Velarization Linguistics translation jobs
Home More Articles Join as a Member! Post Your Job - Free! All Translation Agencies
Advertisements

Velarization


Become a member of TranslationDirectory.com at just $8 per month (paid per year)




Velarization is a secondary articulation of consonants by which the back of the tongue is raised toward the velum during the articulation of the consonant. In the International Phonetic Alphabet, velarization is transcribed by one of three diacritics:

Historical sound change
General
Metathesis
Dissimilation
Fortition
Lenition (weakening)
Sonorization (voicing)
Spirantization (assibilation)
Rhotacism (change of [z] to [r])
L-vocalization (change of [l] to [w])
Debuccalization (loss of place)
Elision (loss)
Apheresis (initial)
Syncope (medial)
Apocope (final)
Haplology (similar syllables)
Fusion
Cluster reduction
Compensatory lengthening
Epenthesis (addition)
Anaptyxis (vowel)
Excrescence (consonant)
Prosthesis (initial)
Paragoge (final)
Unpacking
Vowel breaking
Assimilation
Coarticulation
Palatalization (before front vowels)
Velarization (before back vowels)
Labialization (before rounded vowels)
Initial voicing (before a vowel)
Final devoicing (before silence)
Vowel harmony
Consonant harmony
Cheshirisation (trace remains)
Nasalization
Tonogenesis
Floating tone
Sandhi (boundary change)
Crasis (contraction)
Liaison, linking R
Consonant mutation
Tone sandhi
Hiatus
  1. A tilde or swung dash through the letter covers both velarization and pharyngealization, as in [ɫ] (the velarized equivalent of [l])
  2. A superscript gamma <ˠ> after the letter standing for the velarized consonant, as in [tˠ] (the velarized equivalent of [t])
  3. A superscript double-u <ʷ> indicates either simultaneous velarization and labialization, as in [sʷ], or labialization of a velar consonant, as in [kʷ].

Although electropalatographic studies have shown that there is a continuum of possible degrees of velarization,[1] the IPA offers no way to indicate degrees of velarization, for this difference has not been found to be contrastive in any language.

The velarized alveolar lateral approximant (or dark l) of many accents of English is an example of a velarized consonant.

In many languages, including Irish and Russian, velarized consonants contrast phonemically with palatalized consonants. The palatalized/velarized contrast is known by other names, especially in language pedagogy: in Irish language teaching, the terms slender (for palatalized) and broad (for velarized) are often used, while in Russian language teaching, the terms soft (for palatalized) and hard (for velarized) are usual. The terms light (for palatalized) and dark (for velarized) are also widespread. For many languages, velarization is generally associated with more dental articulations of coronal consonants so that dark l tends to be dental or dentoalveolar while clear l tends to be retracted to an alveolar position.[2]

In some accents of English, such as Received Pronunciation, the phoneme /l/ has "dark" and "light" allophones: the "dark" allophone appears in syllable coda position (e.g. in full), while the "light" allophone ("light" meaning "non-velarized" rather than "palatalized" here) appears in syllable onset position (e.g. in lawn). Other accents of English, such as Scottish English and Australian English, have "dark L" in all positions, while Hiberno-English has "clear L" in all positions.

Notes

References

  • Recasens, Daniel & Maria Dolores. Pallares (1995), "Velarization degree and coarticulatory resistance for /l/ in Catalan and German", Journal of Phonetics 23: 37-52
  • Recasens, Daniel & Aina Espinosa (2005), "Articulatory, positional and coarticulatory characteristics for clear /l/ and dark /l/: evidence from two Catalan dialects", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 35 (1): 1-25



Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Velarization

Published - November 2008




Information from Wikipedia is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License








Submit your article!

Read more articles - free!

Read sense of life articles!

E-mail this article to your colleague!

Need more translation jobs? Click here!

Translation agencies are welcome to register here - Free!

Freelance translators are welcome to register here - Free!








Please see some ads as well as other content from TranslationDirectory.com:


Free Newsletter

Subscribe to our free newsletter to receive news from us:

 
Menu
Recommend This Article
Read More Articles
Search Article Index
Read Sense of Life Articles
Submit Your Article
Obtain Translation Jobs
Visit Language Job Board
Post Your Translation Job!
Register Translation Agency
Submit Your Resume
Find Freelance Translators
Buy Database of Translators
Buy Database of Agencies
Obtain Blacklisted Agencies
Advertise Here
Use Free Translators
Use Free Dictionaries
Use Free Glossaries
Use Free Software
Vote in Polls for Translators
Read Testimonials
Read More Testimonials
Read Even More Testimonials
Read Yet More Testimonials
And More Testimonials!
Admire God's Creations

christianity portal
translation jobs


 

 
Copyright © 2003-2019 by TranslationDirectory.com
Legal Disclaimer
Site Map