Grammar and Spelling
Section One - Grammar and Spelling
Inanimate plural nouns have the verb in the singular.
Gender: Georgian does not distinguish between male and female in ANY area of its grammar.
Articles: There are no articles ('a', 'the') in Georgian, so a Georgian noun may be translated as, for example, ‘friend’, ‘a friend’, or ‘the friend’, as the context requires.
One letter words: There are none in Georgian.
Accents: There are no accents in Georgian.
Capitalisation: There is no difference between the upper and lower case of the Georgian alphabet.
Suffixes: Georgian uses postpositions in place of the English prepositions ('on', 'for', etc.). These may be in the form of either a postfix attached to the noun, or a separate word which follows it. The case of the nouns is determined by the choice of postposition.
Section Two - Punctuation
Punctuation is generally used in the same way as in English.
1. Full stops: Full stops are used as in English and there is flexibility for personal choice I, for example, titles, etc.
2. Inverted commas: Inverted commas normally used, as in English. Other variations can also be used – usage is determined by personal choice rather than by context.
3. Apostrophes: These are not used in Georgian.
4. Colons, semi-colons and ellipsis: These are all used in a similar way to English.
5. Brackets: These are also used in a similar way to English.
Section Three – Measurements and Abbreviations
1. Measurements: In general, Georgian uses the Metric system, apart from internationally accepted imperial measurements used for computer monitors, inner diameter of pipes/tubes, nautical miles.
A comma is used to denote decimals. A full stop or a gap is used to separate thousands in 4-digit numbers.
Time would be written as follows:
am = 10.30
Dates are written as follows:
gap between a figure and measurement abbreviation.
No currency symbol is used for Georgian Lari. The word follows the number. Symbols for other currencies are not used. Local Georgian abbreviations used, following the number.
Except for technical and scientific texts (where measurement abbreviations may be used as in English), all abbreviations will probably be in the Georgian script and will consequently appear unfamiliar.
Section Four - Hyphenation
Hyphens are used for splitting words over lines between syllables. Hyphenated words are fairly common.
Prefixes and suffixes are joined to the main word and not separated by a hyphen.
There are no set rules for long or short dashes - it is a matter of personal choice – although long dashes are used for bullet points.
Section Five - Miscellaneous Peculiarities
Surnames are usually given after the first name when addressing the person. In written texts, either word order is permissible.
Bold and italics are used in the same way as in English.
Section Six - Geographic Distribution
Georgian, together with its sister languages Megrel and Svan, form
the Kartvelian (South Caucasian) language
family. No relationship between the members
of this family and any other language has
been satisfactorily demonstrated. There
are several languages spoken in the Georgian
Republic, including Abkhazian (uses Cyrillic
alphabet), Megrel (spoken only), Svan (spoken
only), Ossetian (uses Cyrillic alphabet),
plus several dialects.
For client purposes, all material should be translated into Georgian, as this is the common language (spoken and written) for all inhabitants of the Republic. The older generation are accustomed to reading in Russian, too, but for business purposes it would not be advisable to rely on this. This is for political reasons and to avoid any misunderstandings. All legally valid documents must be in Georgian.
Section Seven - Character Set
Georgian is written with the Mkhedruli alphabet:
Please see some ads as well as other content from TranslationDirectory.com: