1. Grammar and Spelling
Section One - Grammar and Spelling
1. Gender: There are three genders in Romanian: masculine, feminine and neuter. They are recognised by comparing the singular and plural forms of nouns.
2. Cases: Nominative, accusative, dative, genitive, vocative.
3. Articles: The definite article is always added at the end of the word, while the indefinite article always precedes the word to which it is applied, as a separate particle.
4. One letter words: The one letter words are very few (a, e, i, o) and are used under strict rules that give no room for interpretation errors. In this respect, the possibility for misinterpretation is not more likely in Romanian than in English.
5. Accents: There are no accents as such. This is the rule. The only exceptions are á and ó, which are used in very rare cases just to differentiate between two meanings of the same written word. For example, 'copii' has two meanings (children and copies), and for the sake of clarity, when the latter meaning is implied, the word is written 'cópii'.
Then there are the special characters (ă, Ă, ş, Ş, ţ, Ţ, î, Î, â, Â) which can be used in lower case as well as in upper case.
6. Plural: The plural form is highly irregular with many rules and exceptions.
7. Capitalisation: Capitalisation rules generally follow those of English.
As a rule, formal forms of address are in-capped. First letters of names of nations are put in lower case. First letters of names of days/seasons/months are also put in lower case (exceptions are dates that designate special events, i.e. public holidays - December 1st = 1 Decembrie).
Headings, product names, the first word in a sentence, proper names, formal forms of address and names of public holidays all begin with a capital letter.
Section Two - Punctuation
1. Full stops: These are used in the same way as English.
2. Speech marks: The speech marks are generally used in the same way as in English. Quotation marks that open a quotation are always put low on the line and those which end the quotation are put high on the line (example: „citat=quotation”). A long dash is used for marking dialogue, as well as a separator inside a phrase which needs, for instance, an explanation (example: His son - the one near the window - is very talented.) Examples:
3. Apostrophe: The apostrophe is only used informally, as a representation for missing sounds in the spoken language.
4. Colons, semi-colons and ellipsis: These are used in the same way as English.
5. Brackets: Brackets are used and the text within them punctuated and capitalised in the same way as in English.
Section Three - Measurements and Abbreviations
1. Measurements: Generally the metric system is used, but some measurements, such as computer monitors, inner diameter of pipes/tubes, nautical miles, size of computer disks for example, are given as imperial measurements.
The decimal separator is the comma and the thousands separator is the dot. Correspondent Romanian separators: 4,5 cm / 4.000 / 50.000. The thousands separator is not obligatory.
10.30 am / noon / 4.30 pm / midnight = 10.30 / 12.00 / 16.30 / 0.00, although formats like 10:30, 10.30 am and 4.30 pm are also valid.
20 February 2004
There should always be a space between a figure and a measurement abbreviation.
There should not be a space before a % symbol.
There should not be a space left before °C
Currency: The currency symbol/word/code is always written after the numerical description. E.g. 100£ / 100$ / 100 lei / 100 euro / 100 lire sterline (pound sterling) / 100 dolari (dollars) / 100 ROL / 100 EUR / 100 GBP / 100 USD
N/a = F/R
EMEA (Europe, Middle-East & Asia) = (no Romanian equivalent)
Days of the week: Mon, Tues, Wed, Thurs, Fri, Sat, Sun = (not normally abbreviated in Romanian)
Months: Jan, Feb, Mar, Apr, May, Jun, Jul, Aug, Sep, Oct, Nov, Dec = Ian, Feb, Mar, Apr, Mai, Iun, Iul, Aug, Sep, Oct, Nov, Dec
Seasons: Spring, Summer, Autumn, Winter (not normally abbreviated in English) = (not normally abbreviated in Romanian)
Boulevard, Blvd. = Bd., B-dul, Bdul
St. = Str.
Section Four - Hyphenation
Hyphens are used. Words are split by syllabic structure. Compound
words are not to be split at the end of the line.
Section Five - Miscellaneous Peculiarities
Place names often have their own Romanian form (e.g. London=Londra, Switzerland=Elveţia).
Normally, surnames are given after the first name. Rarely, surnames are written all in upper case.
Romanian uses stylistic forms such as bold or italics in the same way as English.
The repetition of words within the same sentence is to be avoided as much as possible, which is why synonyms are used whenever they are available. This does not apply to technical/specialised terms.
Section Six - Geographic Distribution
The official/national language of Romania is Romanian. It is spoken/written all over the country and the great majority of the population (over 90%) uses it. There are, however, regions where it coexists with Hungarian, German or Slavic languages, according to the ethnic composition of the local population. Romanian belongs to the Romance languages family. It is the only such language spoken in Eastern Europe, having descended from the Latin introduced by the Roman Conquerors after the 2nd century A.D. Romanian is more archaic than the other Romance languages and has been influenced by the non-Romance languages spoken in nearby countries, especially Hungarian, Albanian, and the various Slavic languages. A variety of Romanian is spoken in the Republic of Moldova, where it is known as Moldavian.
Section Seven - Character Set
[ ] = Alt key codes
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