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Glottal consonant


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Glottal consonants are consonants articulated with the glottis. Many phoneticians consider them, or at least the so-called fricatives, to be transitional states of the glottis without a point of articulation as other consonants have; in fact, some do not consider them to be consonants at all. However, the glottal stop at least behaves as a typical consonant in languages such as Tsou.

Places of articulation

 • Labial
Bilabial
Labial-velar
Labial-alveolar
Labiodental

 • Bidental

 • Coronal
Linguolabial
Interdental
Dental
Denti-alveolar
Alveolar
Apical
Laminal
Postalveolar
Alveolo-palatal
Retroflex

 • Dorsal
Palatal
Labial-palatal
Velar
Uvular
Uvular-epiglottal

 • Radical
Pharyngeal
Epiglotto-pharyngeal
Epiglottal

 • Glottal

Glottal consonants in the International Phonetic Alphabet:

IPA Description Example
Langu-age Ortho-graphy IPA Mea-ning
voiceless glottal stop voiceless glottal stop Hawaiian okina [ʔo.ˈki.na] ‘okina
'breathy breathy voiced glottal "fricative" Czech Praha [pra.ɦa] Prague
'voiceless voiceless glottal "fricative" English hat [hæt] hat

The "fricatives" are not true fricatives. This is a historical usage of the word. They instead represent transitional states of the glottis (phonation) without a specific place of articulation. [h] is a voiceless transition. [ɦ] is a breathy-voiced transition, and could be transcribed as [h̤].

The glottal stop occurs in many languages. Often all vocalic onsets are preceded by a glottal stop, for example in German. The Hawaiian language writes the glottal stop as an opening single quote . Some alphabets use diacritics for the glottal stop, such as hamza <ء> in the Arabic alphabet; in many languages of Mesoamerica, the Latin letter <h> is used for glottal stop.

Because the glottis is necessarily closed for the glottal stop, it cannot be voiced.

See also

References

Consonants

Consonants

Consonants


This table contains phonetic information in IPA, which may not display correctly in some browsers.
Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a voiced consonant. Shaded areas denote pulmonic articulations judged to be impossible.

 



Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glottal_consonant

Published - November 2008




Information from Wikipedia is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License








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