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The expanded system of the coordinated dictionaries and its using for universal semantic coding and translation of the polysemous source text (Appendices)


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Universal semantic coding

Universal semantic coding (continuation)

Universal semantic coding (Appendices)

Читайте также версию на русском языке

 (Appendices)

(examples of coding and translation, fragments of coordinated dictionary entries)

App. 1. The phrases containing the polysemantic words.

App. 2. The phrases containing the polysemantic set expressions and the set expressions characterized by the structural formula with variable lexical components.

App. 3. The coding and translation with using the differentiated (morphological) meanings of the verbal forms.

App. 4. The coding and translation with using the differentiated (morphological) meanings of pronouns.

 

Fragments of the coordinated dictionary entries contain a following designation symbols:

c.e.d. – the coordinated explanatory dictionary of source language;

c.b.d. - the coordinated bilingual dictionary of source language – target language;

ill.e. - the illustrative examples reflecting the different use of the words at those or other semantic meanings;

c.w.  - contextual word; c.w.* - the concrete contextual word which the author should mark in the source text (in cases concerning the identification of syntactic links); 

morphm - the sections of differentiated (morphological) meanings;

(syntaxm) - the sections of differentiated (syntactic) meanings.

The some examples contain both the machine translations based on universal semantic coding (are designated by symbol ) and, for comparison, the usual machine translations (are designated by symbol ♦♦).

For brevity, the variants of semantic meanings are separated from each other by a symbol /.

 

App.1. The phrases containing the polysemantic words.

Examples with the Russian’s source texts (the fragments of dictionary entries from native c.e.d. [5] and from the c.b.d.(s) [8,10,13]).
1.
The source text:
Его вид оставлял желать много лучшего.

Russian c.e.d.

вид I 1 пейзаж, перспектива  2 наружность

  3 состояние (в неисправном виде …) 4 поле зрения 

5 намерения, предположения

вид II 1 разновидность; биол.

Russian – English c.b.d.

вид I 1 пейзаж … view  2 наружн appearance, look  

3 состояние … state, condition 4 поле зрения sight 5 наме… prospect(s)

вид II 1 разновидность form kind, sort; биол. species 

он, его, ему, им, о нём, … указывает на лицо, не являющ. ни говорящим, ни собеседн., или на неодуш. предм. речи [5]

(morphm) (а) ~ указывает на лицо (b) ~ указывает на предм. речи (о вещи, явлении и т.п.)

он, … he; it

(morphm) (а) ~ he

(b) ~ it

оставлять … <> оставляет желать лучшего

оставлять<> оставл… leaves much to be desired

In a context the matter concerns the appearance of person; the author marks:

- in entry of word вид I – the meaning 2 concerning appearance,

- in entry of pronoun он, его, ему  - the meaning (morphm) (а) concerning person,

- at last, in entry of verb оставлять – the set expression оставляет желать лучшего.

As a result, the following coded text and its machine translation is received:

Его{он, его, … (morphm) (а)}  вид{вид I 2. наружность} <оставлял{оставлять … <>   оставляет желать лучшего} желать много лучшего>.

(the translation into English):

His appearance has left much to be desired. 

♦♦ His (its) kind(?) has left to wish much the best.

For comparison: the usual program of MT does not give the definite translation of a pronoun его, and also uses the meaning of a homonym вид II which is not concerning appearance.

2. The source texts: Суд оправдал его.

 Их ожидания успешного старта не оправдались.

Russian c.e.d.

оправд|ывать, -ать (вн.) 1. доказывать чью-л. правоту  2. о подсудимом

Russian – English c.b.d.

оправд|ывать, -ать (вн.) 1. доказывать чью-л. правоту justify 2. о подсудимом acquit, judge not guilty

оправд|ываться, -аться 1. доказать свою невиновность … 2. оказываться правильным, пригодным, подтверждаться, сбываться; теория ~ алась; эти надежды не ~ ались

оправд|ываться, -аться 1. доказать … justify oneself

2. оказываться … prove to be correct, come true; теория the theory proved to be correct; эти надежды … these hopes were not realized.

The author marks:

- in entry of verb оправд|ывать - the meaning 2 concerning accused,

- in entry of pronoun он  - the meaning (morphm) (а) concerning person,

- at last, in entry of verb оправд|ываться - the meaning 2 concerning reality and ill.e. эти надежды не ~ ались.

As a result, the following coded sentences are received:

Суд оправдал{оправд|ывать … (вн.) 2. о подсудимом} его{он, его, ему… (morphm) (а) ~ указывает на лицо}.

Их ожидания не оправдались{оправд|ываться … 2. эти надежды не ~ ались}.

(the translation into English):

The court has acquitted him. Their expectations of successful start were not realized. 

♦♦ The court has justified it (him)(?). Their expectations of successful start were not justified(?).

For comparison:

- the usual program of MT uses while translating the second sentence the other meaning of word оправд|ывать not corresponding to the sense of context;

- as well as in the previous example, the usual program of MT does not give the definite translation of a pronoun он, его ...

Examples with the English’s source texts (the fragments of dictionary entries from native c.e.d.(s) [6,7] and from the c.b.d.(s) [8,13,15]).
1.
The source text: The new device merits notice. Their projects were realized.

English c.e.d.

notice n 1 intimation … attention 

5 critique 

English – Russian c.b.d.

notice n 1 intimation извещ., уведомл.; предупреждение … 4 attention внимание 5 critique критич. отзыв

realize v 1 be aware of; grasp mentally; to ~ fully 2 convert into fact …

realize v 1 be aware of осозн|авать, -ать; понимать ясно, во всех деталях; grasp mentally сообра|жать, -зить; to ~ fully хорошо  пред-ставлять себе 2 convert into fact осуществ|лять, -ить

The author marks depending on context the different meanings of word notice and the one of meanings of word realize:

The new device merits notice{notice n... 4 attention / 5 critique}. Their projects were realized{realize v... 2 convert}.

(the translation into Russian):

♦ Новое устройство заслуживает внимания  / критического отзыва. Их проекты были осуществлены.
♦♦ Новое устройство заслуживает
извещения (уведомления, предупреждения)(?). Их проекты были поняты(?).

For comparison: the usual program of MT chooses only the first meaning, without taking into account a sense of a context.

2. The source text: This article places primary emphasis upon physical conditions.

English c.e.d.

article n 1 particular or separate thing … 2 piece of writing: This article discusses…

English – Russian c.b.d.

article n 1 вещь, предмет 2 piece of … статья: This article… В этой статье обсуждается…

condition n state; pl., circumstances

cond n state состояние; pl., circumst… условия

place v stand; lay; identify; ~ emphasis on to make the special meaning …

place v stand ставить, по-; lay класть; identify определ|ять, -ить; ~ emphasis on придавать знач.

primary adj 1 original 2 fundamental, basic

prim adj 1 original исходный 2 fundam… основной

The author marks:

- ill.e. characterizing the using of word article with the meaning 2,

- the word-combination place emphasis on,

 - the likely meanings of words primary, condition (the word primary is wedged in the word-combination place emphasis on and doesn’t influence the allegorical meaning of a word-combination, but does impossible a machine search):

This article{article n 2 piece of writing …:This article discusses…}  <places{place v   ~ emphasis on} primary{primary adj 2 fundamental, basic} emphasis upon> physical conditions{condition n  pl., circumstances}.

  (the translation into Russian):

В этой статье основное значение придаётся физическим условиям.

♦♦ Эта статья (изделие(?)) помещает (размещает)   первичный акцент(?) в физические условия (состояния).

As we see, the usual program of MT executed the word-by-word translation.

3. The source text: The detection of trace components has always been a challenge to the analytical chemist.

English c.e.d.

challenge n. to a race etc.; sentry’s; … difficult, demanding or stimulating task

English – Russian c.b.d.

challenge n. to a race etc. вызов; sentry’s оклик; …difficult, demanding … сложная задача, проблема

 

The author marks depending on context the one of meanings of word challenge:

The detection of trace components has always been a challenge{challenge n. difficult } to the analytical chemist.

(the translation into Russian):

Обнаружение следов компонентов всегда было сложной задачей (проблемой) для аналитического химика.

♦♦ Обнаружение следов компонентов всегда было вызовом(?) аналитическому химику.

Examples with the Deutsch’s source text

The source text: Auf die Frage sei hier nicht eingegangen.

Deutsch c.e.d. [9,9*]

eingehen (Briefe, Gelder); auf j-n e. sich (intensiv) mit j-m etw. befassen (auf Details) <auf j-s Fragen, j-s Probleme>; auf j-n nicht e.: auf ein Thema nicht näher e.; auf Einzelheiten nicht e.; auf etw. e. etw. akzeptieren

(morphm)(imperf-v);(perf-v)

Deutsch-Russisch c.b.d. [14]

eingehen (Briefe, Gelder) поступ|ать,-ить (о почте); auf j-n e.  детально оста|навл.,-новиться, проя|влять,-вить вним.; auf j-n nicht e. оставл. что-л. без вним.: auf ein Thema nicht näher e. не остан. детально на этой теме; auf Einzelheiten nicht e. не вдав. в подробн.; auf etw. e. соглаш. с ч.-л.

(morphm) (несоверш); (соверш)

Having compared the source text with the dictionary entry in the Deutsch’s  c.e.d., the author has marked the structural formula of word-combination auf j-n nicht e.  and has marked the appropriate ill.e. of this word-combinationin other case, the author has marked the structural formula of word-combination  auf etw. e.; also author has marked the meaning (imperf-v) in the section (morphm): 

<Auf die Frage sei hier nicht eingegangen{einge... ~ auf j-n nicht e.: auf ein Thema nicht näher e. / auf etw. e.; (morphm)(imperf-v)}>

(the translations into Russian):

Не стоило здесь детально останавливаться на этом вопросе / признавать, соглашаться с этим вопросом 

♦♦ На вопрос здесь не поступил бы (На вопрос явился бы здесь не шедшим).

 As we see, the usual program of MT executed the word-by-word translation.

Examples with the Hebrew’s source texts (the fragments of dictionary entries from native c.e.d. [11**] and from the c.b.d.(s) [11, 11***])

Hebrew c.e.d. [11**] 

 מִבטֶא ז' 1 הגייה, אופי ההגייה של דובר לפי לשון אִמו וכד'

 2 ביטוי, צירוף מילים, מימרה, ניב

Hebrew-Russian c.b.d.  [11] 

1 выговор,מִבטֶא ז' произнош., акцент

2 выражение, идиома

Hebrew-English c.b.d.  [11***]

1 utterance, מִבטֶא ז' pronunciation

2 idiom expression,    

מִבטָח ז' 1 מַהסֶה, מקום בטוח  

2 בִטָחוֹן   

1 опора,  מִבטָח ז'  убежище

2 безопасность

1 fortress,  מִבטָח ז'  confidence, reliance, trust, faith 

2  security

מִבנֶה ז' 1 בנין, מקום בנוי 

2 צורה שבה דבר בנוי או מורכב

3 תבנית

1 сооруж.,     מִבנֶה ז'  

здание, стройка

2 конструкция, структура, дизайн

3 формат, строение 

1 building מִבנֶה ז'

build, construction, 2 structure, frame, design

3 format, formation

The author marks in the native c.e.d. those or other meanings of words depending on a context.

For brevity, the different phrases are separated from each other by a symbol //.

1. The source phrases containing the noun מִבטֶא:

עתיק. המשפט הזה הוא מִבטֶא מִבטֶא של האיש הזה …//  



(the translations into Russian and English using the marked meanings of the polysemantic noun מִבטֶא)

(1)Произношение (выговор) этого человека … // Эта фраза - древнее (2)выражение (идиома).

(1)Pronunciation of this man … // This phrase is an ancient (2)utterance )expression, idiom).

2. The source phrases containing the noun מִבטָח:  

הוא סמך על מִבטֶח ...//  אנחנו סומכים על מִבטָח



(the translations into Russian and English using the marked meanings of the polysemantic noun מִבטָח)

Он  рассчитывал на (1)убежище (опору) // Мы рассчитываем на (2)безопасность

He counted on (1)fortress (confidence, reliance, trust, faith) … // We count on (2)security

3. The source phrase containing the noun  מִבנֶה:   

 המִבנֶה הזה מתאים ל ...



(the translations into Russian and English using the marked meanings of the polysemantic noun  מִבנֶה)

Это (1)сооружение (здание, эта стройка) соответствует … // (2)Конструкция (структура, дизайн) соотв...

This (1)building corresponds to … // The (2)build (construction, structure, frame, design) corresp...

 

App. 2. Examples of coding and translation of the phrases containing the polysemantic set expressions and the set expressions characterized by the structural formula with variable lexical components.

It may, the given word, together with its some neighbouring words, represents a set expression. In order to translate such word-combination it is necessary to search the known word-combinations related to the given word. It is also possible that there is the structure with variable lexical components, which, although do not influence the allegorical meaning of a set expression, but complicate or do impossible a machine search. For example:

- some attributes or adverbial modifiers may have been wedged into the set expression, giving it a more specific meaning as a whole,

- or parenthetical words may have been added,

- variable components may have been added at the beginning or at the end of the set expression,

- those either other own words or their sequence have been changed, etc. [4]

In this connection, it is necessary to define which words belong to the set expression, to find the borders inside the phrase, to define the key word and, at last, to choose the meaning corresponding to the context. The author should also mark in the source text by special (bold) font the given word and other words which are a part of the word-combination (except for the wedged words), and, besides, author should designate by means of special boundary symbols the left and right bounds of the word-combination in the given sentence (for example, by angular brackets).

The polysemantic set expressions and them explanations are borrowed from [4]. 

1. The source phrases: This construction can give way. My brother has heard this news and began to give way.  If it is in reality a heart attack, his good mood can give way.

 

English c.e.d.

way n give ~ fail to resist; collapse; make concessions: The bridge gave ~ under the weight of the lorry; His health gave ~; The bashfulness of the guests soon gave ~ ; Something gave ~ in him, and words came welling up  

English-Russian c.b.d.

way n … give ~ fail to resist поддаваться; collapse рухнуть; make concessions уступать: The bridge … Мост рухнул под весом грузовика; His health … Его здоровье надломилось; The bashfulness … Застенчивость гостей быстро рассеялась; Something gave …Что-то прорвалось в нём, и слова посыпались одно за другим

The author has marked in the native English c.e.d. the set expression give way and has marked the following elements of dictionary entry:

- in the first sentence the matter concerns a state of construction, therefore author has marked the ill.e.  The bridge gave ~ under the weight of the lorry;

- in the second - a state of spirit of the person, therefore author has marked the meaning … give ~  make concessions;

- at last, in the third - a state of health of the person, therefore author has marked the ill.e.  His health gave ~ 

As a result, the following coded text and its machine translation is received:

This construction can <give way{way n... give ~: The bridge gave ~ under the weight of the lorry}>

My brother has heard this news and began to <give way{way n... give ~ make concessions}>

If it is in reality a heart attack, his good mood can <give way{way n... give ~: His health gave ~ }>.

(translations into Russian):

Эта конструкция может рухнуть. Мой брат услышал эту новость и начал уступать. Если это действительно инфаркт, то его хорошее расположение духа может надломиться.
♦♦ Эта конструкция может уступить дорогу(?). Мой брат услышал эту новость и начал уступать дорогу. Если это действительно инфаркт, то его хорошее настроение может уступить дорогу(?).

From comparison follows, that the usual program of MT has executed the word-by-word translation of the all sentences.
2. The source text: I was compelled to dress on the run.

 He has caught a bus already on the run. 

 English c.e.d.

run  n  1 action of ~ning; … on the ~ (a) fleeing from pursuit or capture; (b) continuously active and moving about …: She has been on the ~ all morning; She grabbed her coat on the ~ and raced after them; They scrambled down the embankment and caught a streetcar on the ~

English-Russian c.b.d.

run   n  1 action of ~ning бег…; on the ~ (a) fleeing … в бегстве; (b) continuously … в движ., в беготне, в суете, на бегу, в спешке, на ходу: She has been… Она была в бегах всё утро; She grabbed … Она схватила на бегу пальто и бросилась за ними вдогонку; They scrambled …Они сбежали с насыпи и на ходу вскочили в трамвай

The author has marked the set expression on the run and has marked the following elements of dictionary entry:

- in the first sentence the matter concerns a movement of the person, therefore author has marked the ill.e.on the ~ (b): She grabbed …;

- in the second - a movement of a vehicle, therefore author has marked the ill.e.on the ~ (b): They… caught a streetcar

As a result, the following coded text and its machine translation is received:

I was compelled to dress <on the run{run n... on the ~ (b): She grabbed her coat on the ~ and raced …}>.

He has caught a bus already <on the run{run n ... on the ~ (b): They scrambled down … and caught a streetcar on the ~}>.

(translations into Russian):

♦ Я был вынужден одеваться на бегу. Он вскочил в автобус уже на ходу.
♦♦ Я был вынужден одеваться на пробеге. Он вскочил в автобус уже на пробеге(?).

As we see, the result is similar to the previous example.

The following three examples concern the set expressions characterized by the structural formula with variable lexical components.

3. The source text: … sometimes I am inclined to think it was a great deal of cry for very little wool.  

English c.e.d.

cry n much ~ and little wool trouble; fuss; unnecessary activity

English-Russian c.b.d.

cry n much ~ and много шума из ничего; шума много, а толку мало…

The author has found in the dictionary entry cry n the idiom much cry and little wool; there are the deep differences between idiom and the source phrase both in lexical components and in word order (there are the wedging of other words). Then, the author has marked in the source phrase the words coincident with this idiom on sense:

… sometimes I am inclined to think it was <a great deal of cry{cry nmuch cry and little wool} for very little wool>.

(translations into Russian):

 ♦ … иногда я склонен думать, что было много шума из ничего или было шума много, а толку мало.
♦♦ …иногда, я склонен думать, что был большой крик об очень небольшом количестве шерсти(?).

From comparison follows, that the usual program of MT hasn’t  defined, that the some words in the given phrase belong to this word-combination, and has only executed word-by-word translation.

4. The source text: They reached it at what seemed long last. 

English c.e.d.

reach v 1 attain, fetch with outstretched hand 2 arrive at

last nat (long) ~ in the end

English-Russian c.b.d.

reach v 1 attain, fetch with дотя|гиваться, - нуться 2 arrive at достиг|ать, - нуть

last  nat long ~ in the end в конце концов, наконец.

The author has found in the dictionary entry last n the word-combination at (long) last, in word order of which there are the other words “what seemed”. Then, the author has marked in the source phrase the words coincident with this word-combination:

They reached{reach v... 2 arrive at} it <at what seemed long last{last n... at (long) ~}>.

(translations into Russian):

♦ В конце концов или наконец, они, как кажется, достигли этого.
♦♦ Они достигли этого в том, что казалось долго последним(?).

As we see, the result is similar to the previous example.

5. The source text: There is something suspicious about it - where there is so much smoke, surely there must have been at least one spark of fire! (U. Sinclair, “The Brass Check”) [4].

English c.e.d.

smoke n   there’s no ~ without fire there is always some reason for a rumor

English-Russian c.b.d.

smoke n   there’s no ~ without fire нет дыма без огня

The author has found in the dictionary entry smoke n the word-combination there’s no ~ without fire [6];  there are also the deep differences between idiom and the source phrase both in lexical components and in word order (there are the wedging of other words). Then, the author has marked in the source phrase the words coincident with this idiom on sense:

There is something suspicious about it - where <there is so much smoke{smoke n there’s no ~ without fire}, surely there must have been at least one spark of fire>!

 (translations into Russian):

В этом есть кое-что подозрительное – конечно, где нет дыма без огня!

♦♦… где есть так много дыма, конечно, должно быть была по крайней мере одна искра огня!

As we see, the result is similar to the previous examples.

The all examples presented above have shown, that the usual program of MT may choose only one meaning of a polysemantic set expression; if the structural formula of an idiom has variable lexical components, the usual program carries out word-by-word translation.

App. 3. Examples of coding and translation with using the differentiated (morphological) meanings of the verbal forms.

Below are the examples of phrases in which the actions and /or the states, reached as a result of the actions, are expressed by words or group of words possessing a grammatical (morphological) ambiguity, for example, concerning the expressing of actions of Imperfective / of Perfective or concerning the expressing of actions which, in certain way, are finished / are continued etc. (i.e. it is possible to judge the character of the action and / or the state only from context).

At the same time, the specific grammatical forms of some verbs (participles) are used in the target language to express the shades of the meanings of the actions and / or the states required by the source context.

The author chooses, depending on a context, both a semantic meaning of a verb and a differentiated (morphological) meaning. The specified differentiated (morphological) meanings are presented in dictionary entry in the form of the separate section that follows those semantic word meanings to which this section is general. These sections have a symbolic designation (morphm) (an abbreviation of morphological meanings).

The Tables A, B contain, as a sample, fragments of the coordinated entries with some grammatical meanings of verbs write and писать; the references to these tables are in all examples.

 Table A

 English c.e.d.

write v ... make letters (symbols) on a surface (paper...)

English-Russian c.b.d.

write v ... make letters ... писать, на- …

(morphm) 1. Inf., Indef. T. (a) (imperf-ve): I shall write the letter tomorrow, but I am not sure that I finish it. (b) (perf-ve): I shall write the letter tomorrow, but I am not sure whether I shall have time to send it.

(morphm) 1. (a) (несоверш): Я буду писать письмо завтра, но

не уверен, что закончу его. (b) (соверш): Я напишу письмо

завтра, но не уверен, что успею отправить его.

2. passive form (a) (state): The article is (has been) written and can be published. (b) (action): The article

is written by means of me. (c) (imperf-ve) (d) (perf-ve)

2. страдат.: (a) (состояние): Статья написана и м.б. опубликована.   (b) (действие): Статью пишут (статья пишется) с моей помощью. 

(c) (несоверш.) (d) (соверш.)

3. should+Indef. Inf., Perf. Inf. (a) (indicative): You should have written this article. (b) (subjunctive): You should have at first written this article.

3. (a) (изъявит): Вам следовало написать эту статью. (b) (сослагат): Вам следовало бы сначала написать эту статью.

 Table B

Russian – English c.e.d.

писать, на-...Изобразить на поверхности …

(morphm) 1. (a) (неопред.): действ. без указания на его длит., законченность и безотносит. к другому действ., м-ту: Завтра я

буду писать этюды и, если хватит сил, закончу их.

Russian – English c.b.d.

писать, на- ... Изобраз write… 

(morphm) 1. (a) Indef. T.: I shall paint etudes tomorrow and I shall finish them if my energy will suffice.

(b) (длит.): незаконч. длит. действ., к-ое началось до опред. м-та в наст., прош., будущ.: Я буду писать статью в к-це года.

(b) Contin. T.: I shall be writing an article

at the end of year.

(c) (к опред. м-ту): действ. со|вершённое, за- к опред. м-ту в наст., прош., будущ.: Я написал письмо до того, как он приш.

(c) Perf. T.: I had written the letter before he arrived.

(d) (изв. дл-ти): действ., начавш. до опред. м-та в наст., прош., будущ. и длившееся изв. период врем., вкл. этот м-т: Я писал статью уже час, когда он приш.

(d) Perf. Contin. T.: I had been writing an article

for an hour when he came.

2. страдат. (a) (состояние): Статья написана и м.б. опубл.

(b) (действие, неопред.): Статьи обычно пишутся в библиотеке.

(c) (действие, длит.): Статья сейчас пишется. Редактору придется подождать.  

(d) (действие, к опред. м-ту): Статья только что написана с моей помощью. 

2. passive form (a) (state) Compound Predicate: The article is (has been) written and can be published.

(b) (action): Indef. Passive T.: Articles are usually written at library. (c) (action) Contin. Passive T.: The article is being written. The editor will have to wait.

(d) (action) Perf. Passive T.: The article have just been written with my help.

3. действие (маловероятное) в условном предлож. в сослагат. наклонении с частицей бы; время выполн. условия – в контексте

(a) (в наст.-будущ.): Если бы вы написали спецификацию, мы начали бы проект. Но вы не закончите скоро.

(b) (в прошл.): Если бы вы написали спецификацию, мы начали бы проект. Но вы до сих пор не закончили.

3. Conditional Sentence

(a) If you written (should write, were to write) specification, we should start the project. But we

shall not end soon.

(b) If we have written specification, we should have started the project. But we have not ended till now.

1) The phrases containing some grammatically ambiguous verbal forms in Active / Passive Voice, and also in Infinitive.

a) the meanings of verbal form in English (Table A); a verb, not having special grammatical forms of the imperfective or the perfective, expresses, in context, an action of imperfective or of perfective; this should be considered during translation, for example, into Russian, in which verbs have separate imperfective and perfective forms.

In the Passive Voice:

The encoded source text

The translations

The house will be built{build(morphm) 2.(c) (imperf-ve)} by company when we return and the garage won’t be ready.

♦ Дом будет строить ф. (будет -ся), когда мы вернемся, и гараж не будет готов.

The house will be built{build(morphm) 2.(d) (perf-ve)} by company when we return but the garage won’t be ready.  

♦ Дом будет  построен ф. (построит), когда мы вернёмся, но гараж ещё не будет готов

 

♦♦ … будет построен(in both sentences) 

The author has marked in the dictionary entry the meaning (imperf-ve) or (perf-ve) to characterize the actions in the beginning of the sentence, depending on character of state in the end of the sentence.

As we see, the sense may be defined by means of comparison the states of house and garage at the moment of returning:

  “… and the garage won’t be ready” (i.e. the house also won’t be ready)

  “… but the garage won’t be ready” (i.e. only the garage won’t be ready).

The meanings (imperf-ve), (perf-ve) directly specify the actions or states in the future. The usual program of MT uses only one of verbal forms.

In Infinitive:

- in English [6,7,8]

How to cross{cross v(morphm) 1.(a) (imperf-ve) / (b) (perf-ve)} these rivers is the question

Вопрос в том, как 1.(a) переправ|ляться / как (b)

  -иться через эти реки.

<To add{add v 1 ~ luster to(morphm) 1.(a) (imperf-ve) / (b) (perf-ve)} glaring luster to> smth. is very difficult.

1.(a) Придавать / (b) придать ослепительный блеск очень трудно.

I <biased{bias v.t. ~ someone against an idea (morphm) 1.(a) (imperf-ve)  / (b) (perf-ve)} myself against this fixed idea> but… 

Я 1.(a) настраивал / (b) настроил себя против этой навязчивой идеи, но …

To train{train in a habit … (morphm) 1.(a) (imperf-ve) / (b) (perf-ve)} a disobedient child to study regularly

1.(a)Приучать / (b)приучить непослуш. ребёнка регулярно заниматься …

 

♦♦ (one of forms in all sentences)

- in Deutsch:

Laß uns rationell <vorgehen{vorg... ~ bei...  (morphm) 1.(a) (imperf-v) / (b) (perf-v)} bei> … 

Позвольте нам рационал. 1.(a) подходить / (b) подойти  к …

Es ist offensichtlich, daß den Worten auch die Taten folgen{fo... (morphm) 1.(a) (imperf-v) / (b) (perf-v)} sollen.

Очевидно, что за сл-ми должны также 1.(a) следовать / (b) по- дела.

 

♦♦ (one of forms in all sentences) 

The all examples presented above have shown that the usual program of MT gives one of variants of translation into Russian, without taking into account a general sense of context.

The choice of some semantic meanings was carried out on the basis of following entries:

English c.e.d.

add v 1 make an addition of; build on; impart: ~ luster to 2 say in addition

(morphm) 1. Inf., Indef. T. (a) (imperf-ve); (b) (perf-ve)

English-Russian c.b.d.

add v 1 make an… приб|авлять, -авить; …impart: ~ luster to прид|авать,- ать блеск 2 say in … доб|авлять,-авить(morphm) 1. (a) (несоверш.); (b) (соверш.)

bias v.t. influence; prejudice; ~ someone against an idea 

(morphm) 1. Inf., Indef. T. (a) (imperf-ve); (b) (perf-ve)

bias v.t. influ… склон|ять, -ить; preju… предубе|ждать,-дить; ~ someone against настр|аивать, -оить против к.-н. идеи (morphm) 1. (a) (несоверш.); (b) (соверш.)



Deutsch c.e.d.   [9, 14]

vorgehen ... 2 irgendwie ~ in e-r bestimmten Art etw. tun ...; ~ nach~ bei; ~ gegen 

(morphm) 1. (a) (imperf-v); (b) (perf-v)

Deutsch-Russian c.e.d.  

vorgehen 2  irgendwie ~ in e-r …посту|пать, -пить; ~ bei под|ходить,-дойти к; ~ gegen при|нимать,-нять меры против 

(morphm) 1. (a) (несоверш.); (b) (соверш.)

2) The phrases containing some grammatically ambiguous verbal forms in Subjunctive Mood.

a) the conditional sentences in Russian in Subjunctive Mood with the particle “бы(Table B); a verb, not having special grammatical forms, expresses, in context, an unlikely or improbable action in Present-Future or in Past (possibly the time is pointed in a sentence previous to or subsequent to the present one or in one of neighbouring sentences); this should be considered during translation, for example, into English, in which verbs have separate forms.

Если бы я его встретил{встр  (morphm) 3.(a) (в наст.-будущ.)}, я спросил бы его. Жаль, что я не увижу его

♦ If I met (should meet, were to meet) him, I should ask him. It is a pity I shall not see him.

Если бы я его встретил{встр(morphm) 3.(b) (в прошл.)}, я спросил бы его. Жаль, что я не увидел его

♦ If I had met him, I should have asked him. It is a pity I have not seen him.

♦♦…have met it, I would ask…  (in both sentences) 

The author has marked in the dictionary entry one of the meanings to characterize the actions in the conditional sentences, depending on the time of performance of a condition in the next sentence, namely:

- “я не увижу (in Future), author has marked meaning 3.(a)

- я не увидел” (in Past), author has marked meaning 3.(b).

As we see, the usual program of MT does not consider time of performance of a condition and uses only one of verbal forms.

b) the sentences in English: a combination of the verb "should" with Indefinite Infinitive or with Perfect Infinitive may carry out, depending on general sense of text, both function of Indicative Mood and function of Subjunctive Mood  ([12], стр. 214-216, § 131), see Table A, the meanings (morphm) 3. should+Indef. Inf., Perf. Inf. (a), (b):

We should <clear{clear v.~ away (morphm) 3.(a) (indicative) / (b) (subjunctive)} away> this difficulty.

Нам 3.(a) следует / (b) следовало бы рассеять это противоречие.

You should have helped{help v. (morphm) 3.(a) (indicative)  /  (b) (subjunctive)} her.

Вам 3.(a) следовало / (b) следовало бы помочь ей.

 

The author has marked in the dictionary entry one of the meanings depending on general sense of text: (morphm) 3.(a) (indicative) – the action in form of Indicative Mood or (b) (subjunctive) - the action in form of Subjunctive Mood.

App.4. Examples of coding and translation with using the differentiated (morphological) meanings of pronouns.

Below are the examples of phrases in which are pronouns possessing a grammatical (morphological) ambiguity, namely, the personal and reflexive pronouns have no separate forms to denote the person of masculine or feminine gender / the person or a group of persons / a group of persons of masculine or feminine gender / the person or an inanimate object, and also possessive pronouns have no separate forms to indicate the gender and / or grammatical number of the belonging object, or the separate forms specifying a gender of the person to which it belongs (i.e. when the meaning depends on who or what is being described in context); at the same time those or other target languages can have the pronouns (and / or words, contextually associated with them) which have the concrete grammatical forms to express above mentioned attributes, etc. (i.e. it is possible to judge in the source text the meaning of the some pronouns only from context).

As well as above, the author chooses, depending on a context, both a semantic meaning of a pronoun and a differentiated (morphological) meaning. The author may mark the meaning corresponding to a gender and/or a number, a person or an inanimate object, etc., etc.; in case it is necessary to identify the pronoun, author also should mark in the source text the concrete contextual word (c.w.) which replace this pronoun.

The some pronouns in Russian.

1) The polysemy of pronoun себя (see Table) [12].

This reflexive pronoun has many meanings, which, for example, in English correspond to: myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves, oneself. 

a) The source text (Russian): Он сказал мне, что следует злиться не столько на других, сколько на себя.  

(this complex sentence have no subject in subordinate clause; as a whole, this complex sentence may express the different sources of action; it is necessary to take into account, choosing one of the meanings of reflexive pronoun себя)

The author marks in section (morphm) the different meanings depending on general sense:   

- the source of action is Он: (a) он, его, ему;

…”… is мне (male): (a) я, меня, мне…;

…”… is an indefinite person: (f).

As a result, the following variants of coded texts and their machine translations into English are received:

Он сказал мне, что следует … на себя{себя ... (morphm) (a) он, его, ему… / (a) я, меня, мне… / (f)}.

 (a) он, его, емуHe has told me he should be angry not so much with others, how many on himself. 

 (a) я, меня, мнеHe has told me I should …”… on myself.

 (fHe has told me one should …”… on oneself.

♦♦ He  has told me it is necessary …”… others, how many on itself(?). 

As we see, the subprogram has transformed the sentence depending on concrete meaning of reflexive pronoun, namely, added to the subordinate clause the formal subject: he himself / I myself / one oneself.

The usual program MT uses only neutral form of subject and reflexive pronoun – it itself.

b) The source text (Russian): Вы рассказываете нам о спутниках и мало о себе.

(this sentence may also express the different sources of action; it is also necessary to take into account, choosing one of the meanings of reflexive pronoun себя)

The author marks in section (morphm) the different meanings depending on general sense:  

- the source of action is Вы (people): (a) вы, вас 

…”… is Вы (people, female): (b) вы, вас 

…”… is Вы (person, male, politely): (c) Вы, Вас

…”… is Вы (person, female, politely): (d) Вы, Вас

As a result, the following variants of coded texts and their machine translations into English are received:

Вы рассказываете нам о … и мало о себе{себя (morphm) (a) вы, вас… / (b) вы, вас… / (c) Вы, Вас… / (d) Вы, Вас…}.

(a,b) вы, вас You tell us about travel companions and a little about yourselves.

(c,d) Вы, Вас You tell us …”… about yourself.

 ♦♦ You tell us …”… about yourselves.

In contrast to English, Hebrew has the separate forms of pronouns of masculine / feminine gender for first, second, third person in singular / plural number and has also the separate forms of verbs connected with pronouns [11, 11*]; therefore the last phrase has separate forms of translations into Hebrew (it is possible to tell, more differentiated forms):

Вы рассказываете нам … и мало о себе{себя (morphm) (a) вы, вас… / (b) вы, вас… / (c) Вы, Вас… / (d) Вы, Вас…}.

אתם מספרים לנו על בני לוויין שלכם אבל מְעַט על עַצְמְכֶם  (a)

   אתן מספרות  ..."...  שלכן  ..."... עַצְמְכֶן(b)

 אתה מספר ..."...  שלךָ  ..."...  עַצְמְךָ (c)

  את מספרת  ..."...  שלָך  ..."...  עַצְמְך(d)

אתם מספרים ..."...   שלכם ..."... עַצְמְכֶם(?) ♦♦

The all examples presented above have shown, that the usual program of MT can incorrectly estimate with what source of action the reflexive pronoun is connected.

Russian c.e.d.

  себя (себе, собой,-ю, о себе) указывает на отношение действия к самому источнику действия (подлежащ.), соответствуя по смыслу личн. мест. любых лица, р. и ч.[5]

(morphm) ист. действия: (a) лицо, группа лиц м. или м. и ж. пола: я, меня, мне…; ты, тебя…; он, его. ему…; мы, нас…; вы, вас…; они, их… (b) лицо, группа лиц ж. пола: я, меня, мне…; ты, тебя…; она, её…; мы, нас…; вы, вас…; они, их… (c) лицо м. рода (уважит. форма): Вы, Вас… (d) … ж. рода (уважит. форма): Вы, Вас… (e) неодуш. предм. или животное неопр. пола (f) неопред.-личная ф.

Russian-English c.b.d.

себя my|self; your~; him~; her~; it~; our|selves; your~; them~; oneself; me; him; her; us; you; them 

(morphm) (a) я, меня … my|self; ты, тебя … your~; он, его … him~; мы, нас our|selves; вы, вас … your~; они, их them(b) я, меня … my|self; ты, тебя … your~; она, её … her~; мы, нас our|selves; вы, вас … your~; они, их…them(c, d) yourself

(e) itself (f)oneself

Russian-Hebrew c.b.d. [11*]

себя (אָת  לֽ-  בֽ-  מֵ- עַל) עַצֽמִי עַצמְךָ עַצמֵךְ עַצמוֹ עַצמָה עַצמֵנוּ עַצמְכֶם עַצמְכֶן עַצמָם עַצמָן עֶצֶם  אִתִי אִתְךָ...עִמִי עִמְךָ...

(morphm) (a) я, меня…עַצֽ|מִי; ты, тебя…~מְךָ; он, его …~מוֹ; мы, нас … ~מֵנוּ; вы, вас… ~מְכֶם; они, их ~מָם  (b) я, меняמִי~; ты, тебя… מֵךְ~; она, её… עַצֽמָה; мы, нас מֵנוּ~; вы, вас…מְכֶן~; они, их…  מןָ~  (c) מְךָ(d)מֵךְ ~ (e)  מוֹ~ (f)   עֶצֶם

 

2) The polysemy of pronoun он.

The pronoun он, его … can point at both person and  inanimate object; it is necessary to take into account, translating into English, which has two separate forms … he; it:

Russian c.e.d.

он (его, ему, им, о нём, …) указывает на лицо, не являющееся ни говорящим, ни собеседником, или на неодушевл. предм. речи [5]

(morphm) (а) ~ указывает на лицо (b) ~ указывает на неодуш. предмет или на животное неопр. пола

Russian-English c.b.d.

он … he; it

(morphm) (а) he

(b) it

The source text (Russian): … она пыталась погасить пламя и не дать ему пострадать.

(in one case it is a question of the child, and in other - about the house)

The author has marked in an entry the meaning corresponding to sense of a context:

… она пыталась … не дать ему{он, его, ему,(morphm) (а/ (b)} пострадать.

(translations into English)

…she tried to extinguish a flame and to not allow (a) him/ (b) it to suffer.

♦♦ …  it to suffer.

The usual program MT uses only neutral meaning of pronoun он.

3) The polysemy of pronoun твой, ваш.

The pronouns твой, ваш can express belonging both to person of masculine gender (to group of person) and to person of feminine gender (to group of person of feminine gender). In contrast to Russian, Hebrew has two separate forms of possessive pronoun depending on gender to whom a belonging is expressedשֶלָכֵם / שֶלָכֵן  / שֶלָךְ / שֶלךָ:

Russian c.e.d.

твой (твоя…), ваш (ваша …) принадлежащ.,свойств. тебе, вам [5]

(morphm)(a)тебе -лицу м.р.

(b) тебе - лицу ж.р.

(c) вам - группе лиц

(d) вам - группе лиц ж.р.

Russian- English c.b.d.

твой your, yours

(morphm)

(a,b,c,d) … your, yours

Russian-Hebrew c.b.d.

твойשֶלָך / שֶלךָ

ваш שֶלָכֵם / שֶלָכֵן

(morphm) (a)שֶלךָ  

  (b)שֶלָך

  (c)…שֶלָכֵם 

  (d)שֶלָכֵן

 

The source text (Russian): Она говорит ему - это не твоё дело.

 Он говорит ей - это не твоё дело.

The encoded text and its translation into Hebrew:

Она говорит ему - это не твоё{твой … (morphm) (a)} дело.    היא אומֶרֶת לוׁ- זה לא עניין שֶלךָ

Он говорит ей - это не твоё{твой … (morphm) (b)} дело.         הוּא אומֵר לָה - זה לא עניין שֶלָךְ

שֶלךָ         ♦♦ 

The usual program MT uses only first meaning of pronoun твой.

The some pronouns in English [6,7].

1) The polysemy of pronoun I.

The personal pronoun I can replace the person of masculine / feminine gender.

The source text: When she/ he asked me to marry her/ him I said yes.  I believe her/ him.

The encoded text and its translation into Hebrew:

The encoded text and its translation into Russian and Hebrew:

  When she/ he asked me to marry her/ him  I{I (morphm) (a)…to himself / (b)…to herself} said yes. I believe her/ him.

Когда она/он попроси|ла/-л меня жениться на ней/выйти за него, я (a)сказал/ (b) да. Я (a,b)верю ей/ему.

כַאֲשֶר הִיא/הוּא בִקְשַה/בִקֵש מִמֵנִי לֽהִתֽחַתֵן אִיתה/אִיתוֹ, אֲנִי

 (א,ב)אָמַרֽתִי כֵן.  אֲנִי (א)מַאֲמִינ / (ב)מַאֲמִינַה  לַה/לוֹ.

As we see, in Russian - the gender of the one who speaks has influence on the form of verb in past tense; in contrast to Russian, in Hebrew - has influence on the form of verb in the present tense.

2) The polysemy of pronoun you.

The source text: You said you knew the way.

The author marks the different meanings depending on general sense:

You{you (morphm) (a) person m / (b) person f / (c) people/ (d) people f} said you knew the way.  

(translations into Russian and Hebrew)

(a,b)Ты/ (c,d)вы  (a)сказал/(b)-а/(c,d), что (a)знал/(b)-а/(c,d)  дорогу. 

(א)אַתָה/ (ב)אַת/ (ג)אַתֶם/ (ד)אַתֶן  אָמַרְתָ/ אָמַרְת/ אָמַרְתֶם/ אָמַרְתֶן

שְ|מַכִיר/ -מַכִירָה/ -מַכִירִים/ -מַכִירוֹת   אֶת הדֶרֶך.

As we see, the gender and number of person or people being addressed are reflected in Hebrew  in four separate forms of a pronoun and in different forms of a verb.

English c.e.d.

I used by a speaker to refer to himself or herself [7]

(morphm) (a) to himself: I said I believe 

(b) to herself: ”…

English-Russian c.b.d.

I used by … я

(morphm) (a)…я: Я сказал, что верю (b)… я: Я сказала …”…

English-Hebrew c.b.d.

I used by…   אני  

(morphm) (а)…אֲנִי: אֲנִי אָמַרֽתִי שמאמין

(b) …  אֲנִי: אֲנִי אָמַרֽתִי שמאמינה

you person or people being addressed [6] 

(morphm) (a) person m: You said you believe

(b) person f: …”…

(c) people: …”…

(d) people f: ”…

you person or … ты; вы

(morphm) (a) ты: Ты сказал

(b) ты: Ты сказала, …”…

(c,d)вы: Вы сказали

you person or... אַתֶן / אַתֶם/ אַת/  אַתָה

(morphm)(a) אַתָה: אַתָה אָמַרֽתָ שְמַאֲמִין

(b) אָמַרֽת שְמַאֲמִינַה אַת אַת:  

(c) אתם: אַתֶם אמַרֽתֶם שְמַאֲמִינִים

(d)  אַתֶן: אַתֶן אמַרֽתֶן שְמַאֲמִינוֹת  

 

References.

4. Кунин А.В. Англо-русский фразеологический словарь //  Советская энциклопедия, М.:1967. С. 1233 – 1264.

5. Большой толковый словарь русского языка // Норинт, С.-Петербург:2000. 

6. Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary of current English // Oxford University Press:1989.

7. The Concise Oxford Dictionary of current English // Clarendon Press Oxford:1995. 

8. Oxford Russian Dictionary, Russian-English, English-Russian // Oxford University Press: 2000.

9. Рымашевская Э.Л., Немецко-русский и русско-немецкий словарь // Русский язык, М.:1990.

9* Langenscheidts Taschenwörterbuch Russisch (Russisch - Deutsch, Deutsch – Russisch), Langenscheidt.

10. Смирницкий А.И. и др., Большой русско-английский словарь// Русский язык, М.:2002.

11. Русско – Ивритский словарь под редакцией Подольского Б. // Русский язык, М.:1992.

11*. Склонение предлогов и др. частей речи с помощью местоименных суффиксов // Дфус Эфи, Т.-А.:1992 11**. The Concise Sapphire Dictionary. Editor in Chief: Eitan Avneyon //Israel: 1997

11***. The Сomplete Hebrew – English Dictionary by Reuben Alcalay // Massada Publishing Co. Ramat-Gan-Jerusalem

12. Качалова К.Н., Израилевич Е.Е. Практическая грамматика английского языка // М.:1999.С.72-76, 113-162, 166-184, 214-216, § 131, 279-287, 439-445

13. Циммерман М., Веденеева К. Русско – английский научно – технический словарь переводчика // Наука, М.: 1999. С.50, 340,509

14. Langenscheidts Großwärterbuch Deutsch als Fremdsprache //Neubearbeitung, 1998.

15. Мюллер В.К., Англо – русский словарь. // Золотой век, Диамант, С.-П.:2000





Published - July 2008




See also: "Experience of preliminary identification and translation of the text's fragments with use of the system of coordinated dictionaries" by Panich Iuli








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