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Palatal consonant


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Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth). Consonants with the tip of the tongue curled back against the palate are called retroflex.

Places of
articulation

 • Labial
Bilabial
Labial-velar
Labial-alveolar
Labiodental

 • Bidental

 • Coronal
Linguolabial
Interdental
Dental
Denti-alveolar
Alveolar
Apical
Laminal
Postalveolar
Alveolo-palatal
Retroflex

 • Dorsal
Palatal
Labial-palatal
Velar
Uvular
Uvular-epiglottal

 • Radical
Pharyngeal
Epiglotto-pharyngeal
Epiglottal

 • Glottal

The most common type of palatal consonant is the extremely common approximant [j], which ranks as overall, among the ten most common sounds in the world's languages. The nasal ɲ is also common, occurring in around 35 percent of the world's languages[1], in most of which its equivalent obstruent is not the plosive c, but the affricate . Only a few languages in northern Eurasia, the Americas and central Africa contrast palatal plosives with postalveolar affricates - the only common ones being Hungarian, Czech, Slovak and Albanian.

Warning: the IPA symbols <c, ɟ> are commonly used, not for palatal stops, but for the palatalized velar stops [kʲ, ɡʲ], or the palatal affricates [c͡ç, ɟ͡ʝ], or the alveolopalatal affricates [t͡ɕ, d͡ʑ], or even the postalveolar affricates [t͡ʃ, d͡ʒ]. This is an old IPA tradition. True palatal stops are relatively uncommon, so it is a good idea to verify the pronunciation whenever you see <c, ɟ> in the transcription of a language.

Consonants with other primary articulations may be palatalised, that is, accompanied by the raising of the tongue surface towards the hard palate. For example, English [ʃ] (spelled sh) has such a palatal component, although its primary articulation involves the tip of the tongue and the upper gum (this type of articulation is called palatoalveolar). The palatal consonants identified by the International Phonetic Alphabet are:

IPA Description Example
Langu-age Ortho-graphy IPA Mea-
ning
palatal nasal palatal nasal French agneau [aɲo] lamb
voiceless palatal plosive voiceless palatal plosive Hunga-
rian
hattyú [c ː] swan
voiceless palatal plosive voiced palatal plosive Margi ɟaɗí [ɟaɗí] hump of a cow
voiceless palatal fricative voiceless palatal fricative German nicht [çt] not
voiced palatal fricative voiced palatal fricative Spanish yema [ʝema] egg yolk
palatal approximant palatal approximant English yes [jɛs] yes
palatal lateral approximant palatal lateral approximant Italian gli [ʎi] the (masculine plural)
voiced palatal implosive voiced palatal implosive Swahili hujambo [huʄ ambo] hello

Notes

  1. ^ Ian Maddieson (with a chapter contributed by Sandra Ferrari Disner); Patterns of sounds; Cambridge University Press, 1984. ISBN 0-521-26536-3

References

See also

Consonants

Consonants

Consonants


This table contains phonetic information in IPA, which may not display correctly in some browsers.
Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a voiced consonant. Shaded areas denote pulmonic articulations judged to be impossible.

 



Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Palatal

Published - November 2008




Information from Wikipedia is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License








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