language family of the Indian subcontinent, spoken largely by Indo-Aryan people. They constitute a branch of the Indo-Iranian languages, itself a branch of the Indo-European language family. Indo-Aryan speakers form about one half of all Indo-European speakers (approx 1.5 of 3 billion) and more than half of Indo-European languages recognized by Ethnologue.

Indo-Aryan
Indic
Geographic
distribution:
South Asia
Linguistic classification: Indo-European

  • Indo-Iranian
    • Indo-Aryan
Proto-language: Vedic Sanskrit
Subdivisions:
  • Dardic
  • Northern Zone
  • North-Western Zone
  • Western Zone
  • Central Zone
  • Eastern Zone
  • Southern Zone
  • (the NW, W, C, and E zones all include languages traditionally counted as dialects of Hindi)
Ethnologue code: 17-9
ISO 639-5: inc
Linguasphere: 59= (phylozone)

The largest in terms of native speakers are Hindustani (Hindi-Urdu, about 240 million), Bengali (about 230 million), Punjabi (about 110 million), Marathi (about 70 million), Gujarati (about 45 million), Bhojpuri (about 40 million), Oriya (about 30 million), Sindhi (about 20 million), Nepali (about 14 million), Chittagonian (about 14 million), Sinhala (about 16 million), and Assamese (about 13 million) with a total number of native speakers of more than 900 million.

Indo-Aryan languages

Geographical distribution of the major Indo-Aryan languages. (Urdu is included under Hindi. Romani, Domari, and Lomavren language are outside the scope of the map.)

History

Indian subcontinent

  • Old Indic (ca. 1500–300 BCE)
    • early Old Indic: Vedic Sanskrit (1500 to 500 BCE)
    • late Old Indic: Epic Sanskrit, Classical Sanskrit (500 to 300 BCE)
  • Middle Indo-Aryan or Prakrits (ca. 300 BCE to 1500 CE)
  • Early Modern Indic (Mughal period, 1500 to 1800)
    • early Dakkhini (Kalmitul-hakayat 1580)
    • emergence of Khariboli (Gora-badal ki katha, 1620s)
    • emergence of “Urdu” at Delhi fort (1670s)

Old Indo-Aryan

The earliest evidence of the group is from Vedic Sanskrit, the proto-language of the Indo-Aryan languages which is used in the ancient preserved texts of the Indian subcontinent, the foundational canon of Hinduism known as the Vedas. The Indo-Aryan superstrate in Mitanni is of similar age to the language of the Rigveda (and almost identical), but the only evidence of it is a few proper names and specialized loanwords.

In about the 4th century BCE, the Vedic Sanskrit language was codified and standardized by the grammarian Panini, called “Classical Sanskrit” by convention.

Middle Indo-Aryan (Prakrits)

Outside the learned sphere of Sanskrit, vernacular dialects (Prakrits) continued to evolve. The oldest attested Prakrits are the Buddhist and Jain canonical languages Pali and Ardha Magadhi, respectively. By medieval times, the Prakrits had diversified into various Middle Indo-Aryan dialects. “Apabhramsa” is the conventional cover term for transitional dialects connecting late Middle Indo-Aryan with early Modern Indo-Aryan, spanning roughly the 6th to 13th centuries. Some of these dialects showed considerable literary production; the Sravakachar of Devasena (dated to the 930s) is now considered to be the first Hindi book.

The next major milestone occurred with the Muslim invasions of India in the 13th–16th centuries. Under the flourishing Mughal empire, Persian became very influential as the language of prestige of the Islamic courts. However, Persian was soon displaced by Hindustani. This Indo-Aryan language is a combination with Persian elements in its vocabulary, with the grammar of the local dialects.

The two largest languages that formed from Apabhramsa were Bengali and Hindustani; others include Gujarati, Oriya, Marathi, and Punjabi.

New Indo-Aryan

Dialect continuum

The Indic languages of Northern India (that includes Assam Valley as for the language Assamese) and Pakistan form a dialect continuum. What is called “Hindi” in India is frequently Standard Hindi, the Sanskrit-ized version of the colloquial Hindustani spoken in the Delhi area since the Mughals. However, the term Hindi is also used for most of the central Indic dialects from Bihar to Rajasthan. The Indo-Aryan prakrits also gave rise to languages like Gujarati, Assamese, Bengali, Oriya, Nepali, Marathi, and Punjabi, which are not considered to be Hindi despite being part of the same dialect continuum.

Standard Hindi-Urdu

In the Hindi-speaking areas, the prestige dialect was long Braj Bhasha, but this was replaced in the 19th century by Khari Boli–based Hindustani. This state of affairs continued until the Partition of India in 1947, when Hindi continued as an official language of India and Pakistan but renamed Urdu in Pakistan. In contemporary times, there is a continuum of Hindi–Urdu, with heavily-Persianised Urdu at one end and Sanskritised Hindi at the other, although the basic grammar remains identical. Most people in India and Pakistan speak something in the middle, and this is what the term Hindustani is frequently used to mean today.

Indo-Aryan superstrate in Mitanni

Some theonyms, proper names and other terminology of the Mitanni exhibit an Indo-Aryan superstrate, suggesting that an Indo-Aryan elite imposed itself over the Hurrian population in the course of the Indo-Aryan expansion. In a treaty between the Hittites and the Mitanni, the deities Mitra, Varuna, Indra, and Nasatya (Ashvins) are invoked. Kikkuli’s horse training text includes technical terms such as aika (eka, one), tera (tri, three), panza (pancha, five), satta (sapta, seven), na (nava, nine), vartana (vartana, turn, round in the horse race). The numeral aika “one” is of particular importance because it places the superstrate in the vicinity of Indo-Aryan proper as opposed to Indo-Iranian or early Iranian (which has “aiva”) in general.

Another text has babru (babhru, brown), parita (palita, grey), and pinkara (pingala, red). Their chief festival was the celebration of the solstice (vishuva) which was common in most cultures in the ancient world. The Mitanni warriors were called marya, the term for warrior in Sanskrit as well; note mišta-nnu (= miẓḍha,~ Sanskrit mīḍha) “payment (for catching a fugitive)” (M. Mayrhofer, Etymologisches Wörterbuch des Altindoarischen< Heidelberg 1986-2000; Vol. II 358).

Sanskritic interpretations of Mitanni royal names render Artashumara (artaššumara) as Arta-smara “who thinks of Arta/Ṛta” (Mayrhofer II 780), Biridashva (biridašṷa, biriiašṷa) as Prītāśva “whose horse is dear” (Mayrhofer II 182), Priyamazda (priiamazda) as Priyamedha “whose wisdom is dear” (Mayrhofer II 189, II378), Citrarata as citraratha “whose chariot is shining” (Mayrhofer I 553), Indaruda/Endaruta as Indrota “helped by Indra” (Mayrhofer I 134), Shativaza (šattiṷaza) as Sātivāja “winning the race price” (Mayrhofer II 540, 696), Šubandhu as Subandhu ‘having good relatives” (a name in Palestine, Mayrhofer II 209, 735), Tushratta (tṷišeratta, tušratta, etc.) as *tṷaiašaratha, Vedic Tvastr “whose chariot is vehement” (Mayrhofer, Etym. Wb., I 686, I 736).

Romani language

The Romani language is usually included in the Central Indo-Aryan languages. Romani is conservative in maintaining almost intact the Middle Indo-Aryan present-tense person concord markers, and in maintaining consonantal endings for nominal case – both features that have been eroded in most other modern languages of Central India. It shares an innovative pattern of past-tense person concord with the languages of the Northwest, such as Kashmiri and Shina. This is believed to be further proof that Romani originated in the Central region, then migrated to the Northwest.

There are no known historical documents about the early phases of the Romani language.

Linguistic evaluation carried out in the nineteenth century by Pott (1845) and Miklosich (1882–1888) showed that the Romani language is to be a New Indo-Aryan language (NIA), not a Middle Indo-Aryan (MIA), establishing that the ancestors of the Romani could not have left India significantly earlier than AD 1000.

The principal argument favouring a migration during or after the transition period to NIA is the loss of the old system of nominal case, and its reduction to just a two-way case system, nominative vs. oblique. A secondary argument concerns the system of gender differentiation. Romani has only two genders (masculine and feminine). Middle Indo-Aryan languages (named MIA) generally had three genders (masculine, feminine and neuter), and some modern Indo-Aryan languages retain this old system even today.

It is argued that loss of the neuter gender did not occur until the transition to NIA. Most of the neuter nouns became masculine while a few feminine, like the neuter अग्नि (agni) in the Prakrit became the feminine आग (āg) in Hindi and jag in Romani. The parallels in grammatical gender evolution between Romani and other NIA languages have been cited as evidence that the forerunner of Romani remained on the Indian subcontinent until a later period, perhaps even as late as the tenth century.

Classification

There can be no definitive enumeration of Indic languages, as their dialects merge into one another. Named languages are therefore social constructs as much as objective ones. The major ones are illustrated here; for the details, see the dedicated articles.

The classification follows Masica (1991) and Kausen (2006).

Dardic

The relation of this family to other Indo-Aryan languages is unclear; these languages have very different grammatical structure from that of the Classical Indo-Aryan languages. The representative languages are:

Pashayi, Khowar, Kohistani, Shina language, Kashmiri

Northern Zone

Central Pahari
Garhwali, Kumauni
Eastern Pahari
Nepali (Gurkali), etc.

dogri-kangri regionNorth-Western Zone

Dogri–Kangri (Western Pahari)
Dogri, Kangri, Mandeali, etc.
Punjabi (Eastern Punjabi)
Lahnda (Western Punjabi)
Sindhi

Western Zone

Rajasthani
Marwari, Rajasthani
Gujarati
Bhil
Khandeshi
Domari–Romani

Central Zone (Madhya or Hindi)

Western Hindi
Hindustani, etc.
Eastern Hindi
Fijian Hindi, Chhattisgarhi, etc.

indic central zone

Indic, Central Zone

Eastern Zone (Magadhan)

These languages evolved circa 1000–1200 CE from eastern Middle Indo-Aryan dialects such as the Magadhi Prakrit, Pali (the language of Gautama Buddha and the major language of Buddhism), and Ardhamagadhi (“Half-Magadhi”) from a dialect or group of dialects that were close, but not identical to, Vedic and Classical Sanskrit.

Bihari
Bhojpuri (incl. Caribbean Hindustani), Maithili, etc.
Bengali–Assamese
Oriya
Tharu

Southern Zone languages

It is not clear if Dakhini (Deccani, Southern Urdu) is part of Hindustani along with Standard Urdu, or a separate Persian-influenced development from Marathi.

Marathi

Konkani

Insular Indic
Sinhalese, Maldivian

The insular languages share several characteristics that set them apart significantly from the continental languages.

Unclassified

The following poorly attested languages are listed as unclassified within the Indo-Aryan family by Ethnologue 17:

  • Dhanwar (Rai) (Dardic?), Kanjari (Punjabi?), Od (Marathi?), Vaagri Booli, Darai (Dardic?), Kumhali, Chinali (~Sanskrit), Andh, Lahul Lohar, Mina (not distinct?), Bhalay-Gowlan(perhaps in Southern), Bote and Degaru (perhaps in Eastern), Sonha (perhaps in Central).

Phonology

Consonants

Stop positions

The normative system of New Indo-Aryan stops consists of five points of articulation: labial, dental, “retroflex”, palatal, and velar, which is the same as that of Sanskrit. The “retroflex” position may involve retroflexion, or curling the tongue to make the contact with the underside of the tip, or merely retraction. The point of contact may be alveolar or postalveolar, and the distinctive quality may arise more from the shaping than from the position of the tongue. Palatals stops have affricated release and are traditionally included as involving a distinctive tongue position (blade in contact with hard palate). Widely transcribed as [tʃ], Masica (1991:94) claims [cʃ] to be a more accurate rendering.

Moving away from the normative system, some languages and dialects have alveolar affricates [ts] instead of palatal, though some among them retain [tʃ] in certain positions: before front vowels (esp. /i/), before /j/, or when geminated. Alveolar as an additional point of articulation occurs in Marathi and Konkani where dialect mixture and others factors upset the aforementioned complementation to produce minimal environments, in some West Pahari dialects through internal developments (*t̪ɾ, t̪ > /tʃ/), and in Kashmiri. The addition of a retroflex affricate to this in some Dardic languages maxes out the number of stop positions at seven (barring borrowed /q/), while a reduction to the inventory involves *ts > /s/, which has happened in Assamese, Chittagonian, Sinhala (though there have been other sources of a secondary /ts/), and Southern Mewari.

Further reductions in the number of stop articulations are in Assamese and Romany, which have lost the characteristic dental/retroflex contrast, and in Chittagonian, which is in danger of losing its labial and velar articulations through spirantization in many positions (> [f, x]).

Stop series Language(s)
/p/, /t̪/, /ʈ/, /tʃ/, /k/ Hindi, Punjabi, Dogri, Sindhi, Gujarati, Bihari, Maithili, Sinhala, Oriya, Standard Bengali, dialects of Rajasthani (except Lamani, NW. Marwari, S. Mewari)
/p/, /t̪/, /ʈ/, /ts/, /k/ Nepali, E. and N. dialects of Bengali (Dacca, Maimansing, Rajshahi), dialects of Rajasthani (Lamani and NW. Marwari), Northern Lahnda’s Kagani, Kumauni, many West Pahari dialects (not Chamba Mandeali, Jaunsari, or Sirmauri)
/p/, /t̪/, /ʈ/, /ts/, /tʃ/, /k/ Marathi, Konkani, certain W. Pahari dialects (Bhadrawahi, Bhalesi, Padari, Simla, Satlej, maybe Kulu), Kashmiri
/p/, /t̪/, /ʈ/, /ts/, /tʃ/, /tʂ/, /k/ Shina, Bashkarik, Gawarbati, Phalura, Kalasha, Khowar, Shumashti, Kanyawali, Pashai
/p/, /t̪/, /ʈ/, /k/ Rajasthani’s S. Mewari
/p/, /t/, /k/ Assamese
/p/, /t/, /tʃ/, /k/ Romani
/t̪/, /ʈ/ Chittagonian

Nasals

Sanskrit was noted as having five nasal-stop articulations corresponding to its oral stops, and among modern languages and dialects Dogri, Kacchi, Kalasha, Rudhari, Shina, Saurasthtri, and Sindhi have been analyzed as having this full complement of phonemic nasals /m/ /n/ /ɳ/ /ɲ/ /ŋ/, with the last two generally as the result of the loss of the stop from a homorganic nasal + stop cluster ([ɲj] > [ɲ] and [ŋɡ] > [ŋ]), though there are other sources as well.

Charts

The following are consonant systems of major and representative New Indo-Aryan languages, as presented in Masica (1991:106–107), though here they are in IPA. Parentheses indicate those consonants found only in loanwords: square brackets indicate those with “very low functional load”. The arrangement is roughly geographical.

Romani
p t (ts) k
b d (dz) ɡ ɡʲ
tʃʰ
m n
(f) s ʃ x (fʲ)
v (z) ʒ ɦ
ɾ l
j
Shina
p ʈ ts k
b ɖ ɖʐ ɡ
t̪ʰ ʈʰ tsʰ tʃʰ tʂʰ
m n ɳ ɲ ŋ
(f) s ɽ
w j
Kashmiri
p ʈ ts k t̪ʲ ʈʲ tsʲ
b ɖ ɡ d̪ʲ ɖʲ ɡʲ
t̪ʰ ʈʰ tsʰ tʃʰ pʲʰ t̪ʲʰ ʈʲʰ tsʲʰ kʲʰ
m n ɲ
s ʃ
z ɦ ɦʲ
ɾ l ɾʲ lʲ
w j
Saraiki
p ʈ k
b ɖ ɡ
t̪ʰ ʈʰ tʃʰ
d̪ʱ ɖʱ dʒʱ ɡʱ
ɓ ɗ ʄ ɠ
m n ɳ ɲ ŋ
ɳʱ
s (ʃ) (x)
(z) (ɣ) ɦ
ɾ l ɽ
ɾʱ lʱ ɽʱ
w j
Punjabi
p ʈ k
b ɖ ɡ
t̪ʰ ʈʰ tʃʰ
m n ɳ ŋ
(f) s ɦ
ɾ l ɽ ɭ
[w] [j]
Nepali
p ʈ ts k
b ɖ dz ɡ
t̪ʰ ʈʰ tsʰ
d̪ʱ ɖʱ dzʱ ɡʱ
m n ŋ
s (ɣ) ɦ
ɾ l ɽ
ɾʱ lʱ ɽʱ
w j
Marwari
p ʈ k
b ɖ ɡ
t̪ʰ ʈʰ tʃʰ
d̪ʱ ɖʱ dʒʱ ɡʱ
ɓ ɗ̪ ɗ ɠ
m n ɳ
s ɦ
ɾ l ɽ ɭ
w j
Hindustani
p ʈ k
b ɖ ɡ
t̪ʰ ʈʰ tʃʰ
d̪ʱ ɖʱ dʒʱ ɡʱ
m n
(f) s ɦ
ɾ l ɽ
ɽʱ
([w]) ([j])
Assamese
p t k
b d g
ɡʱ
m n ŋ
s x
z ɦ
ɾ l
[w]
Bengali
p ʈ k
b ɖ ɡ
t̪ʰ ʈʰ tʃʰ
d̪ʱ ɖʱ dʒʱ ɡʱ
m n
ʃ ɦ
ɾ l ɽ
[w] [j]
Gujarati
p ʈ k
b ɖ ɡ
t̪ʰ ʈʰ tʃʰ
d̪ʱ ɖʱ dʒʱ ɡʱ
m n ɳ
ɳʱ
s ʃ ɦ
ɾ l ɭ
ɾʱ lʱ
w j
Marathi
p ʈ ts k
b ɖ dz ɡ
t̪ʰ ʈʰ tʃʰ
d̪ʱ ɖʱ dzʱ dʒʱ ɡʱ
m n ɳ
s ʃ ɦ
ɾ l ɭ
ɾʱ lʱ
w j
Oriya
p ʈ k
b ɖ ɡ
t̪ʰ ʈʰ tʃʰ
d̪ʱ ɖʱ dʒʱ ɡʱ
m n ɳ
s ɦ
ɾ l [ɽ] ɭ
[ɽʱ]
[w] [j]
Sinhala
p ʈ k
b ɖ ɡ
ᵐb ⁿ̪d̪ ᶯɖ ᵑɡ
m n ɲ ŋ
s ɦ
ɾ l
w j

Language comparison chart

English Sinhala Nepali Kashmiri Vedic Sanskrit
beautiful sonduru, sundara sundar sondar sundara
blood le, rudiraya, ruhiru ragat ratth rakta, loha
bread paan paũroṭi tçhot rotika
bring ghenna lyaunu ann anayati
brother sahodaraya bhaai, dai, daju boéy bhatar, bandhu
come enna aaunu vall agataah
cry adanawa, handanawa runu wódun rodana, rava
dark anduru, andhakaraya andhyaro anyí-got andhakara
daughter duva, du chhori koor putri
day dinaya, dawasa din dóh divasa, dina
do karanna garnu kar karoti
door dora, duwaraya dhoka darwaaz
die maranaya, maruna marnu marun marana, glah
egg bitharaya, biju andaa thool andaka
earth pruthuvi, polova, bhoomi, bima prithivi dharti pruthvi, mahi, bhuvana
eye asa, akshi, neth, nuwan aankha aéchh netra, lochna
father piya, thatha buwā, pitā mol pitra, janak
fear baya, biya dar bhaya, bhi
finger angili aunla ungij aguli, aguliyaka
fire agni, gini āgo agénn agni, bhujyu
fish masun, mathasya, malu māchā gaad matsya
food āhāra, kema, bojun, bhojana khānā, anna, āhār ‘khyann bhojana, khadati
go yanna janu gachati
god devi, devathava bhagawaan, dewataa, ishwor bhagwaan, parmeshwar, deevta deva, ishwara, parmeshwara, devata
good hondhai raamro jaan shobhna, uttama
grass thana, thruna ghaas dramunn truna, kusha
hand atha, hasthaya hāt atth bhuj
head oluwa, sirasa tauko, seer kall shir, mastak
heart hada, herdaya hridaya, mutu hridaya
horse ashvaya, thuranga ghoda gur ashva, ghotaka, hayi
house gedhara, gruha ghar ghar graha, alaya
hunger kusagini, badagini bhok bo’tchh bubuksa, ksudha
language bhashawa, basa bhaashaa booyl bhasha, vaani
laugh (v.) hina, sinaha, sina hasnu assun haasa, smera
life jeevithe jeewan, jindagi zindagayn jivana, jani
moon chandra, sandu, handa chandramā, juun tçhandram chandra, suma, bhanta
mother mawa, amma, matha aamaa, maataa maeyj janani, martr
mouth mukha, kata aaes
name nama nām naav nāma
night rāthriya, rae raat, raatri raath raatri, rajani
open harinna khulla khol uttana, udhatita
peace samaya, shāntiya shaanti aman, shaanti shaanti
place sthanaya thaaun, sthal jaay stapana, sthala, bhu
queen rajina, devi, bisawa rāni rāni, rājpatni
read kiyawanna padh- parun pathati, vachana
rest vishrāma shalawa, thanayama ārām, bishrām araam vishrama
say pawasanna, kiyanna bhannu vann vadati
sister bhaen, bhaengi sohouri,souri baeynn
small chuti, podi saano lokutt alpa, laghu
son puthra, putha, puthu chhora nyechu tanaya, putra
soul ātma ātmā athma ātma, atasa
sun ira, hiru, surya surya surya surya
ten dahaya,dasa dus dhuh dasha
three thuna tin t’re tree, trayah
village gama, gramaya gaun gaam graam, kheda
want oone, awashyayi chaahanaa amati, apekshita
water jalaya, wathura, paen pāni, jal poyn paniya, jala
when kawadhada, kedinada kahile karr kada, ched
wind hulan, sulan, pavana, vathaya huri, batas pavan, vata
wolf vurkaya shyaal, bwanso vruka, shwaka
woman kanthawa, gahaniya, sthriya, mahilawa, lalanawa, liya, landa, vanithawa mahilaa, naari, stri zanaan nari, vanita, stri, mahila, lalana
year varshaya barsha váreeh varsh, shaarad
yes / no ow / nā ho / hoina, la / nai aa / ná hyah, kam / na, ma
yesterday ēyeh hijo hyah, gatdinam, gatkale

 

English Gujarati Marathi Hindi Bhojpuri Oriya
beautiful sundar sundar sundar suhnar / khapsoorat sundara
blood lohi, khun, rakt rakt khun, rakta, lahu khoon, lahu rakta
bread paũ, roṭlā chapāti, poli chapātī, roṭī roṭī pauroṭi
bring lā- ān- lā- lāv- nai an-
brother bhāi bhau, bandhu bhāī bhāī, bhaīyā bhai, bhaina
come āv- ye- ā- āv- ās-, ā-
cry raḍ- rad- ro- ro- kandu
dark andhārũ andhar andhera anhār andhāra
daughter chhokḍi leki beṭi dhiyā, beṭi, chhori jhiya
day divas divas, din din din dina
do kar- kar- kar- kar- kar-
door kerel bārņu, darvājo darvāzā, kavad darvājā, kevadi darwāzā
die mar- mar- mar-, mar jā- mu, mar ja mar-
egg iṇḍũ aṇḍ anḍā anḍā anḍā, ḍimba
earth pruthvi pruthvi, dharani prithvī, dhartī, zamīn jamīn, pirthvi pruthibi
eye āñkh netra, ḍoḷā āñkh āñkh ākhi
father bāp pitā bāp bāp, babuji, pitaji bāpa, bābā
fear bik, ḍar bhiti, bhaya ḍar ḍar ḍara
finger āñgḷi bote anguli, ungli anguri ānguthi
fire agni, jvaḷa āg, agni āg āgh agni, nia
fish māchhli masa machhlī machhri mācha
food anna, khorāk, poshaṇ jevana, bhojan khānā, bhojan khana, ann khādya, bhojana
go jā- jā- jā- jā- ja-
god parmeshvar, dev, bhagvān dev, parmeshwar, ishwar bhagvān, parmeshvar, ishvar, xudā bhagvān, malik, iswar bhagabāna, ṭhākura, diyan
good sārũ changala achhā badhiya, changa bhāla
grass ghāsthāro gavata ghās ghās ghāsa
hand hāth hāt hāth hāth hāta
head māthũ ḍoke sir, shīsh sīr munḍa
heart hruday rudaya dil dil hridaya
horse ghoḍũ ghoda ghorha ghorha ghoda
house ghar ghar ghar ghara
hunger bhukh bhukh bhūkh bhūkh bhoka
language bhāshā bhāshā bhāshā, zabān bhākhā, boli, jubaan bhāsā
laugh (v.) has- hās- hãs- hãs- hās-
life jivan, jindagi jivan jīvan, zindagī jinigi jibana, prāna
moon chandra, chāndo chandra chandramā, chandā channa, channarma chandra
mother mā, bā āi, māi matāri, māi, amma mā, bou
mouth moḍhũ, mukh tond, mukha mūñh mukha, muha mukh
name nām nāv nām nā, nām nāma, nā
night rāt, rātri, nishā rātra rāt, rātri, nishā rāt rāti
open khullũ khol, ughad khulā khullā kholā
peace shānti, shāntatā shānti shānti, aman shānti, aman sānti
place jagyā, sthaļ sthān, sthal, jāga sthān, jagah jagah jāgā
queen rāṇi, madhurāṇi rāni, rājmātā rāni, malkā rāni, mallika rāṇi
read vānch- vāch- paṛh- paṛh- paḍh-
rest ārām vishrām ārām rām ārām, visrām
say bol- bol-, sang- bol-, keh- bol- kah-
sister bêhn bhagani, bahin baihn bahin bhauṇi
small nāhnũ lahan, laghu chhoṭā chhoṭ choṭa, sana
son chhokḍo mulga beṭā putt/chhora pua
soul ātma ātma ātma, rūh rūh ātmā
sun suraj, surya surya sūrya, sūraj sūruj surjya
ten das daha das das dasa
three traṇ tin tīn tīn tini
village gāñḍu gāv, kheda gāoñ gāoñ, jageer gān, grāma
want joi- pahije, ha- chāh- chāh-
water pāṇi pāṇi pāni, jal pāni pāṇi, jala
when kyahre kevhā kab kab kebe
wind havā, pavan vāra havā, pavan hāvā pabana
wolf shiyāl kolha bherhiyā bherhiyā gadhiyā
woman mahilā, nāri bāi, mahilā, stri aurat, strī, mahilā, nāri mehraru, aurat stri, nāri
year varash varsh sāl, varsh sāl barsa
yes / no hā / nā hoy, ha / nahi, na hāñ / nā, nahīñ hāñ / nā han /
yesterday (gai-)kāl(-e) kāl kāl kālh (gata-)kāli

 

English Pali Romani Saraiki (southern Punjabi) Assamese Bengali Maithili Punjabi (Indian)
beautiful sundaro shukar sohnra dhuniya, xundôr shundor sundar sohnā, sundar
blood rat laho, rat tez rôkto, lohit, lohu shonit khoon, lahoo
bread manro roti, ma(n)ri, dhodha pauruti (pau-)ruṭi roṭi roṭi
bring anel Ghin aa, Lai aa an- ano anaah liya, laao
brother phral Bharaa, Veer, Lala bhaiti bhai bveer, bhai, Bhaji
come aagaccha avel Aao aanha, aanhok asho, ai ā- aao, aajaa
cry rodanam rovel rovanra kand- kãd- roh, ronaa
dark andhakaaro kalo andhara andhar, ôndhôkar ôndhokar, ãdhar haneraa
daughter chhai Dhee ziyari, ziyek me-lok beti
day dives denh, jehara din din, dibôsh dina
do kerel karo kôr- koro kar- kar, karo
door dvara, kapat vudar buha, dar duar, dôrza dôrja, dur booha, darwaza
die merel marna môr- môr, more ja-, mara ja- mar-, mar ja-
egg anro anda, Aana koni ḍim āṇḍā
earth phuv zameen, dharti prithibi prithibi, duniya jag, jahān, prithvi, zamin
eye yakh akh soku chokh ainkh ākh
father dad abba, piyoo dêuta baba, abba, bap bāp, pitā
fear dar, trash darr bhoi bhôe, ḍôr bhay dhar
finger angusht ungil anguli ang-gul āngur ongli
fire manta yag bhaa zui agun agg
fish machho machhey mas machh machhi
food xal roti-tukkur, khanra ahar, khaiddyô, khuwa bostu khabar khānā, roti, ann
go jal vanj zu-, za- ja-, gê- jaa
god devel rab, mālik, allāh debôta, bhôgôwan bhôgoban, ishshor, rab rabb, bhagwaan, waheguru
good lachho, mishto changa bhal bhalo neek, neeman changa, wadia
grass char ghā ghã ghash kāh
hand vast hat hat hat hath
head shero ser mur matha sirr, sees
heart ilo Dil hridai, hiyan ridôe dil
horse khoro, grast ghora ghůra ghoṛa ghorha
house kher ghar ghôr ghôr ghar
hunger bokh bhuk bhuk khide bhukh
language chhib boli, zaban bhaxa bhasha bhāshā
laugh (v.) asal khill hã- hãsh- has-
life jivipen zindgey zibôn jibon jiban jeevan, zindgi
moon chhon chandr zunbai chãd, chôndro chann, chand, chandarmā
mother dai amma, maa ai, ma ma, amma, mao myay maa, mata, bebe
mouth mui mukh   mukh moonh mukha
name nav nam nam nām nām, nā
night raat rati rat, ratri, ratro rat rat
open rat khulla khula khola khol, khulla
peace kotor aman, sakoon xanti shanti shaanti, aman shanti
place than jaga thai jaega, sthan jomin jagah, thaan, asthaan
queen rani, thagarni ranri, malka rani rani rāni
read chaduvu parhnra, parh pôṛh- pôṛ- parh-
rest Araam zirani aram, bishrom ramman, araam
say phenel bol, aakh kũ- bôl- baiju bol, kaeh
sister phen bheinr bhonti bon, apa, didi bahin bahini,didi
small tikno, xurdo nikka, chauta xoru chhoṭo chhoit chhotaa, nikka
son chhavo putr putek chhele, pola putt, putter, munda
soul di rooh atma attã, ãtta ātma, rooh
sun kham sijh xuirzyô, baeli shurjo, roud suruj suraj
ten desh dah dôh dôsh das
three trin trai tini tin tinn
village gav dehat, jhoauk, vasti gaon gram pind, gran
want kamel, mangel chah lôg- cha- chāh
water pani panri pani jôl, pani pāni, jal
when kana kadanr ketiyan kôkhon, kôbe kakhan, kahiya kad, kadon
wind balval hava, Phook bôtãh batash, haoa havā, paun
wolf ruv baghiyaar xiyal sheal siyār bherhiya
woman juvli aurat, treimat, zaal, zanaani mohila, maiki manuh mohila, nari, shtri aurat, zanaani, teeveen, istari
year bersh saal bôsôr bôchhor barxa saal, varah
yes / no va / na ha / na hoi / nohoi hê, hoi, ho, oi / na haan, aaho / naheen, naa
yesterday ij kal (zuwa-)kali (gôto-)kal(-ke) kal




Published - November 2013













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