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An epiglotto-pharyngeal consonant is a newly reported
type of consonant,
articulated with the epiglottis
against the back wall of the pharynx.
This contrasts with the pharyngeal
consonants, where the root of the tongue contacts the
back wall of the pharynx, and prototypical epiglottal
consonants, where the aryepiglottic
folds contact the epiglottis.
Epiglotto-pharyngeal consonants have been reported (and
videotaped) in one language, the Formosan
which has an aspirated stop and, apparently, a fricative
as phrase-final allophones
of its (ary)epiglottal consonants. The International
Phonetic Alphabet does not have diacritics to distinguish
these sounds from the epiglottals; the discoverers used
the ad hoc and somewhat misleading transcriptions
They are also said to occur in the Tsez
language of southwestern Dagestan.
on the articulation, with photos (pdf)
- Maddieson, Ian; & Wright, Richard. (1995). The vowels
and consonants of Amis: A preliminary phonetic report.
In I. Maddieson (Ed.), UCLA working papers in phonetics:
Fieldwork studies of targeted languages III (No. 91,
pp. 45-66). Los Angeles: The UCLA Phonetics Laboratory
Published - November 2008