Functional grammar Linguistics translation jobs
Home More Articles Join as a Member! Post Your Job - Free! All Translation Agencies

Functional grammar

Become a member of at just $12 per month (paid per year)

Functional Grammar is a model of grammar motivated by functions. The model was originally developed by Simon C. Dik at the University of Amsterdam in the 1970s, and has undergone several revisions ever since. The latest standard version under the original name is laid out in the two-volume 1997 edition[1], published shortly after Dik's tragic death of cancer. The latest incarnation features the expansion of the model with a pragmatic/interpersonal module by Kees Hengeveld and Lachlan Mackenzie[2]. This has led to a renaming of the theory to "Functional Discourse Grammar". This type of grammar is quite distinct from systemic functional grammar as developed by Michael Halliday and many other linguists since the 1970s.


The notion of "function" in FG generalizes the standard distinction of grammatical functions such as subject and object. Constituents (parts of speech) of a linguistic utterance are assigned three types or levels of functions:

  1. Semantic function (Agent, Patient, Recipient, etc.), describing the role of participants in states of affairs or actions expressed
  2. Syntactic functions (Subject and Object), defining different perspectives in the presentation of a linguistic expression
  3. Pragmatic functions (Theme and Tail, Topic and Focus), defining the informational status of constituents, determined by the pragmatic context of the verbal interaction

See also


  • Hengeveld, Kees and Lachlan Mackenzie, Functional Discourse Grammar: a typologically-based theory of language structure, 2008
  • Functional grammar home page
  • Dik, SC, The Theory of Functional Grammar (Part I: The Structure of the clause), 1989
  • Hurford, J. (1990) Nativist and functional explanations in language acquisition. In I. M. Roca (ed.), Logical Issues in Language Acquisition, 85-136. Foris, Dordrecht.


Published - November 2008

Information from Wikipedia is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License

Submit your article!

Read more articles - free!

Read sense of life articles!

E-mail this article to your colleague!

Need more translation jobs? Click here!

Translation agencies are welcome to register here - Free!

Freelance translators are welcome to register here - Free!

Free Newsletter

Subscribe to our free newsletter to receive news from us:

Recommend This Article
Read More Articles
Search Article Index
Read Sense of Life Articles
Submit Your Article
Obtain Translation Jobs
Visit Language Job Board
Post Your Translation Job!
Register Translation Agency
Submit Your Resume
Find Freelance Translators
Buy Database of Translators
Buy Database of Agencies
Obtain Blacklisted Agencies
Advertise Here
Use Free Translators
Use Free Dictionaries
Use Free Glossaries
Use Free Software
Vote in Polls for Translators
Read Testimonials
Read More Testimonials
Read Even More Testimonials
Read Yet More Testimonials
And More Testimonials!
Admire God's Creations

christianity portal
translation jobs


Copyright © 2003-2023 by
Legal Disclaimer
Site Map