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Slovene


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Contents:

1. Grammar and Spelling
2. Punctuation
3. Measurements and Abbreviations
4. Hyphenation
5. Geographic Distribution
6. Character Set

Section One - Grammar and Spelling

1. Gender: Slovene has 3 genders: masculine, feminine and neuter. They can sometimes be recognised by their endings ('a' for feminine) and they require agreements.

2. Case: There are 6 different cases in Slovene which are represented by suffixes and infixes added to nouns. Nouns, verbs and adjectives also take a variety of prefixes, suffixes and infixes depending on the context in which they are used.

3. Articles: There are no definite or indefinite articles in Slovene.

4. Plurals: Slovene has three numbers: singular, dual and plural. These are also reflected in verbs, which change depending on the number. The plural form is recognised by plural declension.

5. Capitalisation: Accents are not used on capital letters.

6. Foreign names: Slovene does not generally change the spelling of foreign names. However, some place names do change, such as Dunaj (Vienna), Pariz (Paris), Rim (Rome), Tokio (Tokyo), Budimpešta (Budapest).

Section Two - Punctuation

1. Speech marks: Speech marks are represented by » … « (alt codes 0187 and 0171 respectively) or as straight double inverted commas " … ".

Speech marks are used as in English, for example:

a. “Give me more work!”, shouted Chloe. “Dajte mi več dela!” je zavpila Chloe.
b. “Would anyone like some tea?” asked George. “Ali bi kdo želel čaj?” je vprašal George.
c. “I’m bored – can I go home now?”, Michala said. “Dolgčas mi je. Ali grem zdaj lahko domov?” je rekla Michala.

2. Full stops: Full stops are not used at the end of titles and headings. Or after page numbers.

3. Bullet points: Bullet points begin with a lower case character and the last point takes a full stop.

4. Brackets: When brackets are used in the middle of a sentence, the text inside is not capitalised.

5. Semi-colons: Semi-colons are used less frequently than in English, especially in the middle of a sentence. The use of a hyphen or a semi-colon to note a pause in a sentence is not common.

6. Apostrophes: Apostrophes are not used in Slovene.

Section Three - Measurements and Abbreviations

1. Measurements: In most cases metric measurements are used.

Decimals are written with a comma (3,4) and thousands over 9999 are separated with a point (50.000). Thousands under 9999 are not separated.

There should always be a space between a number and its measurement unit (35 cm), and between a number and a percentage sign (25 %).

There should always be a space between the degree symbol and C (30° C).

Currency is written with the three-letter code after the number, for example: 1000 GBP, 1000 EUR, 1000 SIT.

Times are written using the 24-hour clock, for example:
10.30 am = 10.30
4.30 pm = 16.30
Also, ‘midday’ = ‘opoldne’ and ‘midnight’ = ‘opolnoči’.

Dates are written as below:

20 February 2004 20. februar 2004
20th February 2004 20. februarja 2004
20/02/2004 20. 02. 2004
February 20 20. februar

2. Abbreviations:

No. (nos.) št.
e.g. npr.
WxLxHxD Š x D x V x G
1st/2nd/ 3rd/4th 1., 2., 3., 4.,
Mr. / Mrs. g. / ga.
Messrs. g.
Miss gdč.
Dear Sir / Madam Spoštovani gospod, spoštovana gospa
m (for metre) m
cm (for centimetre) cm
lb (for pound weight) lb
g (for gram) g
km (for kilometre) km
yr (for year) l.
k (for 1000) k
EMEA (Europe, Middle-East & Asia) EMEA

Days of the week: Mon, Tues, Wed, Thurs, Fri, Sat, Sun
pon., tor., sre., čet., pet., sob., ned.

Months: Jan, Feb, Mar, Apr, May, Jun, Jul, Aug, Sep, Oct, Nov, Dec
jan., feb., mar., apr., maj., jun., jul., avg., sep., okt., nov., dec.

Seasons: Spring, Summer, Autumn, Winter (not normally abbreviated in English)
pomlad, poletje, jesen, zima

Section Four – Hyphenation

The rule of thumb is that a word should be hyphenated after a vowel, with the next line beginning with a consonant. When there are several consonants together, they should be hyphenated in such a way that the next two consonants can begin a known Slovene word. Some consonants, however, cannot be hyphenated.

It is not very common in Slovene to join words together using hyphens.

There are some prefixes/suffixes that are joined to words using hyphens, but not many.

Mostly short ‘N’ dashes (–) are used.

Section Five – Geographic Distribution

Slovene is the official language of the new Republic of Slovenia, spoken by about 90 percent of the country's 2 million people and is alternatively known as Slovenscina or Slovenian. The language is most closely related to Serbian and Croatian but they are not mutually intelligible.

It is spoken/used in the following regions: Carniola and southern parts of Styria and Carinthia; Lower Carniola in Dolenjsko, Upper Carniola in Gorenjska, Primorski in West Slovenia, and Stajerski in Styria. Slovene is also spoken in Argentina, Australia, Austria, Canada, Croatia, Hungary, Italy, USA and Yugoslavia. Dialects are diverse and these are Lower Carniola, Upper Carniola, Stajerski and Primorski. The literary dialect is between the two main dialects and is based on Dolenjsko.

Italian and Hungarian are also official languages in regions with Italian or Hungarian minorities.

Language Family
Family: Indo-European
Subgroup: Slavic
Branch: South, Western

Source: Katzner K, The Languages of the World. Routledge. Available from
http://www.worldlanguage.com/Languages/Slovene (accessed 2 March
2004).

Ethnologue: Languages of the World. SIL International. Available from:
http://www.ethnologue.com/web.asp (accessed 2 March 2004).

The World Factbook: Field Listing – Language. Central Intelligence Agency.
Available from:
http://www.odci.gov/cia/publications/factbook/fields/2098.html (accessed 2
March 2004).

Section Six – Character Set

[ ] = Alt key codes

LOWER CASE
UPPER CASE
a A
b B
c č [0232] C Č [0200]
d D
e E
f F
g G
h H
i I
j J
k K
l L
m M
n N
o O
p P
(q) (Q)
r R
s š [0154] S Š [0138]
t T
u U
v V
(w) (W)
(x) (X)
(y) (Y)
z ž [0158] Z Ž [0142]








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