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A Critical Study of the Translation of 1984: A Comparative Textual Analysis Model

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The present paper aims at doing a critical study of part.1, chapter.1 of the novel 1984 written by George Orwell and translated by Hamid Reza Baluch. It suggests a Comparative Textual Analysis Model for doing this critique. The model includes English and Persian parts through which the paper analyzes the features like text type, text style, text intention, sound effects, place and time in the original and translation separately and then compares them. After this comparison, the effect on the target reader is compared with that of the source reader and based on that, the adequacy of the final translation is determined.

Key words: Translation, Adequate Translation, Comparative Textual Analysis Model, Text Type, Text Style, Text Intention

1. Introduction

Forogh Karimipur Davaninezhad photo1.1 Theoretical Background: Literary translation which is the translation of literary works (novels, short stories, plays, poems, etc) has long been of interest. If the translation of non-literary works is regarded as a skill, the translation of fiction and poetry is much more of an art. In literary translation, there’s the option of adding or deleting a syllable here or there, but the translator needs to stick as close as possible to the original prosody. The translator should observe the repetition of words and phrases, the placement of rest/ or punctuation, the quality of the vowels and rhythmic features in his/her translation. (Rahimi, 2008)
Considering the novel 1984 as a literary work and the literary translation as an art, special attention should be paid to the form, and the musical effects of the translation. As mentioned earlier, a literary translation should be as close as possible to the original. Therefore, this paper will analyze the sound effects, type, style and intention in the source text, then in the target text and finally compares them as the process of translation quality assessment.

1.2 Statement of the problem: Most of literary works translated to Persian can’t evoke the same reaction in the target language as it did in its original form in the source language.

1.3 Purpose of the study: This paper aims at comparing some features of the novel 1984 with its Persian translation based on a comparative textual analysis model to determine the adequacy of the final translation.

1.4 Significance of the study: Many literary works are translated to Persian and read in this language. They affect people in different ways, but their correct inference and understanding depends on the way they are translated. The present paper will offer a comparative textual analysis model for literary works by which the translator as the first target reader can analyze the original, make correct inference and synthesize it with the same beauty and effect in the target text.

1.5 Research Question: Does paying deserved attention to the type, style, intention, sound effect, time and place of the ST affect the quality of the translation in literary works?

1.6 Research Hypothesis: To answer the above research question following hypothesis is formulated:

H?1: There is no relationship between paying deserved attention to the type, style, intention, sound effect, place and time of the ST and the quality of the translation in literary works.

1.7 Organization of the study: This paper is organized in five parts. Introduction looks briefly at literary translation, significance and purpose of the research, research question and hypothesis, review of the Literature looks at the concept of translation, adequate translation, and features like text type, style and intention, methodology presents the comparative textual analysis model and the procedure of the work, data analysis analyzes the mentioned features in both the original and the translation and discussion assesses the quality of the translation and makes the final remark.

2. Review of the Literature

This part will briefly look at the concept of translation, adequate translation, features like text type, style and intention of the text and translator which are going to be the constituents of the comparative textual analysis model.

2.1 The Concept of Translation: The term translation itself has several meanings: it can refer to the general subject field, the product (the text that has been translated) or the process (the act of producing the translation, otherwise known as translating). The process of translation between two different languages involves the translator changing an original written text ( the Source Text or ST) in the original verbal language ( the Source Language or SL) into a written text ( the Target Text or TT) in a different verbal language (the Target Language or TL). (Munday, 2001)

If we look at a translation as a product, we can compare it with its original text and try to find out where and how it resembles, or differs from the original. This external or product view of translation can be indirect evidence of how translators have gone about their task of translating. If, however, we want to have more direct evidence of the translator’s mental processes in text comprehension, interpretation, reconstructing, and rewording we need to have more than the translated text to work on. In this process view of translation, translators deal with a complex series of problem-solving and decision making operations. (House, 2009)

2.2 Adequate Translation: An adequate translation preserves the image of the ST, transfers exactly and appropriately into the TL what is written in the SL, is eloquent enough to evoke the same reaction in the TL as it did in its original form in the SL, thoroughly represents the image of the author and his/her creative personality, it’s faithful not only to the transferring of the content of a text from one language into another language, but also to transfer the forms as well and passes itself off as original.(Miremadi, 2004)

2.3 Text Type: According to Buhler, the three main text types are the expressive, informative, and the vocative. (Newmark, 1988)

2.3.1 Expressive: The core of the expressive function is the mind of the speaker, writer, and the originator of the utterance. He uses the utterance to express his feelings irrespective of any response. Political speech and unusual (infrequent) collocations are characteristics of such texts. Lyrical poetry, short stories, novels and plays are typical expressive text. Texts about libraries, as they often express value-judgment, are apt to lean towards expressiveness, as well.

2.3.2 Informative: The core of the informative function of language is external situation, the facts of a topic, reality outside language, including reported ideas or theories. For the purposes of translation, typical informative texts are concerned with any topic of knowledge. The format of an informative text is often standard: a textbook, a technical report, an article in a newspaper or a periodical, a scientific paper, a thesis, minutes or agenda of a meeting.

2.3.3Vocative: The core of the vocative function of the language is the readership, the addressee. The term vocative is used in the sense of ‘calling upon’ the readership to act, think or feel, in fact to react in the way intended by the text. This function of language has been given many other names, including conative, instrumental, operative, and pragmatic. Notices, instructions, publicity, propaganda, persuasive writing and possibly popular fictions are the typical vocative text.

2.4. Functional Characteristics of Text Type and Links to Translation Method:

Table 2.1 Functional Characteristics of Text Type and Links to Translation Method (adopted from Reiss 1971)

Functional Characteristics of Text Type and Links to Translation Method - 1984

(Munday, 2001)

2.5 Text Styles: Following Nida, we distinguish four style of (literary or non-literary) text: (Newmark, 1988)

2.5.1 Narrative: A dynamic sequence of events, where the emphasis is on the verbs or, for English, ‘dummy’ or ‘empty’ verbs plus verb-nouns or phrasal verbs (‘He made a sudden appearance’, ‘He burst in’).

2.5.2 Description: It is static, with emphasis on linking verbs, adjectives, and adjectival nouns.

2.5.3 Discussion: It is a treatment of ideas, with emphasis on abstract nouns (concepts), verbs of thought, mental activity, (‘consider’, ‘argue’, etc.), logical argument and connectives.

2.5.4 Dialogic: It emphasizes on colloquialisms and phaticism.

2.6 The Intention of the Text: In reading, you search for the intention of the text, you can’t isolate this from understanding it, they go together and the title may be remote from the content as well as the intention. Two texts may describe a battle or a riot or a debate, stating the same figures and facts, but the type of language used and even the grammatical structure (passive voice, impersonal verbs often used to disclaim responsibility) in each case may be evidence of different points of view. The intention of the text represents the SL writer’s attitude to the subject matter. (Newmark, 1988)

2.7 The Intention of the Translator: Usually, the translator’s intention is identical with that of the author of the SL text. But he may be translating an advertisement, a notice, or a set of instructions to show his client how such matters are formulated and written in the SL, rather than how to adapt them in order to persuade or instruct a new TL readership. And again, he may be translating a manual of instructions for a less educated readership, so that the explanation in his translation may be much larger than the ‘reproduction’. (Newmark, 1988)

3. Methodology

3.1 Overview: This paper is going to determine whether paying deserved attention to the type, style, intention, sound effect, time and place of the ST affects the quality of the translation in literary works.

3.2 Design: To find a suitable, practical answer to the above question within a descriptive study, this paper determines text type, style, intention, sound effect, place and time of the ST and TT separately and then compares them based on the comparative textual analysis to find adequacy of the final translation of the novel 1984.

3.3 Materials: Materials of this paper consist of the novel 1984, its Persian translation by Hamid Reza Baluch and the comparative textual analysis model.

3.3.1 Comparative Textual Analysis Model:
The following model is a proposal by the writer for the critical analysis of the novel 1984 and its translation. Guideline to use this model is given in the procedures.

A Comparative Textual Analysis Model

A Comparative Textual Analysis Model

Figure 3.1

Click to see the biggest picture in separate window

3.4 Procedures: First, text type, text style, text intention, sound effect, time and place of the original are determined by help of definitions given in the review of the literature. Then, the same features are investigated in the TT. Next, they are compared with each other. After that, two questions are asked about the features of the TT: Are they faithful to the form and content of the original? And do they transfer total understanding from SL to the TL? Finally, two answers are elicited: Yes or NO. If the answer is yes, the effect on the TR is equal or the same as that of the SR; therefore, the translation is adequate. And if the answer is no, the effect on the TR isn’t the same as that of the SR; therefore, the translation isn’t adequate.

4. Data Analysis and Results

Data analysis has two parts: The analysis of the ST (the novel 1984, written by George Orwell) and the analysis of the TT (the Persian translation of 1984 by Hamid Reza Baluch.) A Summary of Part1, Chapter1 of the novel 1984 is given before the analyses:

On a bitter April day in London, Oceania, Winston Smith arrives at his small apartment on his lunch break. The face of Big Brother is everywhere. It is immediately obvious, through Winston's musings, that the political weather of Winston's London is grim and totalitarian. Winston pours himself a large drink and sets about to commit an act punishable by death — starting a diary. He believes he is fortunate because a small corner of his apartment is hidden from the telescreen — a device that allows him to be viewed and heard twenty-four hours a day by the authorities — or Big Brother. Here is where he begins the diary.

Winston works in the Ministry of Truth where he meets other people every day; Julia, the dark-haired girl from the fiction department who causes him "to feel a peculiar uneasiness”. Winston suspects her to be a member of the Thought Police and O'Brien with whom he had once exchanged glances. Winston watches Emmanuel Goldstein, a person and a concept, during hate session in his workplace.

4.1 Source Text Analysis

4.1.1 Text Type: The ST is expressive in which the core of the function is the mind of the writer. In 1984 the writer is disgusted by the political environment and disastrous situation of his fellowmen after war; they are all the mentality of the writer that he tries to express by help of following words, expressions and unusual collocations.

Table 4.1 Signaling Expressions and Unusual Collocations

Source Text Analysis - 1984

4.1.2 Text Style: It is a Narrative description of specific political events. It narrates a war-torn society in which people live in wooden dwellings where they can rarely resist starving. It narrates the internal events (inside Victory Mansion and Winston’s apartment, his sighting of Big Brother’s poster, his pain, his experience of drinking and writing, his monologue, his sheer panic, his hatred, and the current news heard over telescreen, etc.) and the external events (outside his apartment in his workplace, Ministry of Truth, the people he meets, his feeling towards them, the political speeches on telescreen, dummy rhythmic tramp of soldiers’ boot, roaring of machine guns, and helicopters which hover here and there) over time.

4.1.3 Intention of the Text: The text represents the SL writer’s attitude to the subject matter. The writer of 1984 tries to illustrate a war-torn society and his hatred of political environment explicitly, implicitly, ironically and paradoxically by clever selection of words.

Implicit Expressions

- It was a bright cold day in April, and the clocks were striking thirteen.

Striking thirteen: 13 is an ominous number. It’s implicitly in harmony with gloomy weather of London.

- Inside the flat a fruity voice was reading out a list of figures which had something to do with the production of pig-iron.

Fruity voice is deep in quality which is in harmony with pig-iron production since both are in hand of governing party of the society.

- Winston turned a switch on telescreen and the voice sank down somewhat, though the words were still distinguishable.

It implies that there’s no way to get rid of the political governing power. (Implies the idea of Monitoring)

- Winston looked very small in his blue party overalls.

Overall which is a long piece of clothes usually worn by workers doing dirty work implies the idea of social classes (worker and elite classes) in the society. (Marxist Theory)

- Outside the window, the bluebottles signaled the Thought Police.

Blue bottle: implies the idea of disturbance.
Thought police: implies the idea of monitoring.

- There’s no freedom of speech, and writing is a crime. Paper and pencil are rarely manufactured because they are ways of producing documented thought and believes.

It implies the political atmosphere.

- Big Brother: Implies the idea of totalitarianism and the political governing power.

- The self-satisfied sheep-like face on the screen, and the terrifying power of the Eurasian army behind it, were too much to be borne: besides, the sight or even the thought of Goldstein produced fear and anger automatically.

Sheep: Implies a person who does something without thinking for himself or herself.

- The dark-haired girl behind Winston had begun crying out 'Swine! Swine! Swine!'

Swine: Implies an unpleasant person.

Pyramid - 1984

Figure 4.1

- On the pyramid body of the Ministry of truth, where Winston worked in, three slogans were written.

Pyramid: pyramid is usually used in illustration of a difference. (It implies the Marxist idea in which the society is divided into different classes based on people’s financial situation)

The above figure is an illustration of a Marxist Society.

Ironic Expressions

- Victory Mansion (ironic) People living there, e.g Winston, have no will power, and no right in that society which is in contradiction with the concept of the victory.

- Winston (ironic): It is the Homonym of Winston (Churchill), one of the great political powers of the world along with Adolf Hitler, Franklin Roosevelt and Stalin. One is at the peak of political power and the other at the depth of it.

- The Ministry of Love, which maintained law and order. (Ironic)

There’s no law for love.

- And the Ministry of Plenty, which was responsible for economic affairs. (Ironic)

There shouldn’t be any economic affairs in presence of plenty.

Paradoxical Expressions

- War is peace!

- Freedom is slavery!

- Ignorance is strength!

All of the above statements contain two opposite ideas that make it seem impossible or unlikely.

Explicit Expressions

- Party: is used explicitly in the political environment.

- Ministry: is used explicitly in the political environment.

- Arrest/ Confession/ Execution (they are the processes followed by one’s treachery in a country involved in war)

- Sabotage

- Sheer panic

- Soldiers/boots (soldiers can be seen in war-stricken areas here and there)

- Military music (Military music can be heard over speakers before, during and after war)

- Machine gun

4.1.4 Sound Effects: The major focus of this part is on alliteration and assonance. Alliteration refers to the use of the same letters or sounds at the beginning of words that are close together for example sing a song of sixpence.

The repeated letters can be vowel or consonant, they can happen within a sentence boundary or beyond it. Assonance refers to the effect created when two syllables in words that are close together have the same vowel sound, but different consonants, or the same consonants but different vowels for example sonnet and porridge or cold and killed. (Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary)

Examples of alliteration and assonance in the ST

It was a bright cold day in April, and the clocks were striking thirteen. Winston Smith entered the Victory Mansion through the vile wind and gritty dust.

Alliteration: Repetition of letter [W] at the beginning of words was, were, Winston, and wind.

Alliteration: Repetition of letter [V] at the beginning of words victory, and vile.

Assonance: The same vowel and different consonants in words bright and strike.

The hallway smelt boiled cabbage and old rag mat. His flat was seven flights up. Because of varicose ulcer above his right ankle, he rested several times on the way, and each time the face of Big Brother stared at him from the poster tacked on the wall.

Alliteration: Repetition of letter [F] at the beginning of words flat, flight, face and from.

Assonance: the same consonants and different vowel in words flat and flight.

Assonance: the same vowel and different consonants in words flight and right or mat and flat.

Outside the window, the bluebottles signaled the Thought Police. From the Victory Mansion four ministries were visible. Ministry of Truth where Winston worked in, and on whose pyramid body three slogans (War is peace, Freedom is slavery, and Ignorance is strength) were written, was considered with war, Ministry of Love, entangled with steel doors, and barbed wires, maintained law and order, and Ministry of Plenty was responsible for economic affairs.

Alliteration: Repetition of letter [P] at the beginning of words police, pyramid, peace, and plenty.

Alliteration: Repetition of letter [M] at the beginning of words mansion, ministry, and maintain.

He drank a sip of Victory Gin. His face turned scarlet, and water ran out of his eyes. The next moment the burning in his belly died down and the world began to look more cheerful. He went to the living room, from the drawer took out a blank book, a little yellowed by age, a kind that hadn’t been manufactured for at least forty years, and a pen, an archaic instrument. Considering he is being watched through the telescreen, a tremor had gone through his bowel.

Alliteration: Repetition of letter [b] at the beginning of words burn, belly, blank, book, been, being, bowel.

Alliteration: Repetition of letter [T] at the beginning of words turn, took, telescreen, tremor.

Assonance: the same consonants and different vowel in words blank and book or little and least.

Assonance: the same vowel and different consonants in words turn and burn or kind and died.

4.1.5 Time and Place: This part focuses on the time when the ST was written and the place where it was written.

Orwell wrote 1984 just after World War II ended, wanting it to serve as a warning to his readers. He wanted to be certain that the kind of future presented in the novel should never come to pass, even though the practices that contribute to the development of such a state were abundantly present in Orwell's time.

Orwell lived during a time in which tyranny was a reality in Spain, Germany, the Soviet Union, and other countries, where government kept an iron fist (or curtain) around its citizens, where there was little, if any freedom, and where hunger, forced labour, and mass execution were common.

In 1984, the world is sliced into three political realms- the super states of Oceania, Eastasia, and Eurasia. Oceania's political structure is divided into three segments in its own right: the Inner Party, the ultimate ruling class, consisting of less than 2 percent of the population; the Outer Party, the educated workers, numbering around 18 to 19 percent of the population; and the Proles, or the proletariat, the working class. Although the Party (Inner and Outer) does not see these divisions as true "classes," it is clear that Orwell wants the reader to see the class distinctions. For a socialist such as Orwell, class distinctions mean the existence of conflict and class struggle. In Hitler's Germany and Stalin's Soviet Union, for example, the few people who comprised the ruling class had a much higher standard of living than the masses, but in these nations, as in 1984, revolt was all, but impossible.

4.2 Target Text Analysis

4-2-1- نوع متن : نثر در زبان فارسی به سه گونه تشریحی، توصیفی و اثباتی است.

در نثر تشریحی  آنچه را که دیده ایم و تجربه کرده ایم با تمام اجزا بی آنکه احساس و عاطفه خویش را دخالت دهیم، به دیگری منتقل می کنیم. ( گزارشی از صحنه جرم یا تولید کارخانه ) اگر در همین نوع نوشته، نویسنده احساسات و عواطف خویش را دخالت دهد و به نمایش زشتی ها و زیبائیها بپردازد و روح انسانی را در لا به لا و ورای رخدادها نشان بدهد، دست به نوشتن نثر توصیفی زده است. (توصیف یک رودخانه و صدای آن) از ویژگیهای نثر اثباتی ، دور شدن از برخورد عاطفی با مسائل است. راهنمای قلم در این نوع نثر، استدلال و مشاهده و تجربه است. مقاله های علمی نمونه ایی ازنثر اثباتی اند. (ثروت، 1374)

ترجمه 1984 از نوع توصیفی است که درآن مترجم حالات درونی شخصیت های داستان را به پیروی از متن مبدا، بخوبی به تصویر می کشد و زشتیها، ناملایمات و اختناق سیاسی حاکم بر جامعه را با استفاده از واژگان مناسب بیان می کند. 

بخشی از ترجمه 1984 :

وینستون درب بطری "جین پیروزی " را باز کرد و مانند دارو آن را سر کشید. بلا فاصله صورتش به سرخی گرایید و اشک از چشمهایش سرازیر شد. مانند اسید نیتریک بود و تازه وقتی آن را قورت می دادی گویی با گرز پلاستیکی به پشت سرت کوبیده باشند . اما لحظه ایی بعد سوزش درون معده اش برطرف شد و ....


4-2-2- سبک متن: سبک در اصطلاح به معنای روش بیان و طرز تعبیر است .نثر زبان فارسی دارای سه سبک است: مرسل، موزون (مسجع/آهنگین) و فنی (متکلف/مصنوع ادبی).

منظور از نثر مرسل، نثری است که از هرگونه صنایع لفظی و معنوی ادبی و وزن و متعلقات آن خالی و درست نقطه مقابل شعر باشد. نثر مرسل جز ایفاد منظور قلبی هدفی نداردو بر شیوه زبان گفتگو مبتنی است. سادگی و صراحت و استفاده از زبان محاوره عینا در این شیوه قابل رویت است. منظور از نثر موزون، نوعی از نثر آهنگدار است که در آن کلام گوینده به بندهای کوتاه چند هجایی متساوی و قافیه دار و گاه بی قافیه تقسیم می گردد. این نوع نثر را می توان در آثار خواجه عبدالله انصاری یافت. نثر مصنوع ، مزین به امثال و اشعار و شواهد پارسی و عربی و آیات و احادیث است. کلیله و دمنه از این نوع نثر است. (ثروت، 1374)

با توجه به آنچه گفته شد، می توان یافت که سبک نثر مترجم ، مرسل است. مترجم سعی کرده است با استفاده از لغات و عبارات ساده ، حوادث داستان را بیان کند. عباراتی که زیر آنها خط کشیده شده، سادگی بیان مترجم و محاوره ائی بودن آن را نشان می دهند.

در راهرو بوی کلم پخته و حصیر کهنه می آمد.

وینستون به صفحه سسخنگو پشت کرد. این طوری مطمئن تر بود.

هرگز نمی توانستی سردر بیاوری که پلیس افکار ،از چه طریقی ....

وینستون تا به حال به وزارت عشق نرفته بود و حتی از پانصد متری اش هم رد نشده بود.


4-2-3- هدف متن (ترجمه) : ترجمه می تواند سه هدف داشته باشد: دنبال کردن هدف نویسنده، ایجاد ارتباط با خواننده و تحمیل اطلاعات بیشتر از سوی مترجم که به ترتیب برگردان نویسنده مدار، برگردان خواننده مدار و برگردان مترجم مدار نام دارد. منظور از تر جمه نویسنده مدار، همان ترجمه معنایی و منظور از ترجمه خواننده مدار، ترجمه ارتباطی است. (صفوی ،1371)

از طرفی ترجمه 1984، هدف نویسنده را دنبال می کند،به معنای بافتی اهمیت می دهد، نسبت به متن مبدا پیچیده و دارای تفصیل است و از طرف دیگر به خوبی با خواننده ارتباط برقرار می کند. یعنی دنبال کردن فرایند فکری نویسنده مانع از ایجاد ارتباط با خواننده نمی شود. بنابراین، ترکیبی از ترجمه معنایی و ارتباطی (نویسنده مدار و خواننده مدار) است.

4-2-4- تاثیرات آوایی: تاثیرات آوایی مورد نظر در متن مقصد واج آرایی و هماوایی هستند. واج آرایی به معنای چند واژه نزدیک به هم است که با حروف هم آوا آغاز می شوند. هماوایی: به معنای همگونی واکه ایی یا تجانس است. (فرهنگ جامع پیشرو آریان پور) 

یکی از روزهای بسیار سرد ماه آوریل بود و ساعت ها با نواختن سیزده ضربه ، ساعت یک را اعلام می نموند. وینستون اسمیت از میان باد سرد موذی ،  به درون عمارت پیروزی خزید.

واج آرایی: تکرار حرف (س) درابتدای واژه های سرد، ساعت و سیزده.

 هماوایی: در واژه های ساعت و عمارت.


در راهرو بوی کلم پخته و حصیر کهنه می آمد. آپارتمان وینستون در طبقه هفتم قرار داشت. چون بالای قوزک پایش دچار زخم واریسی بود، چند بار در بین راه نفس تازه کرد. و هر بار چهره برادر بزرگ از تصویری که به دیوار نصب شده بود، خیره به او نگاه می کرد.

واج آرایی: تکرار حرف (ک) درابتدای واژه های کلم ، کهنه و تکرار حرف (چ) در ابتدای واژه های چند و چهره. هماوایی: در واژه های پخته و کهنه/ چهره و خیره.


او جین پیروزی را سر کشید. بلا فاصله صورتش به سرخی گرایید و اشک از چشمهایش سرازیر شد. اما لحظه ایی بعد ، سوزش درون معده اش برطرف شد و همه چیز رنگی زیبا به خود گرفت. او به اتاق نشیمن رفت ، از کشوی میز کتابچه سفیدی بیرون آورد که بر اثر مرور زمان کمی زرد شده بود، از آن نوعی بود که بیش از چهل سال ،دیگر تولید نمی شد... به دلشوره افتاد.

واج آرایی: تکرار حرف (س) درابتدای واژه های سر، سرخ، سرازیر، سوزش، سفید، و سال.

هما وایی: در واژه های بعد و زرد.


4-2-5- زمان و مکان : ترجمه رمان 1984 در زمانی خوانده می شود که برخی از مردم ایران جنگ را درک کرده اند و دیگران به مدد رسانه ها  تصویر روشنی از آن دارند. بدین ترتیب وضعیت اسف بار بعد از جنگ شخصیت های داستان را بخوبی درک و با آنها همدردی می کنند.اما وضعیت سیاسی ایران با نظام خودکامه و مارکسیستی حاکم بر داستان بسیار تفاوت دارد ومخاطبان داستانهای سیاسی در مقایسه با دیگر ژانرها کم هستند و همین مساله کار مترجم را سخت می کند. اگرمترجم نتواند در چند صفحه اول مخاطب را با فضای داستان مانوس کند ، نیمی از آنها کتاب را رها می کنند و به سراغ داستان های نوشته شده در ژانر دیگر و به زبان خودشان می روند.

5. Discussion: Now it is time to compare the source and target text to test the adequacy of the final translation.

The type of ST is expressive in which the mind of the writer plays the essential role. The writer tries to show himself, his thought and feeling through the text which he creates. TT is توصیفی which has the same function as that of expressive text. It shows feeling, ideas, beauties, etc, but based on what the writer has rendered. It is according to the table 2.1 in which the aesthetic dimension of (literary) language is translated by adopting the perspective of ST writer.

The style of ST is narrative in which a set of events happen in different places and times with their own special meaning (message). TT is مرسل  which aims at conveying the meaning of original events (message) as easy as possible. Therefore, سبک مرسل  can be a good substitution for the narrative style in literary texts.

The intention of the ST is expressed explicitly, implicitly, ironically and paradoxically. The translator has tried to follow this pattern as much as possible. TT is a semantic-communicative translation whose aim is to respect both the TR and source writer as much as they don’t destroy each other’s fade borderline.

The sound effect in ST is intentional in most parts especially those expressed in part 4.1.4. But, it seems to be accidental in TT or when there’s such an effect it doesn’t follow the original pattern. But it affects the TR acceptably.

The time when the original text was written is different from the time it is read, but the translator has been successful in putting the reader in that context and making him/her think and react.

The above factors in translation are faithful to the form and content of the original and transfer acceptable, if not total understanding from the ST to the TT. Therefore, they affect the TR as that of SR and this translation is considered to be an adequate one.

6. Conclusion: Paying deserved attention to the text type, text style, sound effects, intention, time and place of the ST affects the quality of the final translation of literary works. Such a translation affects the TR as that of SR and is considered to be an adequate one. In literary translation which is mainly formed based, the aesthetic dimension of language is very important and translator should follow the perspective adopted by the ST writer (semantic translation) to preserve the aesthetic dimension. But in the translation of literary-political works, which are hard to understand, the translator should pay attention to the TR, as well to be able to communicate with him/her. Therefore, in translation of such texts there’s only a fade borderline between semantic and communicative translation. But sure there’s no place for the translator-oriented translation.


House, J. (2009). Translation. Oxford: Oxford UP.

Miremadi, S.A. (2004). Theories of translation and interpretation. Tehran: SAMT.

Munday, J. (2001). Introducing translation studies: theories and applications. NY: Routledge.

Newmark, P. (1988). A textbook of translation. UK: Prentice Hall.

Rahimi, A. (2008). Roadmap to meaning: fine-tune your translation skills. Tehran: Jungle Publication.

Orwell, G. (1950). 1984. NY: New American Library.


صفوی، کوروش. هفت گفتار درباره ترجمه. تهران: نشر مرکز، 1371،ص 71.

ثروت، منصور. نگارش فارسی. تهران: انتشارات دانشگاه پیام نور،1374،صص 74-68 .

بلوچ، حمید رضا. 1984. تهران: انتشارات گهبد، 1383. صص 34-17.

Published - May 2010

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