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In phonetics, labiodentals are consonants articulated with the lower lip and the upper teeth. The labiodental consonants identified by the International Phonetic Alphabet are:
- [ɱ] is an allophone of /m/ that occurs before /v/ and /f/.
- The stops (the plosives and the nasal ɱ) are not confirmed to exist as separate phonemes in any language. They are sometimes written as ȹ ȸ (qp and db monograms).
- This applies only to the XiNkuna dialect of Tsonga where it is a separate phoneme (with aspirated and unaspirate allophones in free variation. Please note these differ from the German bilabial-labiodental affricate which commences with a bilabial p.
- Again, found only in the XiNkuna dialect.
- Varies considerably between dialects. In some cases it's similar to the velar fricative [x].
This table contains phonetic
information in IPA,
which may not display correctly in some browsers.
Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents
consonant. Shaded areas denote pulmonic articulations
judged to be impossible.
Published - November 2008