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Terminology






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A Glossary of Olive Oil Taste Testing (Spanish-English And English-Spanish)
There is a considerable number of studies related to languages for specific purposes (LSP); however, there is dearth of studies focused on the terminology of olive oil tasting. Hence, in this study, the intention was to create a bilingual (English and Spanish) glossary of olive oil tasting in order to help those interested parties, especially translators and interpreters, by providing them with a tool for them to realize their objectives...
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La innovación del Espacio Europeo de Educación Superior vs. la tradición educativa: la terminología y la fraseología del ámbito académico (español ⇔ inglés)
The Bologna Declaration (1999) and the European Space for Higher Education have noticeably modified both the European and the international academic map. In addition to this, a growing number of intercultural exchanges and migratory activities have taken place, as well as the traditionally high demand for official academic translations. As a consequence, we have been witnesses to an exponential growth of sworn translations into and out of the English language....
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Derecho continental y derecho anglosajón: la terminología y la fraseología propia del ámbito sucesoriol
The field of succession is noticeably wide and complex. Nevertheless, most specialized bilingual dictionaries do not include many terms and phraseological expressions related to family law, inheritance, and wills, and those appearing offer too literal translations for them. That is the main reason why we selected a (lexical and phraseological) corpus from 200 succession documents: 100 in English and 100 in Spanish)...
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The Most Prized Possession of All
Here's a riddle for you: What's a possession that we each wield with different degrees of sophistication yet we all own completely? Something that we share with millions of others, yet it's completely up to us to do with whatever we like--and to change and mold in the process? As translators, it's a possession that we are more aware of than most, though everyone else also holds it, cherishes it, and is defined by it...
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The World Wide Web and Translators
In today’s translation market with online jobs and tight deadlines, the Internet has turned into one of the new resources translators commonly use to obtain fast and easy access to translationally-relevant information. The online translation resources translators draw on may vary from online glossaries to online corpora. This, however, is not the only application of the Web for translators. In fact, the Web itself is a valuable source of linguistic information for translators far beyond what dictionaries have to offer...
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Language Resources for Translation in Multilingual Question Answering Systems
In the field of Information Retrieval monolingual and multilingual tools are being created that can greatly assist specialists in their work; as well as helping other users find a wide variety of information. Multilingual tools are evolving but several years of study and research are still needed to improve implementations. One of the main difficulties facing these tools is the task of translating queries made by users and the documentary sources found in response (Diekema, 2003)...
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The best freeware corpus analysis program for translators?
For many languages, there is a high demand for translation out of the mother tongue. In China, for example, since only a limited pool of native English-speakers are able to translate from Chinese into English, there is a need for native Chinese-speaking translators to translate out of their native language, as Guangsa Jin points out (Jin, 2008). Similarly in Finland native-speaking Finnish translators frequently translate into their L2. This is because native-speaking foreign translators with a sound grasp of Finnish are in extremely short supply...
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Mr. *** was not amused!
Mr. *** (we do not know his name), a member of the Roma people, was not amused. Not amused at all. He opened his copy of Dicionário Houaiss, one of the two most influential dictionaries published in Brazil, and did not like what he saw therein. Specifically, he found item 5 in the “cigano” (that is gypsy) entry absolutely unacceptable, not to say insulting...
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Questions & Answers Sites
Question and answer websites have popped up all over the Internet. These interactive sites are designed to connect individuals, and help them get answers to questions. We have compiled a list of some of the more popular Question & Answers websites...
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Quick Corpora Compiling Using Web as Corpus
During the past five years I have written several articles discussing some of the ways in which a monolingual target-language corpus can be a useful performance-enhancing resource in translating. Some of these articles are viewable online (see Wilkinson 2005a; 2005b; 2007a; 2007b). I have also pointed out that because very few ready-made special-field corpora are at present available - either for free or commercially - translators should be able to compile their own specialized corpora, tailor-made to suit their own requirements, and have suggested ways of doing this (Wilkinson 2006). Unfortunately compiling a sufficiently large do-it-yourself corpus is a rather time-consuming process...
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Building a Legal TM and Glossary from an English-Malay Parallel Corpus
This article is, in fact, a brief report of a research project currently being carried out at the School of Languages, Literacies and Translation of Universiti Sains Malaysia. The main objective of this project is to build a Translation Memory of legal texts and a Glossary of legal terminology. Legal texts and documents have one thing in common: repetition...
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Uncontrolled Terminology and MT: The Importance of Making Good Comparisons
Feeding Machine Translation (MT) dictionaries with uncontrolled terminology is never a good thing. When this is done, MT engines consistently produce translations containing the same unwanted or wrong terminology over and over again. Post-editing these terminology errors tends to be time-consuming and expensive, which defeats the purpose of using MT...
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Effective Terminology Management Using Computers
Over a century after the birth of Eugen Wüster, the founder of modern terminology science (Kingscott, 1998: 15), the amount of terminology with which language professionals have to deal has mushroomed. We are now living in an age of specialization and globalization. Sciences are increasingly branching out into new fields of study, bringing about more terminology. Markets have been internationalized and businesses are expanding all over the world…
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Terminology
Terminology is the study of terms and their use. Terms are words and compound words that are used in specific contexts. Not to be confused with "terms" in colloquial usages, the shortened form of technical terms (or terms of art) which are defined within a discipline or specialty field…
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Of Translation Jobs and Glossaries
A glossary is fine as such, provided it deals with technical terms only. It can be a great help in conveying the client’s preferred choices or internal trade language, but this requires that whoever is creating the glossary is sufficiently skilled in linguistics as well as the technical theme at hand to be able to sift out what belongs in a glossary and what does not…
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The Encyclopedia Britannica 2009
The Encyclopedia Britannica 2009 (established in 1768), both in its Ultimate (now also called "Student and Home") and Deluxe versions, builds on the success of its completely revamped previous editions in 2006-8…
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Spanglish: To Ser or Not to Be? That is la cuestión!
This is a modest attempt to illustrate what is really pasando en many communities of the USA, Latin America (and Spain!) now en la actualidad. What follows is a combinación—a true melting pot—de Spanglish y jerga popular as it takes place in multi-lingual places like Miami and other communities. A definition of Spanglish will not be attempted here, since it is a process, a dynamic force, a developing trend…
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Microsoft's Encarta and MS Student 2008
While Microsoft Encarta Premium 2006 marked Microsoft's commitment to the Web - Microsoft Encarta Premium 2007 marks its commitments to its own technology. The new Encarta relies on Microsoft's powerful, flexible, scalable, and adaptable .Net Framework 2.0. There is a price to pay, of course…
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Простонародні та рідковживані українські слова - Demotic and rare Ukrainian words
анічичирк
бабак
баблятися
бадилля
байрак…

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The Encyclopedia Britannica 2008
The Encyclopedia Britannica 2008 (established in 1768), both Ultimate and Deluxe, builds on the success of its completely revamped previous editions in 2006 and 2007. The rate of innovation in the last two versions was impressive and welcome. It continues apace in this rendition with Britannica Biographies (Great Minds), Classical Music…
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Glossary Mining - Part 7: Brush Up Your English
As indicated in the title, the English language is the topic of this final installment in the series on resources available on the Web for translation purposes. It is hoped that the information will prove equally valuable both for translators working into English (i.e., their mother tongue) and for those translating from English into another language. Although writing usage and vocabulary are primarily emphasized, a number of other aspects often come into play during the translation process…
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Glossary Mining - Part 6: Science from A to Z
This installment provides a compendium of various Internet resources dealing with scientific subjects – from anthropology to zoology. The focus is on terminology and reference materials for the “pure” sciences, as opposed to the “applied” sciences such as mechanical engineering or metallurgical processes. The list begins with several resources of a general nature and continues in alphabetical order by subject…
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Glossary Mining - Part 5: Getting Down to Business
As indicated in the title, this installment will focus on Internet resources in various business-related subjects: accounting, advertising and marketing, banking and financial, economics, investments, real estate, shipping, and taxes. Although there are undoubtedly many resources in all major languages, these Web sites primarily involve English and Spanish. I’ll start with a few sites that deal with general business topics…
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Glossary Mining - Part 4: Making It Legal
The first three installments in this series have emphasized Web sites of a technical nature, with an occasional oddity thrown in for good measure. This time the focus is entirely on Web sites for legal terminology and related resources. Although my own languages are Spanish and English, I have also found a number of Web sites for French, German and Portuguese. However, I’ll start with a survey of monolingual English sites…
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Glossary Mining - Part 3: Digging for Buried Treasure
The first two installments of this series primarily dealt with finding monolingual, bilingual and multilingual glossaries in a wide variety of specialized subject areas, some of them mundane and others of a more esoteric nature. Virtually all of them were easy to locate in the glossary mine because they were the equivalent of visible veins of ore and in a few cases the mother lode…
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Glossary Mining – Down Tunnel No. 2
In the first installment on this topic, I focused primarily on a simple way to use Google (or just about any other search engine) to unearth a variety of specialized glossaries, ranging in nature from the potentially useful to the downright ridiculous. However, that exercise only went partway down the mine shaft, so I turned my attention to excavating a little deeper…
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Glossary Mining – Part 1
While preparing material for several online courses in translation that I have taught or will be teaching for New York University, I usually surf the Internet extensively for appropriate monolingual (both English and Spanish) and bilingual glossaries, primarily related to the legal and technical fields…
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Translating on Good Terms
At a recent conference in Montreal I felt vindicated to hear that I am not alone in my notion of the ideal use of terminology tools among translators. Lynne Bowkers, who teaches translation technology at the University of Ottawa, gave a talk on the discrepancy between the terminology components that many translation environment tools (aka CAT tools) offer and their actual and/or ideal use by translators…
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Dealing with Abbreviations In Translation
Acronyms, initialisms or simply abbreviations may seem insignificant in the field of lexicography, yet they are a problem for translators, and could easily derail a smooth translation or interpretation. This article analyzes the formulation of English acronyms and their reformulation into French; it highlights the challenges they pose to the translator and how those challenges can be surmounted…
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Wikipedia vs. Britannica - Interview with Tom Panelas
Tom Panelas is the Encyclopedia Britannica's Director of Corporate Communications
Q. Is the Wikipedia an encyclopedia in any sense of the word?
A. I don't think it's crucial that everyone agree on whether Wikipedia is or is not an encyclopedia…

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The Encyclopedia Britannica 2007 Opens to the Web
The Encyclopedia Britannica 2007 (established in 1768) is again a completely revamped product. The rate of innovation in the last two editions is impressive and welcome. Its interface is intuitive and uncluttered and it is great fun to use. For instance, it offers a date-based daily selection of relevant information and highly edifying interactive tours of articles and attendant media. The search box is persistent - no need to click on the toolbar's "search" button every time you want to find something in this vast storehouse of knowledge. Moreover, the user can save search results onto handy "Virtual Notecards"…
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The Six Sins of the Wikipedia
It is a question of time before the Wikipedia self-destructs and implodes. It poses such low barriers to entry (anyone can edit any number of its articles) that it is already attracting masses of teenagers as "contributors" and "editors", not to mention the less savory flotsam and jetsam of cyber-life…
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Translation Problem Areas
There are a lot of questions still left up in the air in relation to how something should be translated, especially when it comes to translating into English. “Should it be in US English or UK English (or International English)?” is a question I constantly have to ask my clients. With the help of the following graphs and tables I hope to shed some light on the darker, less accessible areas of English grammar. Let’s hope it comes in handy…
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Legal Aspects of Compiling Corpora to be used as Translation Resources
In the last issue of Translation Journal (Wilkinson 2006) I described various ways of compiling your own corpus to be used as a translation resource in conjunction with corpus analysis tools by downloading texts from websites, by scanning documents such as brochures, or by converting translation briefs into plain text format. But if one compiles corpora in this way, is it necessary to obtain permission from the copyright holders? When I began to compile a corpus of tourist brochure texts, I consulted colleagues and browsed through Internet discussion forums dealing with the legal aspects of corpora compiling. In the process, I encountered a spectrum of attitudes…
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Laughs and Nightmares in Oilfield Translation
The entries in this article were taken from my own dictionary released in 2001. The publication was carefully compiled over nearly 20 years of work in the translation business. Although the dictionary contains a good number of terms, it does not constitute a complete list of words and unique expressions that an observer is likely to hear during a visit to an oilfield. Rather, it is intended to serve as a basic reference for understanding the most common terms and is designed merely to assist those who are not familiar with the terminology used in the area of oil and gas…
English Portuguese

The Tricky Terminology of the Oil and Gas Industry
Brazil is one of the world’s leaders in the development of deep water drilling technology. It is not rocket science but it comes quite close. The translation of oil industry documents can often be pretty dull fare. Those of us who do a lot of work in the field can testify to that. But every once in a while we are privileged to have a close look at Brazil’s deep water drilling technology. Take it from us, it is impressive. If you sit back a bit and let your imagination roam, you can come up with some pretty incredible images…
English Portuguese

Compiling Corpora for Use as Translation Resources
A large variety of corpora in English and in other languages have been compiled in electronic format for various purposes over the past few decades. The website "Gateway to Corpus Linguistics on the Internet" provides a useful summary of many of the best-known corpora, including information on when and by whom they were compiled, as well as their size, contents, and accessibility…
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Introduction to SAE J1930: Bridging the Disconnect Between the Engineering, Authoring and Translation Communities
Have you ever wondered how companies develop names for the parts in your vehicle? How do you know if your translation for "engine coolant temperature sensor" is really correct? And what is DMPI an abbreviation for? Or MAF? And finally, do translators need to know the compound term for the HEMI acronym
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Pour une méthodologie du développement de la terminologie du terrorisme
There is no doubt that terrorism has continued to attract the attention of scholars, researchers, politicians, etc., and has become a subject of endless debates and daily exchange of ideas. However, research has proved that terminologists are yet to show interest in developing its terminology even though the daily activities, exchanges, etc., that mark the perpetration and also the fight against terrorism lead to lexical creativity. In my doctoral research, I have undertaken to build up an up to date terminology for the subject field of terrorism. In this article, I present some of the questions, methodology and criteria for constitution and exploitation of the corpus for the development of the terminology…
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Discovering Translation Equivalents in a Tourism Corpus by Means of Fuzzy Searching
The strategies described for finding potential translation equivalents focused mainly on targeted searches where the translator has some idea of what he or she is looking for—for example obtaining information about collocates; choosing between terms suggested by other translation aids such as dictionaries or the Internet; confirming or rejecting intuitive decisions; and extracting multi-word chunks that help the translator to produce natural-sounding text…
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Using a Specialized Corpus to Improve Translation Quality
In the context of Computer Aided Translation Technology (CATT), a corpus can be described as a large collection of texts in electronic format. Electronic corpora can be "enriched" by, for example, annotating them with part-of-speech (POS) tagging, and this is especially useful in order to enable researchers to carry out sophisticated linguistic investigations…
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Terminology: Getting Down to Business
Kara Warburton, Chair of the LISA Terminology SIG and Terminologist at IBM, issues a call to action to all of us who claim that we’re committed to terminology. We are waffling, while other stakeholders in knowledge management are moving ahead without us in developing and applying standards to which we may have to adhere. It’s time to act, and the LISA Terminology SIG shows us how…
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The Terms of Business: Saving Money Through Terminology Management
According to Kara Warburton, chair of LISA’s Terminology SIG, most companies are still unaware of the need to invest in terminology development and active management of terminological resources. Recent work by the Terminology SIG has helped demonstrate that investment in terminology management and development can deliver a tangible return on investment, not just intangible benefits such as improved quality or customer satisfaction. In this article Warburton outlines the activities of the Terminology SIG, including a new survey on terminology practices, and looks at changes in attitude in the GILT industry that may presage a brighter future for awareness of the importance of terminology …
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Why CMSs "Bug" Me
I imagine that most readers of the Globalization Insider know the story of the term “bug” in computer programming: it is a staple of high-tech etymologies. The story goes that the Mark-II, one of the first modern electronic computers, was having problems, and that Grace Hopper, one of the machine’s maintenance engineers found that a moth had flown too close to circuitry and had shorted out two components …
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An Open Letter on Glossaries
This letter is intended as a query on a topic of interest to many translators. No claims or statements of any sort are being advanced—rather it is an attempt to articulate my own sense of puzzlement in public. May I therefore request your patient compassion as well as any corrections you may care to make …
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New Terminologies: Peaceful Immigrants or Invading Hordes? A Review of Three New Books
All three of these books are concerned with a crucial problem of translation: precisely how do we handle a vast technical vocabulary unexpectedly imported into a language not necessarily prepared to deal with it? This question applies most urgently to the integration of computer terminology into many of the world's languages …
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Lexicon and Terminology: Of Mesopotamia, cattle and interest (en anglais)
Pecuniary and impecunious (English), and pécuniaire, pécune and pécule (French) are just a few of the terms relating to money that can be traced back to a period when livestock was the standard currency. This is hardly surprising since financial activities, i.e. lending, borrowing and managing wealth, are thought to have originated among the pastoral societies of the Near East …
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Computer Collocations and Computer Metaphors
This article examinesfrom a linguistic point of viewthe translation of some computer collocations which I consider typical, and analyze them in order to provide suitable translations in the TL (in this case, Romanian), because they generally play an important role in distinguishing meaning. This happens with computer terminology as well, in the sense that, when we are asked to give an account of the meaning of a term used in computing, say, blind, we instantly try to contextualize it in its most recurrent collocations, say, blind search, blind copy, blind key
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It is that time of the year again… for the Annual Report
So here are some tips for creating a good Annual Report with the most frequently used French and Dutch terms given in parentheses. There are nine distinct sections in most Annual Reports. A good report will usually contain all nine…
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Politically Correct (PC)
Political correctness--political and otherwise--covers not only fact and grammar, but sensitivity to race, sex, religion, age, ability and alternate lifestyles. And although it seems to have started as a largely American phenomenon, it seems to be spreading rapidly around the world…
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Better vocabulary
How to keep your sanity with "lay" and "lie"
Is it correct to say "lay down that pistol", why can't we with equal justification say "lay down for a nap"?
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Abbreviations in English
Abbreviations (abbr.) are one of the most annoying things about language. If a non-native English speaker comes across the abbreviation a.k.a. in a text, then he/she will find it hard to guess that it means "also known as" without referring to a dictionary.
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Adjectives: when nice is not so nice
When using a language that is not your own, however well you know it, there is almost always a tendency to fall back on certain words that you like, or that spring most readily to mind and to use these repeatedly with impunity. This is particularly so where adjectives are concerned…
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Customer or client?
In Dutch there's one word, "klant". In French there's one word, "client". In Spanish there's one word, "cliente". So how is it that in English we have the possibility of choosing between two words, and does our choice have any importance? Are the two words - customer and client - interchangeable?
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Navigating through Treacherous Waters: The Translation of Geographical Names
As it has been brilliantly stated by Vernica Albin, translating the names of geographical entities is like navigating in treacherous waters. Even with the most advanced information systemssuch as satellite positioning (GPS) and up-to-date mapsif the skipper does not have experience, a shipwreck is not only probable, but likely. This has also been my experience when translating the names of cities, states, provinces, countries and other geographical terms from and into Spanish, English, and French…
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Heading for Trouble
The subject line exclaimed "H-E-E-E-E-L-P URGENT!!!!" in loud caps and stammering e's. The body of the message began with a desperate (and I translate from the Portuguese) Guys, I got this job and cannot make head or tail of the meaningless legal blah-blah-blah. I have all my dictionaries and glossaries around me and I cannot find the translations. For God's sake, can anyone tell where I can find a good Portuguese-English legal dictionary or a site with a good glossary? I have the following doubts: how do you say… and the usual diatribe against the general uselessness of dictionaries in general and Portuguese dictionaries in particular…
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